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WELCOME TO THE OREGON RADIO HISTORY/KGW/NBC AND MORE SITE!!

Charles L. Austin was born April 30, 1890 in Clinton Iowa. His family moved to Portland in 1902 when Charlie was 12. He Attended East Portland High School. Sometime between 1908 & 1919 Mr. Austin became most interested in electronic experimentation. At one point, so much so, he developed his own home laboratory. (1556 N.E. Taylor St. in the Mt. Tabor area).

In early 1920 Mr. Austin applied for a "Special Amateur" Wireless Telegraph Station License from The Radio Division, Bureau of Navigation, U.S. Department of Commerce. In June 1920 Mr. Austin was granted the License 7ZI for 200 Meters (1499kc). No doubt, Mr. Austin heard & read about other Spark Stations experimentation with phonograph music.

In early 1921 Mr. Austin applied for an "Experimental" Wireless Telegraph License, so he could legally broadcast music. In May 1921 Mr. Austin's new firm The Northwestern Radio Manufacturing Co. was granted the License 7XF for 200 Meters (1499kc) with the power of 5 watts. By June 25, 1921 7XF had broadcast music, making it Oregon's first broadcasting station, as we know Radio today. Mr. Austin also served as first President of the Portland chapter of The Northwestern Radio Association in 1921.

In October 1921 7XF was granted additional frequencies to broadcast on. They were: 375 Meters (800kc), 450 Meters (686kc) & 550 Meters (545kc). These were probably used individually for music, morse code, experimentation, etc. By early 1922 7XF was broadcasting every Tuesday & Friday Evening at 8:45PM with Public Health Service bulletins & Mondays with Industrial News. Concerts & Market reports were also broadcast at times. In February 1922 Mr. Austin's firm completed work on Oregon's 2nd broadcasting station, 7XG built for Willard P. Hawley, Jr. This station would later evolve into KBPS.

On February 27, 1922 Mr. Austin's firm applied for a Limited Commercial Broadcasting License. On March 31, 1922 The Northwestern Radio Manufacturing Co. was granted the license & calls KGN for 360 Meters (833kc), and authorized to increase power to 100 watts. This was done in April 1922. With no way to generate revenue at the time, most stations failed. The few that survived this time period 1921 to 1925, were usually backed by major companies (KGW - The Oregonian Newspaper).

On May 31, 1923 KGN suspended operations. In February 1924 the KGN apparatus was sold to Eric H. Chambers company: The Radio Bungalow and became KFOH on March 24, 1924. Little is known about Mr. Austin from this point on, until the 1930's.

In 1930 Mr. Austin built the first Police Radio Station in Oregon. KGPP was licensed to operate on 2452kc Short Wave. KGPP calls stood for: Government Portland Police. First Police Dispatcher: Captain John Schum. By 1933 KGPP was operating on 2.442 Megs. with the power of 500 watts. The transmitter was later moved to Mt. Tabor Park. It was close to Mr. Austin's home and for the next 25 Years he was KGPP's Engineer. Mr. Austin retired in 1955. As a side note, he taught Morse Code Classes at the YMCA.

On December 22, 1968 The Oregonian interviewed him on his life. He never mentioned anything about his early broadcast beginnings. Nothing about 7ZI, 7XF or KGN. I believe he thought he had failed. I did fail to find his obituary. To common a name, for an uncommon man.

On April 5, 1927 KGW was one of 7 pacific coast stations to broadcast the inaugural program by the Orange Network of the National Broadcasting Co. NBC was the first Network in the West. The stations of the Orange chain were: KFI Los Angeles KPO San Francisco (switched to NBC-Gold chain 1931, now KNBR) KGO Oakland (now San Francisco) KGW Portland KOMO Seattle KFOA Seattle (switched to Don Lee chain 1929 as KOL) KHQ Spokane

The 3 hour program started at 8PM from NBC Studios in San Francisco. The San Francisco Symphony Orchestra entertained with solos from Jeane Gordon & Lambert Murphy.

The 2nd hour, KFI Studios in Los Angeles took control. The Los Angeles Caballeros entertained with music from south of the border. Then vocals from the Duncan Sisters, followed by the Hollywood String Quartet & Moseby's Dixieland Blue Blowers.

In the 3rd hour, it was back to San Francisco with the Frank Ellis Orchestra from the St. Francis Hotel. Thereafter the NBC Pacific Coast Network chain (PCN) originated programs from San Francisco. Orange was rarely used as it's network name after this point.

There seems to be no date when KGW switched to the NBC-Red Network. The earliest reference is July 3, 1936.

On June 15, 1945 the NBC-Red Network name was shortened to NBC, when RCA sold the NBC-Blue Network to Edward J. Noble, to meet requirements of antitrust laws. The Blue Network then became ABC on this date.

Previous to NBC, KGW had it's own "chain" of stations broadcasting it's popular variety show The Hoot Owls (with Mel Blanc) Friday Nights 10:30 to Midnight. The chain included: KFOA Seattle (aka KOL) KHQ Spokane KMO Tacoma

The excerpts used here are from the Oregon Journel Newspaper dated June 26, 1921. It should be mentioned, The Oregonian also ran this general story, though not as interesting. What follows is the earliest example of local radio broadcasting as we know it today.

The first convention of the Northwestern Radio Association was held in Portland yesterday (6-25-21) at the East Side Business Men's Club. 125 members attended. (Keep in mind, only one commercial license was operating in the U.S. at the time: KDKA Pittsburgh, started on 11-2-20. The rest were all Amateur statis stations. 1XAE would be the 2nd commercial on 9-19-21, WBZ Springfield, MA). Amateur Radio Clubs from the Williamette Valley, Eastern Oregon, Washington & Northern California sent representatives. Portland with 65 members, had the most in attendance.

Charles L. Austin (7XF) was the first Portland Club President. It was mentioned at the meeting, that West Coast inventors, such as Mr. Austin (home laboratory) were not receiving credit in the East, for their ideas.

It was also reported that Mr. Austin had been amusing himself lately by broadcasting phonograph music to radio operators on various ships in the Portland Harbor, from his Mt. Tabor home. Even ships at the Port of Astoria reported hearing the music "plainly audible" now 80 years ago.

17 years before ABC was created, the network name was used in the Northwest. The American Broadcasting Co. was founded by the Western Broadcasting Co., owners of KJR Seattle, KEX Portland & KGA Spokane. ABC was headed by Adolph F. Linden, President. He was also President of Puget Sound Savings Bank of Seattle. The flagship station was KJR.

On October 3, 1928 ABC programming debuted on KEX. On October 7, 1928 the "ABC Northwest" chain began an alliance with the Columbia chain, bringing CBS programming to the West, for the first time on this date.(even before California). The Columbia Broadcasting System was only linked in the East at that time. There would be programmed ABC nights & CBS nights.

In November 1928 The American Broadcasting Co. began affiliations with KYA San Francisco & KMTR (aka KLAC) Los Angeles. At this point ABC carried programs from these stations, as well as KJR.

In January 1929 the Network now known as the ABC Western chain, added: KDYL (aka KCPX) Salt Lake City & KLZ Denver. This made the American Broadcasting Co. the third largest network in the U.S.

On June 1, 1929 ABC began serving the Mid West, with new affilites: WIBO Chicago WIL St. Louis WRHM Minneapolis (aka WLB) KFAB Lincoln, NE KTNT Muscatine, IA On July 13, 1929 ABC Western welcomed KFBK Sacramento.

On July 31, 1929 The American Broadcasting Co. announced plans to expand to the Eastern Seaboard, in it's effort to align a nationwide network by the fall of 1929. ABC claimed to of had a dozen Eastern Stations lined up, including WOL Washington D.C.

It was also announced that ABC Western would sever ties with the Columbia Broadcasting System in October 1929, to become an independent network. Already CBS's William S. Paley was aligning new stations in the West. He planned to have land lines in place by January 1930. Not quick enough. There would be a few months without Columbia chain programming on the West Coast.

On August 12, 1929 KOIN Portland announced it would affiliate with the Columbia chain.

On August 20, 1929 reports reached Washington D.C. that the ABC Western chain was experiening unexpected difficulties in it's plans to set in operation a national network by October. Mr. Linden (ABC Head) failed to secure additional financing to shore up the Chains mounting financial burden.

On August 25, 1929 The American Broadcasting Co. gave control of it's leased land lines to The Columbia Broadcasting System, so the CBS chain could continue to feed it's Western affiliates. Also on this date CBS switched to the Don Lee owned stations: KHJ Los Angeles & KFRC San Francisco.

On August 26, 1929 the Columbia chain announced that on September 1, 1929 CBS would start feeding, what would later be called the "Columbia Northwest Unit". Those stations were: KVI Tacoma (now Seattle) KOIN Portland KFPY Spokane (aka KXLY)

At this time Mr. Paley was looking for a replacement for ABC. He then entered an agreement with Don Lee. Previous to this Mr. Lee had strung land lines between his stations KHJ & KFRC a year earlier. Together with Mr. Lee's financing, they created "The Don Lee-Columbia Network", CBS's Western chain. With these affiliates, Mr. Lee created his "Don Lee Broadcasting System"(DLBS) feeding the same stations programming, when Columbia was silent.

On November 10, 1929 KOIN carried it's first Don Lee programming. The original ABC land lines then reverted back to KJR, KEX & KGA. Their story continues in Part 3. A year later KOL Seattle joins The Don Lee-Columbia Network.(KVI also continues). On November 3, 1933 KOIN began sharing CBS programs with sister KALE.

By 1935 relations between CBS & Don Lee were beginning to strain. Columbia wanted more control over it's affiliates. They now had financial capability to lease land lines. On December 29, 1936 ties were severed. The Don Lee chain was in need of another partner. They found what would become their perfect match. An Eastern Network hungry for produced programming and eager to expand West. This story continues in Part 5: Mutual & Don Lee.

On September 25, 1937 KALE dropped their CBS affiliation. KOIN once again became the exclusive Portland CBS station.

On October 1, 1929, just 27 days before the beginning of the Depression, Ralph A. Horr took control of the newly named Northwest Broadcasting Co., owners of KJR Seattle, KEX Portland & KGA Spokane. This was formally the Western Broadcasting Co.

On December 22, 1929 the Company launched a new regional network to serve it's stations from KJR. Dubbed the Northwest Broadcasting System or NBS. This was the remnants of the American Broadcasting Co.(ABC). See Part 2.

In mid 1930 KPQ Wenatchee joined the NBS chain. For a related NBS story, see Part 4.

On October 16, 1931 NBC announced that several weeks ago it had acquired the Northwest Broadcasting Co. with it's Network NBS. KEX was now a subsidiary of NBC. This was done to keep the Northwest Broadcasting Co. from folding. NBC picked up the stations for a minimal price, needing additional high power outlets for it's new network.

On October 18, 1931 the inaugural program of the NBC Pacific "Gold" Network was broadcast at 8AM P.S.T. from New York. Joined in the broadcast dedication were the Pacific "Orange" Chain stations including KGW. For more on the Orange Chain, see Part 1. The Gold Network was NBC's Western link, programming many Eastern Blue Network shows. The Pacific Gold Chain stations were: KPO San Francisco (switched to NBC-Red chain 1936, now KNBR) KECA Los Angeles (now KABC) KJR Seattle KEX Portland KGA Spokane Available to be connected to either chain were: KFSD San Diego (aka KOGO) KTAR Phoenix

On August 25, 1933 NBC sold KEX to The Oregonian Publishing Co., owners of KGW. In this same time period, KJR Seattle was sold to Fisher Blend Station, Inc.(B.F. Fisher), owner of KOMO. KGA Spokane was sold to Louis Wasmer, Inc., owner of KHQ.

On March 12, 1936 the Gold Network was merged into the NBC-Blue Netork, with a few lineup changes: KGO San Francisco KECA Los Angeles (now KABC) KFSD San Diego (remained with NBC 1945, aka KOGO) KJR Seattle (now KOMO) KEX Portland KGA Spokane Available to be connected to either chain were: KTAR Phoenix (remained with NBC 1945) KMED Medford (starting 1937, remained with NBC 1945)

On October 18, 1943 RCA President & NBC Chairman David Sarnoff sold the NBC-Blue Network to Edward J. Noble for $8 Million in cash. Mr. Noble was owner of Lifesavers Candy Co. In 1945 he purchased the name "American Broadcasting System" from George B. Storer. ABS had been another illfated regional network in 1934-35. The name was changed slightly to the American Broadcasting Company. ABC debuted on June 15, 1945.

On November 5, 1930 The United Broadcasting Co. began it's West Coast Network from Los Angeles. The inaugural program started at 7PM. The UBC Chain stations were: KFWB Hollywood (now Los Angeles) KTM Los Angeles KTAB San Francisco (now KFSO) KXA Seattle KXL Portland KGB San Diego KORE Eugene KMED Medford KVOS Bellingham

On February 26, 1931 UBC announced that it had merged with NBS - The Northwest Broadcasting System, owners of KJR Seattle, KEX Portland & KGA Spokane. For more on NBS, see Part 3. Both chains would run independently.

On February 29, 1931 KEX became an affiliate of UBC, as well as NBS. KXL continued to be an affiliate, to a lesser degree.

On April 1, 1931 The United Broadcasting Co. suspended operations.

On April 8, 1931 L.L. Davis, Chairman of UBC's Board of Directors, announced that UBC would resume within a week, with possibly more affiliates....

The Depression was definitely here at this point. --Update-- When UBC "The Silver Network" merged with Northwest Broadcasting System on February 26, 1931, there was another company involved with the merge. Pacific Broadcasting Corp., owner of KYA San Francisco. It was said, with the added affiliates, the United Broadcasting Co. was the most powerful chain on the West Coast. The UBC Chain stations were: KFWB Hollywood (now Los Angeles) KGER Long Beach KYA San Francisco KJR Seattle KXL & KEX Portland KGB San Diego KGA Spokane KORE Eugene KMED Medford KVOS Bellingham KPQ Wenatchee

Louis L. Davis, Chairman of UBC's Board of Directors.

Radio show ranking's from "Variety" magazine, published in a KGW ad from "The Oregonian" dated December 17, 1933. The KGW ad was boasting 10 out of 12 top programs were on the station.

1. Rudy Vallee's Varietes - KGW 2. Amos 'n' Andy - KGW 3. Burns & Allan - KOIN 4. Maxwell Show Boat - KGW 5. White-Jolson Revue - KGW 6. Jack Benny - KGW 7. Will Rogers - KGW 8. Ben Bernie - KGW 9. Fred Allen - KGW 10. Jack Pearl - KGW 11. Phil Baker - KGW 12. Bing Crosby - KOIN

Portland Network Affiliates: KGW 620 NBC-Pacific Coast Network, fed by eastern Red Network programs. KOIN 940 Don Lee-Columbia Network, fed by eastern CBS Network programs. KEX 1180 NBC-Pacific Gold Network, fed by eastern Blue Network programs.

On September 26, 1937 The Mutual Broadcasting System made it's Northwest debut at 4:30PM. The inaugural feature was a 90 minute program called "Welcoming, From The East".

65 years ago this month the Country was shaken by a program on the Columbia Broadcasting System. It was Orson Welles' adaptation of "War of The Worlds". Most of you know the story and the hysteria that occurred during and after the broadcast on the East coast. For a national look at this story, check out the link featuring "The New York Times". The script is also available here.

But what happened in Portland & the Northwest?

It was Sunday October 30, 1938, Halloween eve and "The Oregon Journal" newspaper was running it's daily radio column ad "Studio Air-Flo, KOIN/KALE". Both stations were owned by The Journal. Among other programs highlighted in this column was: An invasion of the earth by inhabitants of Mars will be the imaginary theme of Orson Welles, when the "Mercury Theatre On The Air" broadcasts an adaptation of H.G. Wells' "War of The Worlds" over KOIN today at 5 p.m.

That's right, 5:00PM which would have made it 8:00PM Eastern time. This was a Live broadcast across America. Most programs were in 1938. There was no time to warn the West, what was to come.

PORTLAND STATIONS 10-30-38 KGW 620 NBC-Red KOIN 940 CBS KWJJ 1040 KEX 1180 NBC-Blue KALE 1300 Don Lee-Mutual KXL 1420 KBPS 1420

On Monday October 31, 1938 the front page of "The Oregonian" far right hand corner read: All Nation Agog, Realistic Radio Drama Causes Hysteria, Play About 'Men From Mars' Ivading World Taken to be Real Thing.

The front page of "The Oregon Journal" far right hand corner read: Radio Play Quiz Begun After Panic, Nation-wide Hysteria Follows 'Realistic' Presentation of Invasion From Mars; Federal Agency Investigates Program. A large picture of 23 year old Orson Welles with a CBS microphone appears with the U.P. article. Above the picture reads: Brought 'Men From Mars'. Below the picture an article: Orson Welles 'Sorry' Feared Play 'Too Dull'.

From "The Oregonian" which owned rival stations KGW & KEX, comes the best local coverage, headline read: 'War of Worlds' Shakes Portland, Calls Pour in by Hundreds to Newspaper Office. (Now the complete story)

A wave of hysteria that swept across the United States Sunday night as the result of a realistic radio dramatization of H.G. Wells' "War of The Words" reached all the way to Portland, 2500 miles from the scene of the fictional disaster.

The telephone switchboard of "The Oregonian" was swamped by hundreds of excited calls. Queries kept members of the newspaper's editoral department and of radio stations KGW and KEX busy. Several persons rushed into the business offices of "The Oregonian" on the street floor, demanding information.

Police Kept Busy Dozens of calls were made to "Portland Police" radio operators (KGPP). Most of the callers demanding to know what protection the city could offer and what place might be safe in event the wholesale destruction spread to the Pacific coast.

Radio station KOIN which released the program in Portland, reported it was able to answer 500 of the volley that swamped it's switchboard. The station received complaints that three women had fainted and a doctor was called for one, the elderly mother of a retired army officer.

At Washougal, Wash., a man was reported to have loaded his family into a car and to have driven frantically through the streets looking for a haven of refuge.

The Portland office of the Western Union Telegraph company was jammed with persons seeking to send telegrams to relatives in the East, inquiring as to their safety.

At Concrete, Wash., (32 miles East of Mount Vernon.) Women fainted and men prepared to take their families into the mountains for safekeeping when electric power failed. (from The Journal, this) Just as an announcer was "choked off" by "poisonous gas" in what he had just said might be the "last broadcast ever made" the town plunged into darknes. One man bolted from his home, grabbed a small child by the arm and headed for the pine forests. (from The Oregonian, this) For a time the village of 1000, verged on mass hysteria.

Elsewhere in the Northwest calls poured into newspaper and press association offices by the thousands. Seattle newspaper switchboard operators reported many hysterical calls from persons wanting to know if it was true New York had disapeared beneath the Atlantic ocean.

SEATTLE STATIONS 1938 KVI 570 CBS (Tacoma) KIRO 710 CBS KXA 760 KOMO 920 NBC-Red KJR 970 NBC-Blue KRSC 1120 KTW 1220 KOL 1270 Don Lee-Mutual KMO 1330 Don Lee-Mutual (Tacoma) KVL 1370

From "The Oregon Journal" local headline read: Many Portlanders' Hair On End During Broadcast. (Now the complete story)

Radio's "destruction of the world by Martians" got a rise out of many Portlanders' early Sunday evening. Like their Eastern relatives, some Portlanders' hair stood on end when "news flashes" in the dramatization by Orsen Welles of H.G. Wells' "War of The Worlds" over CBS and KOIN-The Journal from 5 to 6 p.m. carried the word that "here they come, tall as skyscrapers...they're throwing a heat wave...etc."

Don Price and George McGowen, on duty at KOIN-The Journal studios, said that they answered about 100 telephone calls (note: 100, The Oregonian reported 500) to reassure persons it was "all a dramatization."

The "War of The Worlds" dramatization was a presentation of the "Mercury Theatre On The Air", a Columbia chain sustaining program heard each Sunday over the network from New York City.

The Journal switchboard was "swamped" during the play and calls came in intermittently through the evening, the operator reported. Apparently unlike some other cities, no telegrams of inquiry were sent via Western Union to Eastern 'folks'. (note: The Oregonian said it was jammed.)

A member of The Journal staff returning from the coast, was informed by a panic-stricken McMinnville service station attendent, "There's no use buying any gasoline. The worlds coming to an end!" The Journal man insisted on getting his gasoline and driving along.

Sought Baptism, Absolution Grants Pass Ore., Oct. 31.-(AP)-A Grants Pass minister confirmed the report today that after last night's fantastic radio drama of an invasion of the United States by men from Mars, several persons called in excitement at his home seeking baptism and the benefits of religion.

The End

Mutual was able to expand, thanks to CBS, severing ties with The Don Lee Broadcasting System. For more on this see Part 2. This colaberation began December 30, 1936 when the Don Lee owned stations affiliated with Mutual, they were: KHJ Los Angeles, KFRC San Francisco & KGB San Diego.

The next step was to move MBS into the Northwest as The Mutual-Don Lee Broadcasting System, MBS's Western link. This was the largest regional network in the U.S. at the time, counting the California affiliates. The Northwest affiliates debuting 9-26-37 were: KOL Seattle KALE Portland (aka KPOJ) KMO Tacoma KORE Eugene KSLM Salem KIT Yakima KVOS Bellingham KGY Olympia KIEM Eureka KPQ Wenatchee KRNR Roseburg KXRO Aberdeen

The Don Lee owned stations also produced programming for Mutual and it's West Coast Network. They were offered to affiliated stations when MBS was silent. The Don Lee Network became a stockholder in Mutual in 1940.

On September 16, 1945 The Associated Broadcasting Corporation made it's coast to coast debut at 11:00AM Pacific Time, as the fifth network. The inaugural program was 2 hours, opening with an address from FCC Chairmen, Paul A. Porter in Washington at ABC affiliate WWDC. The Associated Network boasted 22 affiliates including KWJJ Portland. ABC's President was Leonard A. Versluis & Roy C. Kelly was Executive Vice-President. ABC was headquartered in Grand Ripids MI where Mr. Versluis owned WLAV.

Three Months earlier on June 15, 1945 another ABC debuted, the American Broadcasting Company. This ABC was the former NBC Blue Network. The Associated Chain filed a suite to stop the American Chain from identifying it's network as ABC. In December 1945 an agreement was reached under which the Associated Chain would change it's identity to ABS, The Associated Broadcasting System. This occurred between December 22 & 25, 1945. On April 28, 1946 the ABS Network folded with 23 affiliates, including WMCA New York.

LIC..DATE...CALL.K.C..CITY..........AIR DATE/OTHER May 1921....7XF..1499.Portland......by June 25, 21 Feb 1922....7XG..1499.Portland......Feb 1922 Feb 1922....7XH..1499.Corvallis.....Oct 7, 22 Mar 1922....7XI..1499.Portland......Mar 26, 22 Mar 15, 22..KGG...833.Portland......was 7XI Mar 21, 22..KGW...833.Portland......Mar 25, 22 Mar 28, 22..KYG...833.Portland......was 7XG Mar 30, 22..KQY...833.Portland......Mar 31, 22 Mar 31, 22..KGN...833.Portland......was 7XF Apr 12, 22..KQP...833.Hood River....May 24, 22 May 4, 22...KDYQ..618.Portland......May 9, 22 May 13, 22..KDYU..833.Klamath Falls. May 26, 22..KDZJ..833.Eugene........by Aug 2, 22 June 14, 22.KFAB..833.Portland......July 25, 22 July 6, 22..KFAT..833.Eugene........Sept 24, 22 July 6, 22..KFAY..833.Central Point.Sept 23, 22 Aug 1922....KFBH..833.Marshfield....by Oct 28, 22 Aug 1922....KFBM..833.Astoria.......Oct 22, 22 Aug 15, 22..KFCD..833.Salem.........was KFAB Oct 1922....KFDA..833.Baker......... Oct 3, 22...KFEC..833.Portland......Oct 3, 22 Oct 1922....KFFE..833.Pendleton..... Oct 1922....KFAY..833.Medford.......was Central Pt Nov 1922....KFGG..833.Astoria.......Nov 7, 22 Dec 7, 22...KFDJ..833.Corvallis.....was 7XH Mar 7, 23...KFFO..833.Hillsboro.....Mar 23, 23 Mar 1923....KFGL..833.Arlington..... Mar 1923....KFHB..833.Hood River....by Apr 12, 23 Mar 23, 23..KFIF..833.Portland......May 4, 23 June 1923...KFJI.1190.Astoria.......July 19, 23 Feb 1924....KFOF.1249.Marshfield.... Feb 1924....KFOH.1060.Portland......Mar 24, 24 June 19, 24.KFQN.1060.Portland......was KGG Nov 1924....KFRQ.1410.Portland......Nov 1924 Nov 12, 24..KFJR.1140.Portland......May 18, 25 Aug 5, 25...KFWV.1410.Portland......Oct 6, 25 Sept 17, 25.KTBR.1140.Portland......Sept 19, 25 Nov 9, 25...KQP..1410.Portland......was Hood River Dec 21, 25..KOAC.1070.Corvallis.....was KFDJ Apr 6, 26...KOIN..940.Portland......was KQP P-D-X Aug 1926....KOIN..940.Sylvan........was Portland Nov 27, 26..KXL...750.Portland......Dec 13, 26 Dec 1926....KGEH.1270.Eugene........Dec 26, 26 Dec 23, 26..KEX...670.Portland......Dec 25, 26 Dec 26, 26..KMED.1200.Medford.......Dec 28, 26 Feb 10, 27..KWBS.1490.Portland......Feb 11, 27 Feb 16, 27..KLIT..860.Portland......Feb 18, 27 June 24, 27.KWJJ.1310.Portland......was KFWV Mar 15, 28..KOOS.1450.Marshfield....was KGEH Eugen Apr 22, 28..KORE.1500.Eugene........was KLIT P-D-X Aug 28, 29..KVEP.1500.Portland......was KWBS 1930........KOIN..940.Portland......was Sylvan Mar 17, 30..KBPS.1420.Portland......was KFIF Sept 22, 32.KALE.1300.Portland......was KTBR Oct 1932....KFJI.1210.Klamath Falls.was Astoria May 22, 34..KSLM.1370.Salem.........Oct 3, 34 1934........KAST.1370.Astoria....... Oct 1935....KRNR.1500.Roseburg......Dec 11, 35 1938........KLBM.1420.LaGrande......Sept 30, 38 1938........KBND.1310.Bend..........Dec 18, 38 1939........KBKR.1500.Baker......... 1939........KUIN.1310.Grants Pass...Dec 16, 39

early Portland radio station pictures & memorabilia back to the 1920's. Some of the written history was wrong. The writer concluded that an ad in "The Portland Telegram" newspaper (ad ran between 1927 & 28) was proof that KEX was Portland's first broadcast station. The ad read: "The Pioneer In Radio in Portland:- The first program of radio entertainment ever put on the air in Portland was broadcast by the Portland Telegram on November 27, 1921, from it's offices in the Pittock block, operating under temporary government permit." The ad goes on to say: "Tune in on KEX, The Telegram's Station - 239.9 Meters, 1250 Kilocycles." (KEX was on 1250kc. from 6-15-27 to 2-17-28). The website writer states below the posted ad: "Portland's first radio station license was granted to The Portland Telegram and it was assigned the call letters KEX."

These conclusions are incorrect. First, KEX was never owned by The Portland Telegram. KEX at the time was owned by Western Broadcasting Co. KEX had been in trouble with the FRC for spilling it's signal onto other local and outlying frequencies. The FRC re-assigned KEX to the lower class 1250kc. frequency. (previously on cleared channel 670kc.). KEX had also alienated a lot of local advertisers because of this and because KEX was not locally owned. (Portland's first). KEX had huge blocks of time for sale. Enter The Portland Telegram, buying up much of the time for a nominal fee. Hence "KEX, The Telegram's Station."

KEX went on the air December 25, 1926 and had never broadcast under a temporary government permit, experimental license or call sign of any kind between 1921 & 1926. But what did happen on November 27, 1921? I had a date and this intrigued me. Anything about early Portland radio in 1921 is very rare. The only article found to date was on June 26, 1921 where among other thing's mentioned at the first convention of the Northwest Radio Association, Charles L. Austin was reported broadcasting phonograph music to radio operators on various ships in the Portland Harbor and heard from as far away as Astoria, over his station 7XF.

This is considered the earliest example of Oregon radio broadcasting as we know it today. (For more on this historic article, read "Part 2: Portland Radio History Changes" on the "Portland Radio History" page, posted in 2001). Knowing all this, I didn't know what to expect in The Portland Telegram article. First, here's the article it self. Added comments & additional information are in parenthesis(). Additional information from a follow up Portland Telegram article dated November 30, 1921, Page 1, column 2 are added with asterisk**.

The Portland Telegram, Monday, November 28, 1921, Page 1, column 7. Headline: "Radio Carries Concert AFAR, Music Week Feature Planned by The Telegram Heard in Many Stations (telegraph receiver sender stations). The Telegram's first radio concert given last night in the Telegram office (11th & S.W. Washington St.) and transmitted by radiophone to hundreds of official and amateur stations in Portland and neighboring towns and states, was most successful. One receiving station in Portland was able to make a wax cylinder record from a number sung by Mrs. Mischa Pelz and hear the song all over again by playing it on the phonograph.

The Telegram is operating it's radiophone *at 250 wavelength* (250 meters or 1199kc.) *and at a radius of 500 miles* by special government permit under the license 7XF Charles Austin. (7XF would later become KGN). The first concert is given at the Y.M.C.A. (831 S.W. 6th Ave.) and transmitted by it's radiophone. (station 7YG). At 9 o clock The Telegrams own radio transmits the music from the Telegram office, and at 10 o clock a concert is given on the east side and transmitted by the radio outfit operated by Charles Austin. (station 7XF at 1556 E. Taylor St., now 5830 S.E. Taylor St.).

The Telegram's radio was installed by and is in the charge of C.R.(Ray)Beamer and Wilbur Jerman (would later launch his KFWV aka KWJJ) of the Stubbs Electric Company. (O.B. Stubbs would later launch his KQY). Among the songs sung by Mrs. Pelz last night were "The American's Come" by Fay Foster; "Beautiful Oregon" by Edward Mills; "Thank God for a Garden" Teresa Del Rigo; "A Song of Thanksgiving"; "Flow Gently Sweet Afton" and "Annie Laurie". (end of article) More to come...

Charles L. Austin's company "The Northwestern Radio Manufacturing Co." & 7XF's listed licensee, was building radio apparatus at this time for sale. Know doubt this was a good way to promote his product, by getting a newspaper involved. This broadcast event might have brought about the later sale of new Portland station 7XG to Willard P. Hawley, Jr. in February 1922, which Mr. Austin built. Since The Portland Telegram station permit was under the license of 7XF, no call sign was ever issued for this broadcast event.

The biggest surprise was the YMCA broadcasting music. Their station 7YG was a telegraph station. Actually all call signs with a number were originally telegraph stations, but only call sings with "X" for "Experimental", were allowed to broadcast music. 7YG was licensed as a "Technical & Training School" station, not allowed to broadcast music. Many stations across the country licensed for telegraph only, were illegally broadcasting music. This was the rage of 1920 & 21. The most famous Northwest station to illegally broadcast music was 7YS at Saint Martin's College in Lacey WA. Today 7YS is considered Washington states first broadcast station. 7YS would become KGY in 1922 and move to Olympia in 1933.

This makes Portland's 7YG, Oregon's 2nd broadcast station. The YMCA was issued a licence bearing the call sequence 7YG granted to the Young Men's Christian Association in June 1920. As a side note, Charles Austin was also issued a license in June 1920 for his first telegraph station 7ZI. All telegraph stations operated on 200 meters or 1499kc. It's not known if 7YG broadcast music before or after the planned 7 day event. It is known that 7YG continued as the YMCA telegraph station until January 1923 when the license was transfered to Oregon Institute of Technology. The Portland radio school also operated station KDYQ. The school was located at 6th & Taylor St. 7YG would continue until the school closed on February 7, 1929.

The other surprise was The Portland Telegram station operating on 250 meters. It was not stated in the follow up article, if this was only The Portland Telegram station frequency or if all three stations were operating on the same frequency. The scheduling would've made this possible. We might never know. This is also the earliest article in Oregon broadcast history to mention a call sign, a frequency or a broadcast schedule. Before this and even after the 7 day event, music was broadcast on a whim. When ever it struck the broadcaster to do so. It's also the first documented live music performance. Before this, music was broadcast from phonograph records.

Wouldn't it be a treasure to uncover that wax cylinder mentioned in the article. It would certainly be the earliest Oregon radio air check! This article is another great discovery in early Oregon broadcasting.

NUMBER OF RADIOS 1900 18 per 1,000 people 1910 82 per 1,000 people 1920 123 per 1,000 people 1930 163 per 1,000 people

SALES OF RADIOS 1922 $60 million 1929 $842.6 million

NUMBER OF RADIOS ON FARMS July 1925 553,003 April 1927 1,252,126

Between 1922 & 1929 the number of radios increased from 60 thousand to more than 12 million.

Ran across this in "The Oregonian" dated April 13, 1946. This is the earliest FM article on Portland I've seen to date. At the time Portland had no FM's on the air.

"Basic engineering plans for four frequency modulation radio broadcasting stations in Portland have been approved by the Federal Communications Commission in Washington D.C. The stations which had "Conditional Grants" were:

The Oregonian, KGW, 95.3 Megacycles, 51 Kilowatts. Transmitter will be on Healy Heights. "KGW has owned the site for 4 years and plans to proceed at once." (KGW-FM began operation on May 7, 1946).

KOIN, Inc., 94.5 Megacycles, 50 Kilowatts. Transmitter will be on Sylvan Hill with KOIN. (KOIN-FM began operation September 12, 1948 on 101.1Mc.)

Pacific Radio Advertising, owned by Wilbur J. Jerman (owner of KWJJ) & John C. Egan, 95.7 Megacycles, 3.2 Kilowatts. Transmitter will be on Healy Heights. (KPRA began operation on September 25, 1947).

KXL Broadcasters, H.S. Jacobson, President & Manager was on vacation at the time of this writing. All that is known, is the transmitter site will be on Mount Scott.

This is unfortunate, since KXL never built and up to now was unknown. What happened? And where is KPFM's Stan Goard in all this? KPFM would be on the air in 6 months (November 1946). Did KXL sell it's C.P. to Stan Goard?

June 12, 1947 was the FCC re-alignment date but unlike the AM re-alignments in the 1920's, FM stations switched to their new frequencies at their own speed. FM being line of sight was probably the reason the FCC was more flexible on this.

KPFM July 31, 1947 / 94.9mc to 97.1mc

KGW-FM October 10, 1947 /95.3mc to 100.3mc

On September 25, 1947 KPRA began operation on 95.7mc with the power of 250 watts. KPRA was owned by Pacific Radio Advertising Service, also standing for call letters. The company owners were Wilbur J. Jerman & John C. Egan. They also owned KWJJ Broadcasting Co., Inc. KPRA studios were located at 1017 S.W. 6th Ave. (KWJJ's address: 1011 S.W. 6th Ave.). KPRA's transmitter site was located on Healy Heights. Mr. Jerman was General Manager. KPRA was Portland's 3rd FM Station. KPRA broadcast Monday through Saturday 10AM to 1PM & 6:30PM to 10PM. On this date KPRA's first night broadcast was a Beaver Baseball Game. KPRA Simulcast one program with KWJJ "What's On FM" at 12:45PM daily, answering that question.

Power was increased a month later to 3,410 watts. On January 9, 1948 KPRA switched to 95.5mc. Also in 1948 William E. Richardson became G.M. Mr. Jerman became President of KPRA.

On September 24, 1948 KPRA announced that it was temporarily suspending operation to allow installation of new equipment. This was a ploy to shut down KPRA gracefully after one year, to the day. The station could not generate enough revenue to support it's self. FM Broadcasters were beginning to realize the new wavelength was going to take longer to accept. Maybe in a year or two. That was the thought of many broadcasters at the time, including Mr. Jerman. Stay tuned to 95.5mc for KWJJ-FM.

It wasn't clear that KFMY began broadcasting in Stereo at it's launch date. (1-17-59). Complicating this was The Eugene Register-Guard newspaper not reporting radio station news and The Oregonian's "Behind The Mike" report ten years later, vaguely mentioning this around the 10th anniversary.

What was found on 3-13-03 nails down the Multiplex Stereo question, in this time capsule "Behind The Mike" colunm dated December 26, 1961. KFMY's G.M. Duke Young was congratulating KPFM's Staff & Management as Portland's first to enter into Multiplex Stereo broadcasting, which happened at 12 Noon on December 16, 1961. I'm guessing Mr. Young was frustrated with the Eugene paper passing on KFMY's triumph as being first in Oregon, as a news story. I believe The Oregonian knew this and did a nice piece on Mr. Young's station.

KFMY was the first station in Oregon to broadcast in Multiplex Stereo and 4th on the West Coast to do so. KFMY was also 15th in the Nation to begin Multiplex Stereo. This happened at 8:00PM on November 17, 1961. KFMY Creator, C.E. & Stockholder (Laurence) L.C. "Curt" Raynes said "We lucked out! KFMY was originally built-designed & engineered for stereo broadcasting 3 years ago with changes to meet FCC specs & regulations. KFMY recently received FCC permission to move it's transmitter site to Blanton Heights (probably 4555 Blanton Rd.) with antenna height 1,385 feet above sea level, 780 feet above average terrain. This should take place in 90 days."

On April 30, 1962 KOAP-FM began operation at 3:30PM. Dedication ceremonies included speeches by Oregon Governor, Mark Hatfield; KEX President, Herbert Buchman; State System Chanceller, Roy E. Lieuallen & Extension Division, Dean J. Sherburne. It was announced Classical music would be the base of the operation. KOAP-FM had been made possible by a generous gift from Westinghouse Broadcasting Co., Inc., owners of KEX on 10-25-61. Transfer of the license to: The State of Oregon, acting by and through the State Board of Higher Education, was accepted on 3-15-62. Approved by the FCC on 4-30-62. The former KEX-FM had left the air on 4-8-62. For more on the donation and previous history see "Westinghouse Establishes KEX-FM".

KOAP-FM broadcast on 92.3mc. with the power of 57KW. KOAP-FM's transmitter site was located on Healy Heights (4504 S.W. Carl Place. Street connects with west side of Council Crest Drive) in Portland OR. A Westinghouse Model FM10 transmitter was utilized with a four-bay pylon antenna, mounted on a 146 foot self-supporting steel tower. The antenna was 955 feet above average terrain. The KOAP-FM transmitter site was adjacent to sister KOAP-TV channel 10 studio & transmitter site at 4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive. (former KGW-FM & KQFM transmitter site. KOAP-TV began operation 2-6-61). KOAP-FM re-broadcast via over the air pick up, AM sister KOAC 550kc. Corvallis OR from studios at 303 Covell Hall, on the campus of Oregon State University. The KOAP FM-TV Administration offices were located in the General Extension Division, Oregon State System of Higher Education Building (1633 S.W. Park Ave.) in Portland OR.

KOAP-FM call letter meaning from TV sister: Oregon Air Portland. KOAP-FM slogan: This is OEBN, Oregon Educational Broadcasting Network. Dr. Luke F. Lamb was KOAP-FM Director of Educational Media; James M. Morris, Director of Educational Radio & TV Dept.(OEBN); William F. McGrath, Educational Services Manager(OEBN); Paul La Riviere, KOAP-FM Program Manager (formerly KEX-FM P.D.); Rollie Smith, Program Manager(OEBN); Philip B. Kalar, Director of Music(OEBN)(formerly with WGN, WMAQ & WLS P.D. & M.D. 1930-42); Robert C. Hinz, News Director(OEBN); Shirley J. Howard, Director of Women's Programming(OEBN); "Bob" Robert M. Roberts, Instructor(OEBN); "Tony" Anton H. Schmidt, KOAP FM-TV Chief Engineer. KOAP-FM operated 3:30PM to 10:30PM Monday through Thursday & 3:00PM to 11:00PM Fridays.

By May 1963 KOAP-FM had changed it's slogan slightly to: Oregon Educational Radio Network. Also by 1963 KOAP-FM had built a control room in the transmitter building, which included an RCA console, 2 turntables & 2 Ampex 350 audio tape machines, plus a microphone. KOAP-FM originated programming 6:00PM to sign off. On September 26, 1963 KOAP-FM moved to 91.5mc. & increased antenna height to 960 feet. During the frequency move, the station was off the air for ten days. By October 1963 Paul La Riviere was KOAP-FM General Manager. By October 1964 William F. McGrath was OERN General Manager; Lester G. Mock, KOAP-FM General Manager; Kenneth L. Warren, OERN Program Manager & Bob M. Roberts, KOAP-FM Assistant Professor of Radio & Television (plus) Music Director.

By February 1965 KOAP-FM had changed it's slogan slightly again, to: OEB Radio, Oregon Educational Broadcasting. OEB was administered by the Oregon State System of Higher Education's Division of Continuing Education. Also by 1965 KOAP-FM had initiated a 960MHz microwave link with KOAC for better sound quality. KOAP-FM hours of operation were now 3:00PM to 10:00PM Monday through Friday (KOAC 10AM to 10PM Mon. thru Sat.). The KOAP FM-TV Administration offices at 1633 S.W. Park Ave. was now called The DCE Building (Division of Continuing Education). By April 1965 the OEB Radio program schedule percentage breakdown was: 41.2% Performing Arts, 20% Other (includes news), 12.5% General Educational, 11% Entertainment, 8.3% Public, 7% Instructional.

In January 1966 OEB Radio & KOAP-FM became NER member stations. (National Educational Radio, debuted in 1963 as a tape distributed network). On March 21, 1966 KOAP-FM hours of operation began mirroring KOAC 9:30AM to 10:00PM Monday through Friday. (KOAC was on Saturdays only). On May 24, 1966 KOAP FM-TV moved Administration & TV Production studios to The Northwestern, Inc. Building. (2828 S.W. Front Ave.). OEB leased opproximately 11,000 square feet on 3 floors. Northwestern Motion Picture & Recording continued to occupy the rest of the building. By September 1966 William F. McGrath was KOAP-FM Program Director. On September 28, 1966 KOAP-TV dedicated it's new studios. By October 1966 Robert C. Hinz was OEB General Manager. By October 1967 Bob Hinz was OEB G.M. & P.D. with John McDonald, OEB News Director.

On November 5, 1967 KOAP-FM added Sundays to it's schedule 3:55PM to 11:00PM. On May 19, 1968 Sundays were dropped when a grant was used up. On August 3, 1968 Philip B. Kalar, OEB Director of Music and KOAC M.D. since 1950, passed away. By October 1968 Lester G. Mock was Assistant Director of Educational Media & William F. McGrath KOAP-FM General Manager. In May 1969 Frank Woodman was named OEB Music Director (formerly on KEX-FM, KPAM/KPFM, KPOJ AM-FM & KSLM). On July 21,1969 KOAP-FM added an extra hour nightly expanding to 11:00PM. Also simulcasting reduced 5:00PM to 9:45PM. On September 29, 1969 simulcasting expanded 11:00AM to 7:30PM. By October 1969 Lester G. Mock was Head of OEB; Robert C. Hinz, OEB General Manager & Robert C. Mundt, OEB Program Director.

On May 3, 1971 the NER Network merged with NPR (National Public Radio, debuted on 4-19-71). On this date KOAP-FM became an NPR member station. Also on this date NPR debuted a new program "All Things Considered". On June 5, 1971 OEB announced the KOAP-FM studio & transmitter site would move to the adjacent KOAP-TV tower site (4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive) comprising the former KOAP-TV studio building. Work had already begun on the new radio studio in the old TV building. (production control room & tape editing studio). Stereo equipment would be installed with a new antenna side-mounted on the KOAP-TV tower. Work on the stereo conversion would begin in the Fall 1971, moving in early 1972. On July 4, 1971 KOAP-FM expanded hours of operation Sunday through Friday 11:00AM to 11:00PM. On October 3, 1971 KOAP-FM expanded to 7 days a week. 9:00AM to 10:00PM Monday through Friday, 9:30AM to 10:00PM Saturdays & 11:00AM to 11:00PM Sundays.

On March 13, 1972 KOAP-FM inaugurated "FM stereo service and the birth of a new network service concept. Oregon Educational & Public Broadcasting Service." Slogans included the previous with: OEPBS Radio. Stereo was on just a handful of programs in the beginning, from the new studios at 4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive. A new Gates FM20H transmitter had been installed. Power had increased to 61KW with antenna height lowered to 910 feet. By June 1972 Donald R. Larson was Director of OEPBS & Robert Bell, KOAP-FM Program Director. On August 28, 1972 OEPBS sold the old KOAP-FM studio & transmitter site at 4504 S.W. Carl Place to Port Services Co. (Al H. Herman, owner) for $53,000. On October 2, 1972 KOAP-FM expanded hours of operation 8:00AM to 10:35PM Monday through Friday & 8:00AM to 10:00PM Saturday & Sundays.

In March 1973 KOAP-FM began it's SCA sub-carrier channel service for "Golden Hours". Monday through Friday 10:00AM to 5:00PM with Graham Archer as Director. By May 1973 Robert C. Hinz was OEPBS General Manager; Thomas M. Doggett, OEPBS Broadcast Manager & William F. McGrath KOAP-FM Station Operations Manager. On June 1, 1973 KOAP-FM hours were reduced 8:00AM to 10:00PM daily. In August 1973 Donald S. Bryant became Director of OEPBS. On October 7, 1973 KOAP-FM expanded Sunday hours 7:00AM to 11:00PM. On May 4, 1974 KOAP-FM weekend hours expanded 7:00AM to 12:30AM Saturdays & 6:30AM to 12:05AM Sundays. In June 1974 "Hep" Harold A. Hepler became KOAP-FM Chief Engineer. By November 1974 Robert C. Hinz was Director of Operations, OEPBS & Thomas M. Doggett, Director of Programming & Production, OEPBS.

On February 3, 1975 KOAP-FM expanded SCA hours with the addition of "Radio Reading Service" talking books for blind & handicapped, Monday through Friday 8:00AM to 10:00AM (Golden Hours: 10AM to 5PM). On April 1, 1975 KOAP-FM expanded SCA hours 8:00AM to 10:00PM with more Golden Hours. By December 1975 Donald S. Bryant was Executive Director of OEPBS & Bonnie Solow, News Coordinator, OEPBS. On February 19, 1976 OEPBS purchased KVDO (TV) channel 3 Salem OR for $203,000. On February 26, 1976 KVDO began separate OEPBS programming. On February 28, 1976 a disgruntled viewer protesting KVDO's sale to OEPBS cut guy wires, toppling the channel 3 TV tower. By June 1976 KOAP-FM had expanded hours of operation 5:58AM to 12:10AM daily with SCA hours expanded to Midnight. On August 31, 1976 KTVR La Grande OR was donated to OEPBS from KTVB, Inc. of Boise ID. Channel 13 was then shut down. On September 20, 1976 KVDO signed back on the air with a new tower.

On November 6, 1976 KOAP-FM expanded SCA hours to weekends, 8:00AM to Midnight Saturday & Sundays. By December 1976 Mary Kay Mitchell was News Coordinator, OEPBS. On February 1, 1977 KTVR signed back on the air re-broadcasting portions of KWSU-TV Pullman & KSPS Spokane WA, mirroring OEPBS-TV programming as much as possible (4PM to 11PM) until the OEPBS-TV translator network was completed, delivering the signal. In early May 1977 KYTE donated it's 3,000 Classical music library to OEPBS after Gaylord Broadcasting purchased KOIN AM-FM. On May 9, 1977 OEPBS began running the old "Koin Concert Hall" program 8 to Midnight Monday through Friday.

On September 1, 1977 OEPBS shut down KTVR because of increasing technical problems at the Mount Fanny transmitter site. On January 1, 1978 KTVR signed back on the air carrying OEPBS programming for the first time. On March 1, 1978 KOAP-FM cut SCC Golden Hours programming 8:00AM to Midnight Monday through Friday & 6:00PM to 10:00PM Saturdays. In April 1978 OEPBS debuted the 34 piece "KOAP Studio Orchestra". Dennis Kalfas, Director. Oregon's only studio orchestra. By May 1978 Graham Archer was Executive Director of Golden Hours. On June 1, 1978 KOAP-TV began receiving programming via the Westar 1 satellite. On June 30, 1978 PBS landlines were discontinued. In September 1978 KOAP-FM began receiving NPR programming via the Westar 1 satellite. In Fall 1979 KOAP-FM moved studios in with TV sister at The Northwestern, Inc. Building (2828 S.W. Front Ave.). 50% of OEPBS Radio programming now originated from KOAP-FM.

In November 1979 The State Board of Higher Education created a new division for it's broadcast stations, calling it The Oregon Commission On Public Broadcasting. Travis Cross, Chairmen & Patricia Joy, Assistant Vice-Chairmen (formerly with KGW-TV). On May 3, 1980 "A Prairie Home Companion" debuted through it's newly formed distributer APR (American Public Radio) & on KOAP-FM. In OEPBS's "The Hungry Eye" member guide, the first program discription: "A variety show which features host Garrison Keiller and presents a range of musical styles." In November 1980 Dean E. Anderson became Acting Executive Director of OEPBS. In January 1981 Gerard L. Appy became Executive Director of OEPBS. In June 1981 OEPBS made a proposal to the Oregon Commission On Broadcasting to move KVDO Salem to Bend OR.

In October 1981 a new slogan: This is OPB, Oregon Public Broadcasting. OPB Radio. By December 1981 Robert C. Hinz was OPB Director of Radio Programming & Operations. In January 1982 Patricia Joy became Special Assistant to The Executive Director of OPB. Also in 1982 licensee named changed to State of Oregon, acting by and through The Oregon Commission On Public Broadcasting. On August 6, 1983 KVDO Salem signed off the air, ending 13 years of service to the Willamette Valley. Channel 3 would move to Bend OR. Also in August 1983 Patricia Joy became OPB Director of Radio Programming. By December 1983 Virginia Breen was OPB Operations Coordinator. In mid December 1983 KOAP-TV moved it's antenna to the KPDX tower site on Skyline. (211 N.W. Miller Rd.). On December 22, 1983 at 9AM, KOAB channel 3 Bend signed on the air.

In March 1984 KOAP-FM moved to the KPDX TV tower. KOAP-FM began using a new Harris FM-25K as it's main transmitter and moved the Gates FM20H as backup. A Harris (ERI) six-bay antenna was mounted at 1,560 feet above average terrain. (476 meters). Power increased to 70KW horizontal & 21KW vertical. Also in 1984 licensee named changed to State of Oregon, Oregon Commission On Public Broadcasting. By December 1984 Mike Tondreau was KOAP-FM Chief Engineer & KOAP-FM format was listed as Fine Arts. By October 1985 Elaine Piper was Manager of Golden Hours. On January 23, 1986 KOAB-FM 91.3kHz. Bend OR began operation, carrying OPB Radio programming. By 1986 most OPB Radio programming originated at KOAP-FM. In July 1986 KRBM 90.9kHz. located at Blue Mountain Community College in Pendleton OR, began carrying some OPB Radio programming.

In August 1986 Maynard E. Orme became Executive Director of OPB. Also in 1986 Tom Goldman became OPB Radio News Director. In April 1987 K232CK 94.3kHz. Hood River OR became OPB Radio's first FM translator station. In May 1987 Michael Foley became Manager of Golden Hours. In June 1987 OPB broke ground on the new "OPB Broadcast Center" in the John's Landing area of Portland. Mike Tondreau was now KOAP-FM Director of Engineering. Also in June 1987 OPB Radio moved the KRBM transmitter site from the college to Warren Hill and increased power from 1KW to 25KW. OPB Radio programming also increased on KRBM. On September 1, 1987 KOAP-FM expanded hours of operation 5:00AM to 12:10AM daily. In November 1987 OPB Radio added two new FM translator stations. K220BG 91.9kHz. Lakeview OR & K216BI 91.1kHz. Valley Falls, Plush OR. On December 1, 1987 KOAP-FM's Golden Hours service expanded 5:00AM to 12:10AM daily. Also in December 1987 K210AV 89.9kHz. La Grande OR began operation.

In March 1988 Virginia Breen became Acting Director of Radio Programming for OPB, when Director, Patricia Joy became gravally ill. Also in March 1988 Carolyn Duncan became OPB Radio News Director. News programming was now carried 40 hours weekly. KOAP-FM format was discribed as Classical, New Age & Jazz. In late June 1988 KOAP FM-TV moved studios to the new "OPB Broadcast Center". (7140 S.W. Macadam Ave.). In August 1988 Patricia Joy passed away from a viral brain disease. In October 1988 Virginia Breen became Director of Radio Programming for OPB & Robert McBride became OPB Music Director. In December 1988 K218BA 91.5kHz. John Day OR; K214AQ 90.7kHz. Mount Vernon OR & K211BF 90.1kHz. Burns, Silvies OR began operation.

On February 15, 1989 KOAP FM-TV & OPB announced "A change is in the air at Oregon Public Broadcasting. We've just made a little change that makes big sense: our Portland TV & Radio call letters are now KOPB." Also in February 1989 K212AQ 90.3kHz (Wagontire) Riley, Alkali Lake OR began operation. In June 1989 Brian Thomas became OPB Radio News Director. In July 1989 KOPB-FM began 5 minute NPR Newscasts from 10:01AM to 3:01PM weekdays. Also in July 1989 K218AZ 91.5kHz. The Dalles OR & K218BC 91.5kHz. Baker City OR began operation. In October 1989 K219BG 91.7kHz. Silver Lake OR began operation. In December 1989 Ted Bryant became OPB News Director (formerly KOIN AM-FM-TV N.D.). By February 1990 KOPB-FM slogan: OPB, it's where you belong.

In September 1990 Maynard E. Orme became OPB President & C.E.O. & Virginia Breen was named OPB Vice-President of Radio. Also in September 1990 K217BO 91.3kHz. Halfway OR & K220DA 91.9kHz. Richland OR began operation. On September 27, 1990 KEPB channel 28 Eugene OR began operation carrying OPB programming. In March 1991 K276BU 103.1kHz Corvallis OR began carrying OPB Radio after KIQY 103.7kHz. Lebanon donated the translator station. On August 1, 1991 KOAC began news & information programming 8:00PM to 11:00PM while KOPB-FM continued it Classical music. On April 1, 1993 KOAC news & information programming expanded 11:00AM to 11:00PM.

In June 1993 a new private non-profit corportion was formed for OPB stations. On September 20, 1993 OPB station licenses were transfered to Oregon Public Broadcasting (Maynard E. Orme, C.E.O.). By December 1993 James H. Lewis was OPB Senior Vice-President. In March 1994 K298AC 107.5kHz. Ontario OR began operation. On May 1, 1994 KOPB-FM expanded hours of operation 4:00AM to Midnight weekly. On July 1, 1994 APR Radio Network became PRI, Public Radio International. Also on this date KOPB-FM Golden Hours expanded 4:00AM to Midnight weekdays & 4:00AM to 11:00PM weekends. Some of these hours were also KOPB-FM programming. In August 1994 K289AC 105.7kHz. (Manzanita OR) Nedonna Beach OR began operation. In June 1995 Jerry DeLaunay became Golden Hours Manager. In October 1996 K231AD 94.1kHz. (Pacific City OR) Happy Hollow OR & K218BX 91.5kHz (Salishan OR) Gleneden Beach OR began operation. By December 1996 Debbi Hinton was OPB Senior Radio Vice-President & Morgan Holm, OPB Radio News Director.

On March 5, 1997 OPB's experimental high-definition television station transmitted a random-bit data stream using the FCC's new DTV standard. OPB was the first in Oregon to achieve this. (experimental DTV license issued 9-96). On September 1, 1997 KOPB-FM dropped Classical music except on weekends. KOPB-FM began duplicating KOAC's news & information format. On September 15, 1997 OPB's experimental DTV station was assigned the calls KAXC for UHF channel 35. On October 11, 1997 at 4:37PM KAXC became the first TV station in Oregon and one of the first on the west coast to transmit a high-definition television picture. In September 1998 KOPB-FM's Golden Hours was also offered on SAP (second audio program) on stereo TV's. In January 1999 Golden Hours programming ended over KOPB-FM's SCC.

In May 1999 groundbreaking for the new "Skyline Tower LLC" took place. A joint venture of OPB & KGW. The tower would be 926 feet. In October 2000 KOAP 88.7kHz. Lakeview OR began operation & K220BG went dark. In June & July 2001 KOPB FM-TV moved to the new Skyline Tower. (299 N.W. Skyline Blvd.). KOPB-FM moved it's Harris FM-25K first, with the back up Gates FM20H operating during the move. The Gates would then move and become the back up at the Skyline Tower. The new multi station FM panel "Shively" antenna is at 720 feet, composed of eight-bays, with 3 panels in each bay, attached around the faces of the tower. KOPB-FM increased power to 73KW. On December 7, 2001 KOPB-DT channel 27 Portland began DTV operation. On October 29, 2002 KOAC-DT channel 39 Corvallis began DTV operation. By February 2003 Lynn Clendenin was OPB Radio Program Director. In August 2003 KTVR-FM 90.3kHz. La Grande OR began operation & K210AV went dark. KOPB-FM slogan: This is OPB.

The Broadcasting Yearbook's never listed FM translators. The only publication at the time I knew of was the "FM Atlas" by Bruce F. Elving.

The 1973 2nd Edition listed translators for the first time. Here are Oregon's first translator stations, added to this are later FM Atlas Editions giving the changes. I've also added transmitter sites & ownership when known.

K265AA 100.9 Chemult (KTMT 93.7 Medford) Radio Medford, Inc. Transmitter site: Walker Mtn./1974: changed call & frequency to K276AE 103.1/1990: off the air.

K265AB 100.9 Grants Pass (KTMT 93.7 Medford) Radio Medford, Inc. Transmitter site: Baldy Mtn.?/1983: changed call & frequency to: K276AR 103.1/1988: changed call & frequency to: K221CP 92.1/Still operating, making it the oldest existing Oregon FM translator station.

K280AC 103.9 Portland (KUOW 94.9 Seattle) Transmitter site: The St. Johns Bridge/1977: moved city of license to Vancouver WA. Transmitter site moved to: Portland's Northwest Hills. Began operation between November 6th & 14th 1977. 5AM to 1AM/1984: off the air.

Question: Who was first on the air?

Oregon's oldest FM translator station, still on it's original frequency since 1974. That station is: K265AC 100.9 Klamath Falls (KTMT 93.7 Medford)

On April 30, 1949 KWJJ-FM began operation on 95.5mc with the power of 3,410 watts. KWJJ-FM was owned by KWJJ Broadcast Co., Inc. (Wilbur J. Jerman, President & General Manager). KWJJ calls also stood for Wilbur J. Jerman. Studios were located at 1011 S.W. 6th Ave. in Portland. Transmitter site was located on Healy Heights. KWJJ-FM simulcast it's AM sister. KWJJ-FM operating hours were 3PM to 11PM daily. This was Mr. Jermans 2nd attempt at FM broadcasting. (see KPRA(FM): KWJJ's 1st Sister).

On November 14, 1950 KWJJ-FM discontinued operation at midnight, following the sale of the transmitter site. Like most FM's at the time, KWJJ-FM operated at a loss and sold for approximately half the estimated value. Audience acceptance of the new radio band, had not taken place nationwide as expected. Many FM broadcasters were getting out.

The transmitter site purchasers were Ed Parsons, owner of KVAS Astoria (Clatsop Video Broadcasters), Elroy J. McCaw, owner of out of state radio stations & Jack Keating, owner of a Portland recording studio. The new owners applied for FCC permission to install an experimental television relay transmitter to rebroadcast KING-TV Seattle on channel 3. (Keep in mind, Oregon's 1st television station, KPTV channel 27, would not begin until Sept 20, 1952). The purchase was made following tests of KING-TV reception made via mobile equipment by Mr. Parsons in all sections of Portland. The plan was to apply later for a regular television license. None of this occurred.

On November 16, 1950 KFGR began operation on 1570kc. with the power of 250 watts, daytime only. KFGR was owned by Irving Vincent Schmidtke. He was also General Manager & Chief Engineer. Studios & transmitter were located on Sunset Drive (between 26th & Willamina Aves.). The location at the time, was never assigned a numbered address. KFGR calls stood for Forest Grove Radio.

On December 28, 1953 KFGR became KRWC. Calls stood for Radio Washington County. In 1955 power was raised to 1KW. On January 1, 1958 Reverend F. Demcy Mylar became G.M. On September 10, 1958 KRWC was sold to The Christian Broadcasting Co. (Reverend F. Demcy Mylar, President & Doctor Robert M. Kines) for $50,000. Mr. Schmidtke retained ownership of the studio/transmitter property. Robert W. Ball became G.M. Programming was described as cultural & religious. KRWC call slogan: Keep Right With Christ.

On October 1, 1958 KRWC studios were moved to a mobile unit and placed on property at 2740 Pacific Ave. Mr. Schmidtke was now using the old studios for his other business he had operated at the same time, Smitty's Radio & Television Clinic. On November 8, 1959 KRWC was sold to Triple G Broadcasting Co. (Lester L. Gould, President, Dorothy R. Gould, Leroy A. Garr & Esther L. Plotkin) for $50,000. Patrick W. & wife Jean S. Larkin became Co-General Managers.

On December 1, 1959 KRWC became KGGG. Calls stood for first three owners last names. Slogans: K-triple-G, the voice of the valley. The station with a smile at the top of your dial. In the Fall of 1960, Triple G Broadcasting Co. was transfered to group ownership. Crawford Broadcasting Co. (Doctor Percy Bartininaus Crawford, President) for $65,000. (Company now owns KKSL, KKPZ & KPBC in the Portland area).

On January 1, 1961 KGGG became KWAY. Call stood for Washington And Yamhill counties. Rick Blakely became General Manager & Chief Engineer. Slogan: K-WAY. On June 1, 1963 KWAY was sold to Harold O. Savercool for $37.500. Paul W. Savercool became President & General Manager. The format then changed to Top 40. KWAY slogans: The K-WAY. Top tunes for teens. The golden sound. The better music sound of Washington County. (A put down to KUIK Hillsboro).

In early 1965 Harold O. Savercool became President of K-WAY. R.T. Fletcher became G.M. and the format changed to Country & Western. Slogan: Country K-WAY. On October 31, 1965 KWAY left the air for unknown reasons. The tower still stands as a reminder of Forest Grove's Radio History. The KWAY calls live on in Waverly Iowa.

AIR DATE/CALL LETTERS/M.C./CITY/OTHER INFO. May 7, 46 KGW-FM 95.3 Portland/100.3 on 10-10-47 by Nov 13, 46 KPFM 94.9 Portland/97.1 on 7-31-47 Sept 25, 47 KPRA 95.7 Portland/95.5 on 1-9-48 Oct 12, 47 KUGN-FM 99.1 Eugene Oct 24, 47 KWIL-FM 101.7 Albany Dec 8, 47 KRVM 90.1 Eugene/91.9 by 1956? Apr 25, 48 KGPO 96.9 Grants Pass/AM sister: KUIN June 6, 48 KPOJ-FM 98.7 Portland/98.5 on 3-27-64 Sept 12, 48 KOIN-FM 101.1 Portland Nov 25, 48 KEX-FM 92.3 Portland/KOAP-FM in 1962 Apr 30, 49 KWJJ-FM 95.5 Portland/KPRA in 1947 Dec 19, 50 KTEC 88.1 Oretech/(Klamath Falls) Apr 4, 51 KWAX 88.1 Eugene/91.1 by 1956? Dec 10, 54 KQFM 100.3 Portland/KGW-FM in 1946 May 1, 58 KRRC 89.3 Portland Jan 17, 59 KFMY 97.9 Eugene Jan 25, 59 KEGA 93.1 Springfield/AM sister: KEED Mar 20, 59 KBOY-FM 95.3 Medford by Mar 28, 59 KEED-FM 93.1 Springfield/KEGA in 59 Sept 25, 60 KGMG 95.5 Portland/KXL-FM in 1965 Oct 11, 61 KPDQ-FM 93.7 Portland Apr 22, 62 KWFS-FM 96.1 Eugene Apr 30, 62 KOAP-FM 92.3 Portland/91.5 on 9-26-63 by Sept 3, 62 KBMC 94.5 Eugene July 5, 65 KXL-FM 95.5 Portland/KGMG in 1960 Oct 26, 65 KBVR 90.1 Corvallis

On November 25, 1948 (Thanksgiving Day) KEX-FM began operation on 92.3mc. (trivia: KEX started on Christmas Day 1926). KEX-FM was owned by Westinghouse Radio Stations, Inc. (Walter C. Evans, President). Studios were located at Radio Center (1230 S.W. Main St.) in Portland. KEX-FM's transmitter site was located on Healy Heights (4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive). A Westinghouse unit, employing a four-bay pylon antenna, mounted on a 146 foot self-supporting steel tower. Antenna height: 955 feet above average terrain, with the power of 56.4KW. KEX-FM was Portland's 6th FM station, duplicating it's sister and the ABC Radio schedule (3PM to 9PM daily). One of the first programs heard on this day, episode 1 of The Cinnamon Bear, at 4:45PM. Charles S. Young was General Manager of KEX & KEX-FM.

In 1950 John B. Conley became G.M. In 1952 Joseph E. Baudino became Executive Vice President of Westinghouse Radio. In 1953 the licensee name changed to Westinghouse Broadcasting Co. (Chris J. Whitting, President). In 1955 KEX-FM reduced power to 56KW, also Donald H. McGannon became President. In 1956 Herbert L. Bachman became General Manager. On December 17, 1956 KEX-FM was quietly taken off the air.

On August 5, 1957 KEX-FM was reactivated. A new policy: All Westinghouse FM's would adopt classical formats. KEX-FM was now operating 5PM to Midnight, Monday through Friday. Slogan: You're in tune with Westinghouse, KEX-FM in Portland. On May 1, 1960 KEX-FM & sister moved to new studios at 2130 S.W. 5th Ave. (cost approximately $200.000).

On October 25, 1961 Westinghouse announced plans to donate KEX-FM to the state of Oregon. Westinghouse had previously donated other FM's to educational interests in some of it's markets. KEX-FM's G.M. Herbert L. Bachman originated the idea here. Portland did not have an outlet for Oregon Educational Broadcasting Radio. In fact the City had just seen it's sister television service begin 8 months earlier. (KOAP Channel 10).

On March 15, 1962 the transfer "by deed as gift" to licensee: State of Oregon, Acting by And Through The State Board of Higher Education, was approved. The gift included broadcasting equipment, the transmitter site and KEX-FM's classical music library. A total value of $100,000. Work then began on the new broadcasting studio in the transmitter building at 4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive. On April 8, 1962 KEX-FM left the air and the 92.3 frequency was clear until April 30, 1962 when KOAP-FM began operation,

On October 3, 1934 KSLM began operation on 1370kc, with the power of 100 watts daytime only. KSLM was owned by Oregon Radio, Inc. (Harry B. Read). Studios were located at 345 Court St. in Salem. Transmitter was located one half mile from city limits. KSLM calls stood for SaLeM.

In early 1935 KSLM began night operation.(100 watts day & night). In early 1937 studios were expanded with a new address 343 Court St. On September 26, 1937 KSLM affiliated with the Mutual-Don Lee Broadcasting System. By 1938 KSLM was on the air 7AM to Midnight.

On April 28, 1939 KSLM switched to 1360kc. Power increased to 1kw day, 500 watts night, from it's new studio & transmitter location at 633 N. Front St.(now Front St. N.E.). A 218 foot Wincharger vertical radiator was installed. In 1940 KSLM raised night power to 1kw.

On March 29, 1941 KSLM switched to 1390kc. On March 1, 1944 KSLM was sold to auto dealer Paul V. McElwain & Glenn E. McCormick for $69,000. Mr. McCormick became President of Oregon Radio, Inc. & KSLM G.M. In mid 1944 KSLM moved studios to The Senator Hotel at 519 Court St.

On January 4, 1949 KSLM moved studios & transmitter to a new $100,000 building in Kingwood Heights. (520 West Hills Way N.W.) in West Salem. On September 30, 1953 KSLM was granted a construction permit for KSLM-TV channel 3. (5.5kw visual, 2.75kw aural). The TV station was never built. By October 1953 KSLM's slogan was: Radio Salem. By 1954 KSLM was operating 24 hours.

On May 26, 1959 KSLM raised day power to 5kw. In May 1959 KSLM switched it network affiliation from MBS to ABC. In late 1959 Lou C. McCormick succeeded her husband as President of Oregon Radio, Inc. On May 21, 1963 Mrs. McCormick became 100 percent owner, from 65.4 percent. Mrs. McCormick's new married name was now Lou C. Paulus. By 1964 KSLM was programming an MOR format. On January 1, 1968 KSLM affiliated with the abc Information Network. On February 29, 1968 KSLM switched back to it Mutual affiliation. On July 3, 1970 KSLM-FM began operation, simulcasting it's sister.

On October 30, 1977 KSLM was sold to Holiday Radio, Inc. for $684,000. Price included KORI(FM). Owners were Terry McRight, James B. Franklin & W.P. Buckthal. In 1980 KSLM added a CBS affiliation. In 1981 Mutual was dropped again. In 1982 KSLM switched to an AC format. Slogan: Holiday Radio, Salem's first station. (not true, see archive "Portland Station Becomes Salem's First".)

In March 1986 KSLM was sold to Ronette Communications of Oregon, Inc. for $1.2 Million. Price included KSKD(FM). Owners were Carl Como Tutera, Ron Samuels, Norman Drubner 50 percent & The Daytona Group of Oregon, Inc. 50 percent. In the Summer of 1986 KSLM switched to an Oldies format.

On July 26, 1988 KSLM was sold to 1010 Broadcasting, Inc. (John E. Grant) for $215.000. On April 6, 1992 KSLM was sold to K-Salem Communications (Greg Fabos) for $151,000. In February 1994 KSLM switched to SMN's satellite delivered "Kool Gold" oldies format.

In late 1994 KSLM was sold to Willamette Broadcasting, owners of KYKN Keizer OR. Willamette had 9 months to find KSLM a new transmitter site. The current site was now prime real state and the land lease was going to expire soon. By the Summer of 1995 Willamette was still looking, but time had run out. KSLM went dark.

In 1996 KSLM was granted a construction permit for 1660khz. in the new Expanded AM Band, which it still holds. In early 1997 KSLM returned to the air. Studios were now located with sister KYKN at 4205 Cherry Ave. N.E. in Keizer. Transmitter was now located in North Salem.

On October 22, 1998 KSLM was sold to Entercom Portland License LLC (Entercom Communications Corp.) for $605.000. Shortly after the sale, KSLM began simulcasting KFXX Vancouver WA from studios at 0700 S.W. Bancroft St. in Portland OR. Slogan: Sports Radio 910, The Fan.

MORE TO COME!!!

On May 9, 1922 KDYQ began operation on 485 Meters (618kc). It was Oregon's first school station. KDYQ was owned by Oregon Institute of Technology (a different school than the existing in Klamath Falls). Studio & transmitter were located at 6th & Taylor St. in Portland. The school also held experimental license 7YG. KDYQ's slogan was: The radio school. Programs included: weather reports, market & stock information, news bulletins & radio club broadcasts. On Nov 6, 1922 KDYQ moved to 360 Meters (833kc). In 1923 KDYQ operated 3 hours a day. On Jan 23, 1925 KDYQ ceased broadcasting during the school's move to a new location. This move would take several months. The Radio Division refused to grant a new license to replace the now expired permit. The school then reverted to it's experimental license 7YG, since changed to amateur license status, now W7YG. On Feb 7, 1929 W7YG was discontinued when the school was terminated.

On March 27, 1922 KGG began operation on 360 Meters(833kc). It was Oregon's 2nd commercially licensed station. KGG was owned by: Hallock & Watson Radio Service.(radio set dealers: Joseph H. Hallock & Cliff H. Watson). Studio & transmitter were located at: 192 Park St. in Portland. KGG calls stood for: King GeorGe.(reigning King of England). Hallock & Watson Radio Service also held experimental calls 7XI for other broadcasting purposes. KGG slogan was: Halowatt.(a play on Hallock & Watson's last names). KGG was KGW's chief news competition. On Sept 29, 1922 KGG opened an additional studio in "The Oregon Journal" Newspaper Building. KGW was located in "The Oregonian" Building. By 1923 KGG was using the slogan "The Rose City". Additional progammming consisted of new phonograph recordings, radio instruction & lectures. By 1924 KGW dominated Portland airwaves with it's separate frequency, no longer needing to share time with five other broadcasters on 833kc. On May 31, 1924 KGG threw in the towel and ended broadcasting

KFFO began operation on March 23, 1923 and broadcast on 360 Meters(833kc). Studio & transmitter were located at the corner of East Main St. & 2nd Ave.(address unknown). KFFO was owned by Dr. E. H. Smith, M.D.D.O., Physican & Surgeon (Osteopath). His practice was also at the same cross streets.(206 East Main St., 2nd floor of The Hillsboro National Bank Building). KFFO could have been in the same offices, or in other office space in the building. The station probably didn't interfere with his medical practice, since his allocated time to broadcast was 6 to 7PM daily & 9 to 10PM Fridays.(time assignments made by a Portland radio board). Programming was very typical of the period, consisting of concerts, vocalists, news, weather & market reports. In May 1923 KFFO moved to 1310kc. On March 12, 1924, just 11 days before KFFO's 1st anniversary, it was taken off the air. Dr. Smith elected to withdraw from active broadcasting at this time.

On February 11, 1927 KWBS began operation on 1490kc. with the power of 10 watts. KWBS was owned by Schaeffer Radio Co. KWBS calls stood for William B. Schaeffer.(He also owned Schaeffer Radio Manufacturing Co.). Studio & transmitter were located at 226 S.E. 14th St. in Portland. KWBS played mostly phonograph recordings.

On March 1, 1927 KWBS raised power to 50 watts. On June 15, 1927 KWBS switched to 1500kc. KWBS call slogan: Know, Watch, Boost, Serve.

On May 7, 1928 studio & transmitter were moved to the Francis Motor Car Co. Building (405 S.E. Hawthorne Ave., corner of S.E. Grand Ave.). The studio was on the Mezzanine floor. Power was also increased to 100 watts on this date.

On August 28, 1929 KWBS became KVEP and licensee name changed to Schaeffer Broadcasting Co. KVEP call slogan: The Voice of East Portland.

In November 1929 after the Depression hit in late October, KVEP became unprofitable. Mr. Schaeffer then entered into a contract to transfer control of the station to Robert Gordon Duncan. KVEP was taken over for the purpose of airing Mr. Duncan's viewpoints and to turn a profit. Mr. Duncan known as "The Oregon Wildcat" reportedly kept a gun at his desk while broadcasting. He used profanity to underscore his attacks on Sears & Robuck and other chain stores, along with "Merrill-Lynch and the rest of the banking gang."

KVEP shared time on 1500kc with other area broadcasters including KUJ Longview(now Walla Walla). Mr. Duncan refused to honor the time division agreements. Letters flooded the Federal Radio Commission.

On May 29, 1930 the FRC denied KVEP's license renewal. On May 30, 1930 KVEP left the air. Mr. Duncan attempted to air KVEP under temporary authorization in June 1930, pending a final decision by the courts. In July 1930 KVEP's equipment was attached by creditors, ending any comeback. On September 15, 1930 KVEP's license was canceled. Mr. Duncan's courtroom plea unsuccessful.

On October 10, 1930 Robert Gordon Duncan was found guilty of violating the Radio Act of 1927. Several violations were specified, but "indecent and profane language" was the cited offense that sent Mr. Duncan to County Jail for 6 months, with a $500 fine. Mr. Duncan holds the distinction of being the first individual in U.S. History ever to be convicted and serve a Federal Sentence for public broadcast

On Oct 7, 1922 Oregon Agricultural College's new broadcasting apparatus initiated it's first test program, an O.A.C Football Game, on 360 Meters(833kc). Other test programs proceeded in the weeks that followed. On Dec 7, 1922 O.A.C. College was assigned the government call sequence KFDJ and officially began operation on this date. It should be noted that even though the station was in Corvallis, Portland Newspapers always listed it's special programs for this areas listeners. Jacob Jordan was Chief Operator and also built the apparatus. Studio & transmitter were located at the Physics Department. In Nov 1924 KFDJ shifted to 1180kc. On Oct 2, 1925 KFDJ moved it's studio to the Admnistration Building. The transmitter & antenna, two self-supported 45 foot towers were installed on the roof of Apperson Hall. On Nov 4, 1925 KFDJ shifted to 1060kc. On Nov 11, 1925 KFDJ moved it's studio to a suite used by the College Music Department. On Dec 21, 1925 KFDJ became the first station in Oregon to change it's call letters. The government was now granting stations, if desired specific calls, symbolizing a name or slogan initialled in the call letters. KOAC, for: Oregon Agricultural College. Now Oregon's oldest existing calls on radio. Also on this date the station shifted to 1070kc. In early 1927 O.A.C. College became Oregon State Agricultural College. KOAC's license reflected this change. On June 15, 1927, the first major national frequency reallocation took pace by the new Federal Radio Commission(FRC took control 4-24-27), moving KOAC to 1110kc. By now KOAC was using the slogan: Science for service. On Nov 11, 1928 another major national frequency reallocation. KOAC was shifted to 560kc. On Nov 19, 1928 KOAC moved it's transmitter to the new Physics Building. Two 95 foot towers were placed atop the structure. On Dec 6, 1928 KOAC was shifted to 570kc. due to interference with other stations on 560kc. In early 1929 KOAC moved it's studio to the third floor of the Physics Building. On Oct 1, 1929 KOAC shifted to 550kc. In late 1938 KOAC's license was transfered to a new entity: The Oregon State System of Higher Education. In July 1942 KOAC moved it's transmitter site to Granger OR, five miles N.E. of Corvallis on U.S. 20(The Albany-Corvallis Hwy). A two tower directional antenna system was installed. On April 17, 1956 Oregon State Agricultural College became Oregon State College. In early 1961 studios were moved to 203 Covell Hall. On March 6, 1961 O.S.C became Oregon State University. In 1962 KOAC's license name changed to State of Oregon, Acting By & Through The State Board of Higher Education. KOAC's slogan: Oregon educational broadcasting radio. In 1971 KOAC became a member of NPR. Slogan: This is OEPBS, Oregon Educational & Public Broadcasting Service. By 1973 KOAC was broadcasting Classical & Jazz Music, in addition to educational features. In 1982 KOAC's license name changed to State of Oregon, Acting By & Through The Commission On Public Broadcasting. By 1986 most OPB programming was coming from sister KOAP-FM Portland. Slogan: Oregon Public Broadcasting Radio. In 1987 studios moved to 239 Covell Hall. In 1991 talk programming was added. On Sept 20, 1993 KOAC's license changed to Oregon Public Broadcasting. KOAC slogan: This is the news & information service of Oregon Public Broadcasting. 1996 OPB slogan: You're with OPB Radio. The contributors supported radio stations of Oregon Public Broadcasting, It's where you belong.

KOAC started with 50 watts. Late 1924 100 watts. Oct 2, 1925 500 watts. Dec 1928 1kw. July 1942 5kw day, 1kw night, both directional. Early 1947 night power raised to 5kw directional.

On November 9, 1925 KQP began operation at 8PM on the temporary assignment of 1210kc. The frequency was shared by Meier & Frank's KFEC & Benson Polytechnic's KFIF. KQP was owned & built by H.B. Read (Harry Read). Studio was located at The Portland Hotel (room 544, 167 6th St., now: 721 S.W. 6th Ave.) in Portland. The KQP Calls were originally sequentially assigned to The Blue Diamond Electric Co. in Hood River OR on April 12, 1922. KQP began operation on 360 Meters (833kc.) May 24, 1922. On March 5, 1923 KQP was sold to The Apple City Radio Club, Inc. (Harry Read, KQP Operator). In July 1925 licensee name changed to H.B. Read. On October 18, 1925 KQP was granted an application to move to Portland OR.

The transmitter site was located at Sylvan OR on Mt. Calvary Hill (north side of Washington St., now Barnes Rd., from current lower south side location). KQP operated with 500 watts. The antenna was different from any other Portland station. Held by a 120 foot wooden mast, the device had 16 wires forming a loop, with 4 to each guy, held in a vertical umbrella shape by 4 guy wires. The lead-in came direct from these to the transmitter house. The counter-poise was of the wagon-wheel type, with 8 sides surrounded by a wire which acted as part of the counter-poise. KQP was the first station north of San Francisco (KGO) to broadcast it's programs by remote control. Ivan R. Gilbert was KQP's Operator. The station was managed on a strict commercial bases.

On November 17, 1925 KQP switched to the temporary assignment of 1410kc. and began sharing time with Wilbur J. Jerman's KFWV. Between December 3, 1925 & January 15, 1926 KQP increased power to 1KW, making it the most powerful station in Oregon, for the moment. On December 10, 1925 KQP switched to 1300kc. By mid December 1925 KQP broadcast: 2PM to 3:30PM Monday through Saturday, 6PM to 9PM Monday, 5PM to 5:30PM Tuesday, 8PM to 9PM Tuesday & Wednesday, 8PM to Midnight Thursday, 8PM to 10PM Sunday. On January 1, 1926 KQP switched back to the temporary assignment of 1410kc. with KFWV. On February 4, 1926 KQP switched and settled on 940kc.

On February 7, 1926 KQP began leasing all it's air time to "The Portland News" newspaper. Charles W. Myers, The Portland News Business Manager over saw affairs at KQP. Slogan: KQP & The Portland News. On March 1, 1926 KQP was sold to Northwestern Trust Co. (J.B. Eakin, President, Jay Stockman, Secretary-Treasurer) for $2,400. Dolph Thomas became Station Director. Then on March 11, 1926 Harry B. Read announced "he had been swindled by Mr. Stockman" and that the new owners of KQP "were an unsavory group". The Portland News discontinued it's association with KQP. On March 15, 1926 Mr. Read re-acquired KQP from Northwestern Trust Co. as KQP, Inc. with financial help from The Portland News.

On March 25, 1926 KQP left the air when Mr. Read sold his now minority interest in KQP to Hallock & Watson Radio Corp. (Joseph H. Hallock & Cliffton H. Watson, radio engineers & former owners of KGG Portland, now dark). On March 27, 1926 KQP, Inc. requested new Calls from The Radio Division stating "that KQP suffered from a bad reputation while in the hands of it's former operators". On April 6, 1926 The Radio Division granted the requested calls KOIN.

On April 12, 1926 KOIN began operation at 3PM. Call meaning: Know Oregon's Independent Newspaper. (The Portland News motto minus "Know"). Dolph Thomas, Studio Director & Manager, also "The Voice of KOIN". Slogan: The Portland News-Halowat Broadcasting Station. (Halowat: a play on owners Hallock & Watson last names). KOIN broadcast: 3PM to 4PM & 8PM to 10PM Monday through Friday, 7:50PM to 9PM Sunday. By June 1926 KOIN began using it's Call meaning as it's slogan. On June 21, 1926 KOIN moved studios to the basement of The Heathman Hotel (355 Salmon St., now: 731 S.W. Salmon St.). Also by this time "The KOIN Orchestra" had begun, Conducted by Mischa Pelz. In August 1926 licensee name changed to KOIN, Inc.

Also in August 1926 The Radio Division changed KOIN's community of license to Sylvan OR, it's transmitter location. On October 17, 1926 KOIN began two tower operation. One tower was 100 feet, the other, 110 feet with an additional 20 foot mast on top of each. The upper mast was guyed with wires to the main structure by a self supporting system. Justification for one taller tower was because Mt. Calvary Hill was not flat at it's crest. On November 8, 1926 KOIN, Inc. became wholly owned by The Portland News (The News Publishing, Harry W. Ely, President, group owner: Scripps Newspapers). Cliffton H. Watson stayed on as KOIN's Chief Engineer. By mid 1927 KOIN's slogan: The station of the hour.

On December 17, 1927 KOIN moved studios to the mezzanine floor of The New Heathman Hotel (344 Salmon St., 1933: 712 S.W. Salmon St., 1980: 1001 S.W. Broadway). On November 4, 1928 Art Kirkham joined KOIN as an announcer. By November 1928 KOIN slogan: The Portland News Station. In 1929 Red Dunning joined The KOIN Orchestra as Assistant Director. By July 1929 KOIN broadcast: 9AM to 2PM & 3PM to 5PM Monday through Saturday, 6PM to Midnight Monday, Wednesday, Friday & Saturday, 6PM to 11PM Tuesday & Thursday, Noon to 1PM, 1:30PM to 2:30PM & 6PM to 10PM Sunday. On September 1, 1929 KOIN became a charter member affiliate of "The Don Lee-Columbia Network", CBS's new western chain. (KEX lost CBS when KEX group owner ABC Western Network, carrier of CBS folded).

On November 10, 1929 KOIN carried it's first program from The Don Lee Broadcasting System. (same land lines as CBS). By December 1929 C. Roy Hunt was Vice-President & General Manager of KOIN, Inc. In 1930 Joseph Sampietro took over Conducting The KOIN Orchestra. By June 1930 the FRC had moved KOIN's community of license back to Portland OR. On December 8, 1930 the popular "Koin Klock" program debuted. This could have been the first time the call slogan was used (Coin). By December 1930 Bruce Fichtl was Assistant General Manager.

On February 28, 1931 KOIN was sold to KOIN, Inc.(The Journal Publishing Co., owner of The Oregon Journal newspaper 30%, Charles W. Myers, President, formally of The Portland News with KQP, Simeon R. Winch, Vice-President, C. Roy Hunt, Treasurer & continuing G.M.). Slogan: KOIN, The Journal. On November 20, 1932 KOIN raised daytime power to 5KW from it's new 10 acre transmitter site on the south side of Barnes Rd., referred to as Barnes Hill, corner of Jones Rd. (now S.W. Skyline Blvd.) 5516 S.W. Barnes Rd. Ground breaking for the two story transmitter building on 10-3-32. Building 35x56, transmitter room 20x30, generator room 12x22, heating room 10x12, garage 12x18, shower & locker room 12x12, night duty apartment 12x34. The entire building was metal shielded with all steel work grounded.

The transmitter building was midway between two 300 foot steel towers, 600 feet apart. The ground system for the new plant was of the "radial" type, a copper circle 400 feet in diameter. The "spokes" were the equivalent of 30 miles of 2 inch width No. 12 copper wire. They were buried to a minimum of 4 feet. This was further grounded by the sinking of copper ground rodes 8 feet long, thus obtaining a permanent ground to the depth of 12 feet. Ground system & building plans by KOIN Chief Engineer, Victor S. Carson. The facility cost $50,000. On November 3, 1933 Koin began sharing The Don Lee-Columbia Network with sister Kale. By May 1935 KOIN broadcast: 6:30AM to Midnight Monday through Saturday & 8AM to Midnight Sunday.

On December 29, 1936 The Don Lee-Columbia Network became The Columbia Pacific Network, when the Don Lee liaison with CBS ended. KOIN continued to be a Don Lee Broadcasting System affiliate until January 31, 1937. On September 9, 1937 KOIN again became the exclusive Portland CBS affiliate. On May 4, 1938 Koin reverted to a new single Ideco steel 540 foot vertical radiator at it's Barnes Hill site. $20,000. for additional acreage & grading. Another $20,000. for the tower & contruction. By 1940 Johnny L. Carpenter was Sports Director By April 1940 Les Haplin was News Editor (Director). On August 11, 1940 KOIN added an additional 540 foot Ideco tower and raised night power to 5KW directional. Louis S. Bookwalter, Chief Engineer.

On March 29, 1941 KOIN switched to 970kc. In 1942 C. Roy Hunt KOIN G.M., Treasurer & part owner died. Later in 1942 Charles W. Myers KOIN President took on G.M. dutes as well. Clyde E. Phillips became Treasurer. In 1944 Red Dunning became KOIN Orchestra Director. By May 1945 Koin was operating 24 hours Tuesday through Sunday, Midnight to 1AM & 6AM to Midnight Mondays. (swing shift war hours). On March 30, 1946 KOIN was sold to satisfy the FCC's duopoly ruling to KOIN, Inc. (group owner: Field Enterprises, Inc., Marshall Field III, President) for $1,045,000. Harry H. Buckendahl became Vice-President & General Manager for the next 22 years.

On January 22, 1952 KOIN was sold to Mount Hood Radio & Television Broadcasting Corp. (Ted R. Gamble, President, C. Howard Lane, Vice-President, Edward G. Burke, Jr., Sherrill C. Corwin & Ralph E. Stolkin) for $700,000. (price included FM sister). Koin slogan: The best in radio everyday. On June 9, 1954 Samuel I. & wife Mitzi E. Newhouse bought 50% in KOIN-AM-FM-TV for $556,000. (They also owned The Oregonian & Oregon Journal newspapers). In 1955 KOIN-AM-FM moved studios to 140 S.W. Columbia St. (KOIN-TV location since sign on 10-15-53). By October 1955 Koin's slogan was: Portland's liveliest station. By November 1955 KOIN broadcast: 6AM to Midnight weekly. By September 1957 slogan was: Koin 970.

In 1960 Ted R. Gamble KOIN President & part owner died. Later in 1960 C. Howard Lane, became President & Harry H. Buckendahl became V.P. once again as well as G.M. By this time Koin's music was described as MOR. Slogan: The best sounds in music. By September 1963 KOIN's slogan: The Pacific Northwest's showmanship station. By May 1965 Koin broadcast: 5:30AM to Midnight Monday through Saturday, 7AM to Midnight Sunday. By October 1965 Koin's slogan was: The community station for the new Portland. By October 1967 John Armstrong was News Director. In 1968 Fred McKinney was named KOIN Orchestra Director after Red Dunning retired. In January 1969 Andrew E. Jacobs became G.M. On October 16, 1970 KOIN broadcast the opening game for the new Portland Trail Blazers. (Bill Schonely did play by play). By January 1972 Koin's format was listed as "popular jazz music".

On August 25, 1972 the program "Koin Klock" left the air after 41 years. A victim of demographics. On the last program KOIN mainstays: Art Kirkham, Johnny Carpenter & Red Dunning with Clint Gruber, Ivan Jones, Blain Hanks & Bob Henderson. A day later another Koin classic ceased. The KOIN Orchestra, the only surviving daily live radio studio orchestra west of the Mississippi ended after 46 years. The KOIN Orchestra consisted of Jack Lenard, Kash Duncan, Bob Douglas, Harry Gillgam & Fred McKinney, Director. The KOIN format was then changed to popular contemporary. Slogans: Koin's flipped. Radio 97. In April 1973 Richard J. Butterfield became G.M. By September 1973 Ted Bryant was News Director. In 1976 KOIN slogan: 97 Koin.

On May 1, 1977 KOIN was sold to Gaylord Broadcasting Co. (Edward L. Gaylord, President, Lee Allen Smith, Vice-President) for $1 1/2 Million. (price included FM sister). Tom S. Reddell, G.M., Bob Beran, News Director. On May 2, 1977 Portland radio's longest network affiliation ended after 48 years. KOIN began the transfer of CBS programs to KYXI, becoming independent by 5-12-77. On May 12, 1977 KOIN became KYTE (first call change in 51 years). Call slogan: 97 Kite. Format changed to what was described as contemporary music, geared to listeners 18 to 49. KYTE broadcast 24 hours. In July 1979 Verl Wheeler became G.M. On September 4, 1979 KYTE switched to a Country format, formally on FM sister. Slogan: 97 Country.

In 1980 KYTE moved studios to 2040 S.W. 1st Ave. In March 1981 Crawford P. Rice became President of Gaylord. On April 1, 1983 KYTE was sold to Charlton H. Buckley, Inc. for $3,750,000. (price included FM sister). Format changed to Al Hams "Music of Your Life". KYTE slogan: Everyday it's more of your all time favorites. Also in 1983 licensee name changed to Henry Broadcasting Co. & Robert C. Fauser became G.M. In 1984 Mr. Fauser became President & General Manager. In 1985 KYTE changed to an Easy Listening format. In November 1986 Greg W. Reed became Vice-President & Steve Feder became G.M. In November 1987 Mr. Reed became G.M. as well as V.P. In 1988 Robert Scherner became G.M.

On January 28, 1989 KYTE switched to a Classical format, formally on it's FM sister. Slogan: This is Classical 970. In 1990 KYTE began broadcasting in AM stereo. (Motorola C-QUAM). On May 4, 1990 KYTE became KESI. Call slogan Easy 970. Format switched back to Easy Listening. KESI slogan: Playing a variety of your relaxing favorites. Also in 1990 Jeff Salgo became Vice-President & General Manager. On May 1, 1991 KESI became KBBT. Call slogan: 970, The Beat. Format switched to Alternative Rock. KBBT slogans: The beat of the 90's. The way rock & roll was meant to be heard, squeezed down and blasted through some crappy AM radio. In April 1992 David McDonald became Vice-President & General Manager.

On August 1, 1996 KBBT was sold to American Radio Systems License Corp. (group owner: American Radio Systems). On October 15, 1996 KBBT (moved to 107.5Mhz.) became KUPL. Call meaning from new FM sister Couple. (note: calls were originally used on 1330Khz. 1976 to 1995). Format switched to Traditional Country. KUPL slogan: Strait Country 970, we're playin' more than 30 years of favorites. On November 13, 1998 KUPL was sold to CBS Radio License, Inc. (group owner: Infinity Broadcasting Corp.). By January 1999 KUPL slogan: Classic Hit Country. On January 23, 2001 KUPL switched to an Oldies format. Slogan: AM 970, Cruisin' Oldies. Also in 2001 Mark Whalen became G.M.

On August 1, 2001 KUPL became KUFO. (calls copied from original FM sister). Call meaning: Unidentified Flying Object. Format switched to Talk. KUFO slogan: Extreme talk 970, the talk that rocks. KUFO carries programming from it's own "Infinity Broadcasting" network originating stations.

On June 24, 1924 KFQN began operation on 1060kc. KFQN was owned by the Third Baptist Church. Studio & transmitter were located at the Church: 108 North Knott St.(corner of N. Vancouver Ave. & N. Knott) in Portland. Reverend W. Arnold Bennett was Pastor. The apparatus was the old KGG, formally 7XN (Oregon's 4th broadcasting station). KFQN broadcast: Wednesdays & Fridays 8:00PM to 9:00PM & Sundays 9:45AM to 10:30AM & 9:00PM to 10:00PM. Due to the irregular schedule, the license renewal was denied March 19, 1925. The Radio Division was now in the process of weeding out those stations not broadcasting daily, now that many stations had their own frequencies.

In early 1923, radio club students from Benson Polytechnic Institute spotted a radio apparatus "For Sale" in the Stubbs Electric store window located at 75 S.E. 6th Ave.(corner of 6th & Oak Sts.). Stubbs was also home to KQY at the time. The apparatus for sale was KYG, formally 7XG (Oregon's 2nd broadcasting station). Schools & colleges were getting into broadcasting across the country. This was a cost efficient way to do it. The students talked Benson faculty into purchasing the year old equipment. Next the radio club applied for a commercial license and requested the Bureau of Navigation's Radio Division to transfer the KYG calls to Benson. The Bureau had stopped assigning 3 letter calls in May of 1922. Already those early calls were being coveted.(The Bureau in Nov. 1926 would start issuing more). The request was denied. The KYG license had already been cancelled and the Calls deleted November 7, 1922. On March 23, 1923 the Bureau issued a license to Benson Polytechnic Institute bearing the sequentially-assigned calls KFIF for 360 Meters(833kc). It should be noted that Benson uses this date as it's first broadcast.(The date appeared on the first license). KFIF actually began operation May 4, 1923. Studio & transmitter were located at the School, 546 N.E. 12th Ave. in Portland. Benson also held experimental calls 7XAD for other broadcasting purposes. On (or about) November 23, 1923 KFIF moved to 1210kc. On (or about) November 10, 1926 KFIF switched to 1190kc. On June 15, 1927 the new Federal Radio Commission assigned KFIF 1400kc. On March 1, 1928 the FRC moved KFIF to 1310kc. On November 11, 1928 KFIF switched to 1420kc. In the fall of 1929 KFIF's licensee name changed to Benson Polytechnic School. On March 17, 1930 KFIF became KBPS, signifying the School name. By mid 1938 KBPS broadcast weekdays 11:AM to 12:30PM & 3:PM to 5:PM.(silent during summers). On March 29, 1941 Tne NARBA Treaty was implemented in North America at 3:AM EST. KBPS was assigned 1450kc. Later in 1941 a self-supported vertical radiating antenna tower was installed. By 1951 KBPS operated 10:AM to 9:PM daily, except summers. KBPS slogan was: Voice of the Portland Public Schools. In 1954 KBPS licensee name changed to Portland Public Schools; Benson Polytechnic School. On March 19, 1959 the license was changed back to Benson Polytechnic School. KBPS slogan in the 1960's was previously mentioned with: Be a friend, turn us on. In 1973 KBPS joined NPR. In 1982 KBPS licensee name changed to School District No. 1. In 1991 KBPS moved studios to 515 N.E. 15th Ave. In October 1994, as a way to raise money for operating KBPS, Benson made an agreement with Portland State University to share time on KBPS under the non-licensed calls KPSU. Studios are located at 1825 S.W. Broadway, in the Smith Memorial Center, sub basement. KPSU first slogan: 1450 AM, Portland State University Radio. KBPS slogan: Portland Public Radio

On December 13, 1926 KXL began operation on 750kc. with the power of 50 watts. KXL was owned by KXL Broadcasters, Inc. Studios were located on the top floor of the Mallory Hotel, with transmitter on roof.(171 Lownsdale St., now 729 S.W. 15th Ave.) in Portland.

On February 17, 1927 KXL switched to 770kc. In May 1927 KXL was inspected by the newly empowered Federal Radio Commission. In a report, it was noted that the station was a "very haywire operation". KXL was then re-assigned to the lower class frequency of 1360kc. on June 15, 1927.

On September 26, 1927 KXL studios & transmitter were moved to the Bedell Building, 7th floor studios.(130 S.W. 6th Ave., 6th & Alder). KXL slogan: The Voice of Portland. In April 1928 power was increased to 100 watts. On November 1, 1928 KXL switched to 1250kc. & power increased to 500 watts..

In October 1929 The Federal Radio Commission conducted a license renewal hearing for KXL. In the FRC ruling, KXL was reduced to 100 watts & forced to share time with the Benson Polytechnic School Station KFIF on 1420kc. This went into effect on November 1, 1929.

On November 5, 1930 KXL became a UBC affiliate. On April 1, 1931 UBC folded. In early 1935 KXL increased day power to 250 watts. In late 1937 KXL studios moved to the KXL Building (1101 S.W. Washington St.). In late 1939 night power was increased to 250 watts. On March 29, 1941 KXL & KBPS were switched to 1450kc.

On October 12, 1941 seventeen years after KXL's debut on 750kc., the station returned. Power was increased to 10KW., sunrise to sunset & limited night hours when WSB Atlanta was off air. KXL's transmitter site was now located at Harmony OR. A new multi-tower directional array was activated on this date. KXL's new slogan: Oregon's Most Powerful Radio Station.(it was for the moment). In 1942 studios were moved to the 5th floor of the Orpheum Building.(743 S.W. Broadway).

On January 4, 1947 KXL Broadcasters, Inc. started the XL Group of stations. Those changing their calls on this date were: KXLE Ellensburg WA KXLF Butte MT KXLJ Helena MT KXLK Great Falls MT KXLL Missoula MT KXLO Lewiston MT KXLQ Bozeman MT KXLY Spokane WA

In 1953 KXL studios were moved to it's transmitter site.(6735 S.E. 82nd Ave.). On November 7, 1955 KXL Broadcasters, Inc. was sold to Mount Rainer Radio & TV Broadcasting Corp.(Lester M. Smith and Lincoln & Sylvia Deller) for $450,000. Mr. Smith also became G.M.

On June 7, 1958 KXL was sold to Sinatra Radio & Essex Productions, Inc.(entertainer Frank Sinatra & wife Nancy) for 2 Million.(included KJR Seattle). KXL was programming a top 40 format at this time. Slogans: Listening's swell on KXL. The nifty 750.

In early 1959 the licensee name changed to Seattle, Portland & Spokane Radio, Inc.(KJR-KXL-KNEW). On January 4, 1961 KXL increased power to 50KW.(directional single-pattern, limited night operation to WSB Atlanta). KXL slogans: Refreshing Radio. Aisle 750.

On October 14, 1964 KXL was sold by Mr. & Mrs. Frank Sinatra to entertainer Danny Kaye & wife Sylvia and Lester M. Smith for $700,000. KXL was programming a "Good Music" format at this time. Slogan: Better Music. In 1970 KXL joined the abc Information Network. On June 29, 1972 the licensee name changed to Kaye-Smith Enterprises. In January 1973 KXL dropped it abc affiliation.

On October 14, 1975 KXL was granted pre-sunrise authority of 500 watts.(6AM & local sunset). In 1977 studios were moved to 1415 S.E. Ankeny St. In 1980 KXL dropped it Easy Listening format and switched to News/Talk. Slogan: News Radio 75. On June 1, 1981 KXL joined the NBC Radio Network. On February 1, 1982 KXL began carrying NBC's TalkNet schedule.

On May 13, 1982 Lester M. Smith bought all of Mr. & Mrs. Danny Kaye's stock in KXL. Kaye-Smith Enterprises became Alexander Broadcasting Co. In March 1984 KXL began 10KW night operation.(directional single pattern all hours). KXL slogan: Portland's News Authority.

On August 16, 1988 KXL was given permission to raise night power to 20KW.(2 pattern directional, for day & for night). In 1989 KXL joined the CBS Radio Network. In 1992 KXL dropped it's NBC affiliation. KXL slogans: News Radio 750, When You Need To Know. The Northwest Spells News K-X-L.

On December 25, 1926 KEX began operation on 670kc. with the power of 2.5KW. KEX was owned by Western Broadcasting Co.(Northwest Radio Supply Co. of Seattle with KJR(now KOMO) Vincent I. Kraft). Studios were located at 201 Terminal Sales Building (446 S.W. Morrison St.) in Portland. Transmitter was located at East Glisan & Buckley Ave.(now S.E. Glisan & 122nd Ave.). The Towers: Two masts were of braced steel construction, with a base of about 18 feet, tapering to the top, which was 225 feet above the base. The masts were approximately 300 feet apart, with the transmitter building midway between. The lead to the aeriel took off out of the top of the building and led to the center of the aerial wire. KEX was built at a cost of $35.000. KEX slogans: Oregon's most powerful station. A public service necessity.

KEX as the first broadcaster in Oregon to be owned by a company not based in it's home town. This caused problums. Advertisers stayed away, but this was not the only reason. KEX was reduced to broadcasting only a few hours a day. Just days after the newly empowered Federal Radio Commission took control on April 24, 1927. KEX was one of the first stations to be inspected. The FRC had already received complaints from listeners & WMAQ. The complaints were that KEX was spilling it's signal onto other local & outlying station frequencies.(transmitter was not crystal controlled). Plus KEX's signal was interfering with WMAQ, a 5KW station on 670kc. from Chicago. KEX was reported averaging 3KW, but suspicion was the the station was utilizing it's full 20KW capability at times.

On May 5, 1927 KEX as re-assigned to the lower class frequency of 1240kc. On June 15, 1927 KEX was moved to 1250kc. On March 1, 1928 KEX switched to 1080kc. On October 3, 1928 KEX began carrying programs from the ABC Northwest Chain, based at sister KJR Seattle. On October 7, 1928 KEX carried it's first CBS Chain program, over the ABC Chain. On November 11, 1928 KEX switched to 1180kc. and doubled power to 5KW. The transmitter was now crystal controlled. Night broadcasts were divided with KOB State College NM.

On August 25, 1929 the now known ABC Western Chain folded. On September 1, 1929 KEX lost it CBS Chain affilation to KOIN. On December 22, 1929 KEX began carrying programs from the new NBS Chain, based at KJR. On Febraury 29, 1931 KEX also affiliated with the UBC Chain. On April 1, 1931 UBC folded.

On October 16, 1931 it was announced that KEX's Western Broadcasting Co., owned now by the Northwest Broadcasting Co. of Seattle with KJR, was now a subsidiary of the National Broadcasting Co.(NBC). On October 18, 1931 KEX carried the inaugural of the new NBC Pacific "Gold" Network.

On August 25, 1933 KEX as sold to the Oregonian Publishing Co., owners of KGW. In 1934 KEX moved studios to 801 Oregonian Building (537 S.W. 6th Ave. with KGW). In 1935 KEX's transmitter site moved to North Portland, off N. Denver Ave.(Pacific Hwy.) using a 300 foot tower.(KGW would move to this site in 1938).

On March 12, 1936 the NBC Pacific "Gold" Network became part of the NBC Blue Network. On November 29, 1939 KEX switched to 1160kc. KEX slogan: Your friendly Blue Network station.

On March 29, 1941 KEX moved to 1190kc. In September 1943 a studio fire at the combined KEX-KGW Studios forced a move to the home of KWJJ at 1011 S.W. 6th Ave. This was never covered in any newspaper, probably because of wartime.

On December 28, 1944 as a result of the FCC's new duoploy ruling, Oregonian Publishing Co. sold KEX to Westinghouse Radio Stations, Inc. for $400,000. In 1945 KEX studios moved temporarily to 815 S.W. Yamhill St. On June 15, 1945 the NBC Blue Network became ABC. KEX slogan: This is your Westinghouse station. On November 24, 1946 KEX moved to Radio Center.(1230 S.W. Main St.). KEX slogans: Radio 1190. Have a gay time, every day time, keep tuned to KEX.

On April 8, 1948 KEX raised power to 50KW at 6:30PM (fulltime directional) from it's new transmitter site located at Clackamas OR (9415 S.E. Lawnfield Rd.). Three Blaw-Knox 455 foot guyed towers were erected.(Westinghouse 50-HG transmitter). KEX slogan: Oregon's only 50,000 watt station. In 1953 the licensee name changed to Westinghouse Broadcasting Co.

On December 17, 1956 one of the largest Portland network switches took place. The catalyst was KGW-TV beginning operation, taking ABC-TV from KLOR ch. 12 & ABC Radio from KEX to KGW. KEX could have picked up NBC, it did not. NBC affiliated with KGON(on 1520kc. as of 7-30-56 from 1230kc.). KEX elected to go independent. A Gutsy move for a 50KW station at the time. Network Radio was losing to TV, but not to the degree that would happen by 1960. In newspaper ads, KEX celebrated Indpendence Day.(Barney Keep dressed as George Washington with the rest of the air staff). KEX became the only full time 50KW Independent in the West. This as the beginning of the KEX most of us grew-up with. Quality Local Programming.

In 1959 studios moved to 2130 S.W. 5th Ave. KEX slogans: You're in tune with Westinghouse, KEX in Portland. The Big K of West Coast Radio. The Mighty 1190. Here's what's new, KEX News.

On September 1, 1962 KEX was sold to Golden West Broadcasters, Inc.(entertainer Gene Autry) for $900.000. KEX as programming an MOR format at this time. Slogan: This is the 50,000 watt call of the Northwest, KEX in Portland.

In January 1973 KEX affiliated with the abc Information Netork.(taken from KXL). KEX was programming an AC format at this point. Slogans: KEX sounds like Portland. Music 1190. Full Color Radio.

In Fall 1978 KEX moved to new studios at 4949 S.W. Macadam Ave.(cost 1 Million to build). KEX slogans: Lets make the music together. Touching your life. KEX, what a team! Your full service station. In 1983 KEX added an affiliation with Mutual.

On March 14, 1984 KEX was sold to Taft Television & Radio Co. for $8,127,391 (price included KKRZ) & 50 acres of land. KEX slogans: The pulse of Portland. Radio for grown-ups. The 50,000 watt News leader of the Northwest. 1190 KEX. On October 15, 1987 the licensee name changed to Great American Broadcasting Co. On December 6 1988 KEX went non-directional day only. In the 1990's? Citicasters Licenses, Inc. became the licensee. KEX slogan: The 50,000 watt blowtorch of the Pacific Northwest, 1190 KEX.

On May 4, 1999 Citicasters Licenses, Inc. became part of Clear Channel Communications. Around this period KEX went News/Talk full time. KEX slogans: The News leader. News Radio 1190 KEX. Depend on us.

Test broadcasts of KGON began between the 23rd & 27th of June 1947, 1AM to 6AM on 1230kc. with the power of 250 watts. Then on July 4, 1947 at 7AM KGON began commercial operation. KGON was owned by Clackamas Broadcasters (Dr. John H. Fitzgibbon, President, Roy Jarman, owner of "Jarman's Buick & Chevrolet" dealership, Temple V. Ehmsen, Chief Engineer & station builder. For more on Mr. Ehmsen see "Oregon's First FM Attempt"). Studio & transmitter were located on "Super Highway" (McLoughlin Blvd., Pacific Hwy. 99E) in Gladstone. KGON cost $50,000. to build.

The one story modernistic building held a main studio, a control room studio, news, program & writer rooms & a business office. A 12 person staff ran KGON. Hale Byron, General Manager, Bob Roberts, Program Director & Chief Announcer, Douglas Bates, News Editor (Director), Ray Cummins, Chief Operator, Rod Cain & Gene O'Brien, Announcers & John Ford (Soap) Opera Announcer. KGON call meaning, city of license: oreGON city. KGON operated 7AM to Midnight, Monday through Saturday & 8AM to 11PM Sundays. KGON broadcast live & transcribed programs. The station was also big in sports, first broadcasting local high school games, then later expanding into regional college play by play. KGON slogan: The Voice of Clackamas County.

In late 1947 Floyd C. Bain became G.M. On July 15, 1948 broadcast hours were reduced. 7AM to 10PM Monday through Saturday & 8AM to 10PM Sundays. By October 1948 KGON slogan: Your home town station. On March 28, 1949 broadcast hours expanded 7AM to Midnight Monday through Saturday & 8AM to Midnight Sunday. Also in 1949 licensee name changed to Clackamas Broadcasters, Inc. & Irwin S. Adams became G.M. By February 1950 KGON slogan: Oregon City Radio. By March 1950 Bob McAnulty was doing Sports Play By Play on KGON.

On March 11, 1950 KGON affiliated with LBS, The Liberty Broadcasting System. The 249 station network broadcast Major League Baseball through re-enactments. (LBS studios & flagship: KLIF Dallas TX). Later in 1950 LBS expanded into entertainment programming. On April 29, 1950 KGON became the first station in the Portland area to begin 24 hour operation. Slogan: Serving the Portland metropolitan area 24 hours a day. By December 1950 H.I. Jackson was Assistant Manager, Delmar Lundbom, P.D. & N.D., Gene Good, Jr., Sports Director & Robert Brower, Chief Engineer.

By January 1951 Sammy Taylor was on KGON 11AM to 2PM. On May 16, 1952 The LBS Radio Network folded. By December 1952 Sonora B. Hoffman was Program Director, Frank Faro, News Director, H.I. Jackson, Sports Director & Edward G. Saxe, Chief Engineer. By November 1954 KGON slogan: The 24 hour station. By December 1954 Vincent Coyle was Sports Director. By December 1955 Ray Brooks was Sports Director & William R. Watson, Chief Engineer.

On July 30, 1956 KGON switched frequency to 1520kc. and raised power to 10KW directional, using a mult-tower array. (Collins transmitter, single pattern all hours). For the 1230 frequency continuation see "Gresham's KRDR". KGON slogans: First in sports. Tops on your dial at 1520. By December 1956 Robert J. Hartke was President & Co-Owner of Clackamas Broadcasters, Inc. with Irwin S. Adams, Secretary-Treasurer & G.M. At this time KGON was referred to off air as K-Gone.

On December 17, 1956 KGON became Portland area's NBC affiliate. (KGW dropped NBC for ABC, from KEX). In 1958 KGON's studios were assigned a numbered address. (1065 McLoughlin Blvd.). By August 1958 Sidney Roach was Chief Engineer. By September 1958 Bob McAnulty was doing mornings on KGON. On April 17, 1959 KGON added an affiliation with the Mutual Broadcasting System. On January 7, 1960 KGON lost the NBC Radio Network, when KGW became the affiliate once again. In 1961 KGON shortened broadcast hours 6AM to Midnight.

Between April 16 & 20, 1962 KGON raised day power to 50KW directional (single pattern day & night) from it's new 12-acre transmitter site in Clackamas OR (15201 S.E. Johnson Rd.). Three towers, 162 feet high, Gates BC-50 transmitter. The (future studios &) transmitter site cost $250,000. The KGON air staff included: Larry Holloran 7-10AM, Bob Stevens (formally on KISN) 11-1PM, Larry Curran 1-6PM & Vic Knight 7:30-Midnight.

On September 3, 1962 KGON switched format to modern music (top 40) & news exclusively. MBS entertainment programs were dropped. Slogan: KGON, clear channel 15. The KGON air staff included: Jack Par (formally on KGRO & KISN) 6-9AM & 11-1PM, Larry Holloran 9-11AM, Ray Willis 1-3PM & 5-8PM, Vic Knight 3-5PM & 8-11:30PM.

On November 12, 1962 the FCC gave KGON permission to move studios to their transmitter site. (15201 S.E. Johnson Rd.). KGON's original studio location (1065 McLoughlin Blvd.) was later "Oregon City Honda". About 1985 McLoughlin Blvd. implemented five digit address numbers, plus S.E. was added to the addresses. The location is currently "Thomson Used Cars". (19380 S.E. McLoughlin Blvd.).

On January 21, 1963 the KGON air staff included: Jack Par 6-10AM, Ben Tracy (formally on KAYO) 10-Noon & P.D., Don Chapman noon-3, Bill Western (formally on KISN) 3-6PM & Vic Knight 6-11:30PM. Between August 12 & 16, 1963 KGON began 24 hour operation once again. Air staff included: Ted Behr 6-9AM, Roger Hart (formally on KEX & KISN) 9-Noon, Ben Tracy noon-2 & P.D. (later moving to KGRL & becoming the voice of "Les Schwab" tire ads since 1964), Bill Western 2-6PM, Paul Anthony 6-Midnight, Russ Reed Ripley III midnight-6 & Don R. Hughes, News Director.

On January 20, 1964 the KGON air staff included: Roger Hart 6-10AM, Ken Chase (formally on KISN) 10-noon & P.D., Joe Allen noon-3, Bill Wittman 3-7PM, Tom Mix 7-Midnight & Russ Reed Ripley III midnight-6. Also in early 1964 KGON changed from one directional pattern to two. (day & night).

On March 1, 1964 it was announced that KGON was sold to Republic Broadcasters, Inc. (Kenneth E. Palmer, President & John C. Hunter, Vice-President) for $980.000. (plus assumption of $830,000. in debt). Transfer took place on 7-1-64. Mr. Hunter was also President of KIMN Denver, with Mr. Palmer as V.P. & G.M. Their top 40 station was in fierce competition with KBTR in the Denver market. KBTR was partly owned by Don Burdon. Speculation at the time was that 50KW KGON would take on Mr. Burdon's 1KW KISN.

On August 1, 1964 KGON became KYMN. Call slogan: Kim radio 1520. (calls based on sister KIMN Denver). Format: top 40. Douglas J. Taylor, General Manager, James Jobes, Chief Engineer. The Kim air staff included: Tom Mix 6-10AM, Jack Merker 10-Noon & P.D., Larry Curran noon-3 & N.D., Steve Lee 3-7PM & Russ Ripley 7-midnight. KYMN slogans: More music and more entertainment from fabulous Kim in Oregon. The 50,000 watt voice of the great Northwest. The peak of your dial, move up to Kim. The Kimcasters call for fair skies in Kimland. 65 Kim counted degress at 4:23 Kim time. Radio to live by.

On October 1, 1964 the Kim air staff included: Bill Western 6-10AM, Jack Merker 10-noon & P.D., Larry Curran noon-3 & N.D., Steve Lee 3-7PM, Joe Allen 7-Midnight & Bill Davison midnight-6. On October 25, 1964 KYMN dropped the Mutual Network. (KPOJ picked up MBS once again).

On February 1, 1965 KYMN changed format to Good Music. (instrumental, familiar tunes, standards & some classical). The music was from taped sources. Four breaks an hour. Three spots per break with 12 minutes of un-interrupted music. Slogan: Elegance without affectation. John C. Hunter, V.P. & G.M., Jack Merker, Operations Manager, Bill Western, Program Director, Robert W. Scott, News Director.

On June 1, 1966 at 5PM Oregon Governor Mark O. Hatfield dedicated the new emergency broadcasting facilities at KYMN. The 300 square foot underground control room, fallout shelter was encased in 16 inches of cement. The communications center was also equipped with a shortwave two-way monitoring system with the Clackamas County Civil Defense headquarters. The initial shelter was expanded by 700 square feet to include the music library, space for off air personnel, stocked with 14 days of food rations and a generator with a 5,000 gallon fuel supply. By October 1966 John C. Hunter was President & G.M., with Lee Williams as News Director. KYMN slogans: Fine Kim music. Aren't you glad you listen to KYMN? Don't you wish your children did?

On August 21, 1967 KYMN's licensee was reorganized. Wally Nelskog became Vice-President & James B. McGovern, General Manager. On September 18, 1967 KYMN became KYXI. Call slogan: KiXIe. (calls & format based on KIXI Seattle). Format: Good music a.k.a. Beautiful music. KYXI slogans: Metropolitan radio. Beautiful music 24 hours a day. By October 1968 Jim Liniger was Program Director (later on KYTE-FM & KLLB as Laid-Back Lenny) & Harry Christensen, News Director.

On May 2, 1969 KYXI announced it had applied for an FM station in Oregon City, frequency unknown. (103.3?). The FCC never granted the application. KYXI slogans: The sound of beautiful music. In the air everywhere, KYXI Oregon City.

On November 20, 1969 it was announced that KYXI was sold to Pacific & Southern Company, Inc. (DeSales Harrison, Pesident) for $6,493,550. (price included KIMN AM&FM Denver). Transfer took place 17 months later on January 7, 1971. (FCC approval on 4-15-71). Kent Burkhart, Radio Division President, William Gott, Chief Engineer. On July 19, 1972 James B. McGovern became V.P. as well as G.M.

On January 15, 1973 KYXI was sold to McCoy Broadcasting Co. (Arthur H. McCoy, President) for $1.5 Million. (Transfer took place on 1-26-73). On March 13, 1973 licensee name changed to KYXI, Inc., James B. McGovern, President & G.M. (group owner: McCoy Broadcasting Co.). By September 1973 KYXI's format had changed to MOR with Harry Christensen & Mark Andrews as Co-News Directors.

On October 1, 1973 it was announced that KYXI, Inc. had purchased KLIQ-FM for $400.000. Calls changed to the AM's pioneer letters (KGON) on 11-1-73. In March 1974 Craig McCoy became KYXI Station Manager. (son of owner). In October 1974 KYXI affiliated with the NBC Radio Network. (KGW dropped NBC). By November 1974 Robert Reed was P.D. & N.D. In August 1975 Craig McCoy became G.M. & Herbert H. Smith became President of KYXI, Inc. Slogan: The sound of the Northwest.

On July 12, 1976 KYXI changed to an All News format. Also on this date KYXI added an affiliation with NBC's News & Information Service. A press release said KYXI had the largest News staff in the Northwest. Slogans: This is your news & information station. News 15. The news authority. On the scene with News 15. Herbert H. Smith, President & General Manager, Paul Hansen, News Director & Mike Cooley, Chief Engineer.

On May 2, 1977 KYXI added an affiliation with the CBS Radio Network. (KOIN/KYTE dropped CBS). On May 29, 1977 The NBC News & Information Service ended nationally. By December 1977 Gary Johnson was News Director & Norman Smith, Chief Engineer. On April 14, 1978 licensee name changed to McCoy Broadcasting of Oregon, Inc.

On April 8, 1979 it was announced that KYXI was sold to Western-Sun, Inc. (The Des Moines Register & Tribune newspaper) for $27.7 Million. (price included KGON(FM) Portland, KLAK & KPPL(FM) Lakewood/Denver, KHON(TV) Honolulu & satellite KAII(TV) Wailuku). FCC approval on 6-1-79. Also in 1979 KYXI dropped it's NBC affiliation and picked up the Mutual Broadcasting System. By December 1979 Craig McCoy was President & General Manager & KYXI added an affiliation with AP Radio. On April 8, 1980 Larry Holtz became Chief Engineer. By December 1980 Michael Johnson was Broadcast Director.

In 1981 KYXI installed a new Harris MW-50-A transmitter. Also in 1981 KYXI dropped the Mutual Network. Slogans: News radio 1520. The only one in Oregon. If it's going on, it's going on KYXI 1520. In early 1983 KYXI dropped AP Radio & began airing the audio feed from CNN Headline News from cable TV. In April 1983 Linn Harrison became Station Manager, Jeff Davis, Traffic. In January 1984 Linn Harrison became General Manager. On February 1, 1984 it was announced that KYXI would switch later in the month to Satellite Music Network's "Stardust" nostalgia format, keeping it's old time radio programs at night. CNN Headline News was dropped. Later in 1984 Linn Harrison became President of Western-Sun, Inc.

On September 1, 1984 KYXI became KSGO. Call meaning: Solid Gold Oldies. KSGO began an Oldies format. CBS Radio was dropped. Michael Johnson, Program Director. KSGO slogans: 1520 KSGO solid gold. The music you grew up with. Solid gold rock & roll. By December 1984 Jeff Davis was Program Director.

In July 1985 KSGO was sold to KSGO/KGON, Inc. (group owner: Ackerley Communications, Inc., Barry A. Ackerley, President, Donald Carter, Executive V.P.) for $6,750.000. Dan Hern, V.P. & G.M., Peter Bolger, Operations Manager. In late April 1988 KSGO moved studios with FM sister to 4614 S.W. Kelly Ave. in Portland. In June 1988 Donald Carter became President of Ackerley. Between June 20 & 26, 1988 KSGO began broadcasting in AM stereo. (Motorola C-QUAM). By February 1989 Eric Worden was Program Director.

On August 18, 1989 KSGO began playing the song "We Built This City" by Starship, for hours. Then the sound of a baby being spanked! Next an announcement: "The-X has come to town to kick ass!" Followed by "Welcome To The Jungle" by Guns 'N' Roses. The-X's P.D. was Dave Numme. On September 12, 1989 KSGO became KFXX. Call slogan: The-X. Other slogans: Pure rock, The-X. X-Marks the spot. X-Rated. X-tasy. In early 1990 licensee name changed to KFXX/KGON, Inc.

On September 1, 1990 KFXX changed to a Sports/News/Talk format. Call slogan: The Fox. Mike Turner, Program Director. KFXX slogan: X-ceptional sports. KFXX affiliated with CNN Radio. In January 1991 KFXX changed format slightly to Sports/Talk. Slogans: Sports Radio 1520 AM. 24 hours of sports. Portland's sports radio. Sports & nothing but sports. Also in 1991 Steve Feder became General Manager & Duane Link, Program Director.

On September 25, 1992 KFXX was sold to Apogee Radio Limited Partnership I (group owner: Apogee Communications, Inc., Roy P. Disney, Owner. Great nephew of the late Walt Disney) for $5.5 Million. (price included FM sister). Steve Feder became V.P. & G.M. In 1993 James A. Johnson became President & General Manager & Kevin Toon, Program Director. By June 1994 KFXX slogans: Sports Radio 1520, The Fan. We're talkin' sports. In July 1994 KFXX added an affiliation with ESPN Radio & Steve Arena became Program Director (former K-2 sports anchor).

On August 1, 1995 KFXX was sold to ECI License Co. L.P. (group owner: Entertainment Communications, Inc., Joseph M. Field, President, David J. Field, CFO & Senior Vice-President). Also in 1995 KFXX added an affiliation with USA Radio. In January 1996 Thomas C. Baker became Vice-President & General Manager. In Spring 1996 KFXX dropped CNN & USA Networks, picking up abc, CBS & Westwood One Radio Networks.

On August 7, 1997 KFXX raised night power to 15KW directional. On October 6, 1997 Scott Masteller became Program Director. In early 1998 KFXX dropped the abc Network, picking up The 1 On 1 Sports Radio Network. KFXX slogans: Sports Radio 1520. Portland's real sports leader, The Fan 1520 AM.

On March 30, 1998 KFXX became KKSN, when KFXX & KKSN switched frequencies. (Entertainment Communications, Inc. purchased KKSN on 3-1-98). KFXX moved to 910khz. "The Fan, moving to 910 AM". KKSN-Sunny 910 became Sunny 1520. "Tell a friend we've moved and share the songs on Sunny 1520". 1520khz. did move studios to the "Pioneer Tower" building. (888 S.W. 5th Ave., Suite 790). KKSN broadcasts Westwood One's "Adult Standards" satellite format and is an abc News affiliate.

On June 19, 1998 licensee name changed to Entercom Portland License LLC. On July 2, 1998 Entertainment Communications, Inc. became Entercom Communications Corp. On September 28, 1998 David J. Field became President of Entercom. On January 7, 1999 Gary M. Hilliard became Chief Engineer. On November 12, 1999 Jack Hutchison became Vice-President & General Manager. On December 20, 1999 KKSN moved to The Bancroft Building. (0700 S.W. Bancroft St.).

On February 1, 2000 KKSN changed it's transmitter (access) address to 8200 Cypress Ave. In April 2001 Allan Davis became Program Director. KKSN slogans: The station for great songs & great memories. We're Sunny 1520.

On July 18, 1946 the FCC granted an application for a new 250 watt AM daytime station in Portland OR on 800kc. to John W. Davis. Calls KJXD stood for John Davis, future G.M. On December 18, 1946 KJXD was granted a modification of power level from 250 watts to 1KW. Also in late 1946 KJXD calls were changed to KPDQ. On July 8, 1947 it was announced that KPDQ's Chief Engineer would be Rodney F. Johnson & Don Dundell, Program Director.

On July 30, 1947 KPDQ began operation at 6PM. Studio & transmitter were located at Oaks Park. (no physical address to this day, between 320 & 330 foot of S.E. Spokane St., on S.E. Oaks Park Way, access road). Raytheon transmitter. Tower 260 feet. KPDQ call slogan: join the K-Pretty Darn Quick switch to KPDQ. KPDQ broadcast sunrise to sunset daily. Programs consisted of news & transcribed music.

In 1949 KPDQ moved studios to The Panama Building (534 S.W. 3rd Ave., room 210) & William E. Richardson became General Manager. On November 27, 1950 KPDQ began it's first weekday religious program. (title unknown, listed as religious). In 1951 John W. "Jack" Davis became General Manager once again as well as Owner. On November 7, 1951 Fred C. Haskins became Program Director, Announcer & Chief Engineer.

In 1952 KPDQ moved studios to The 6th St. Terminal Building (1008 S.W. 6th Ave., room 207). By December 1954 John W. Davis was Owner, President & General Manager, Willard Guthrie, Program Director & Robert Beattie, Chief Engineer. By October 1955 Mark Fidler was Program Director, News Director & Disc Jockey. KPDQ slogans: The music & news voice of Portland. 1,000 watts of grown-up listening. By December 1955 Don Wilkinson was Chief Engineer.

In 1956 KPDQ moved studios to a brick building in The Hollywood District. (4903 N.E. Sandy Blvd.). By December 1956 Dale Allison was Program Director & Keith Griggs, News Director. KPDQ slogan: The voice of Hollywood. By 1958 KPDQ's broadcast schedule mostly consisted of religious programs. By August 1958 Dan McDonald was Program Director & Dan McPeak, Chief Engineer.

On April 1, 1959 KPDQ became Portland's first full-time religious broadcaster since KFQN in 1924. KPDQ slogan: Portland's radio pulpit. By August 1959 Arlan Walker was Chief Engineer. On September 10, 1959 KPDQ began broadcasting from it's new transmitter site in Raleigh Hills OR. (7201 S.W. Vermont Court). Continential transmitter. Tower 260 feet. In early 1960 David M. Jack became Station Manager. (later KLIQ Owner). On August 18, 1960 licensee name changed to KPDQ, Inc.

On October 11, 1961 KPDQ added an FM simulcast sister. KPDQ-FM began operation on 93.7mc. By October 1962 Don Wilkinson was back as Chief Engineer. By October 1963 Robert W. Ball, Jr. was General Manager & Jerry W. Johnson, Program Director. By February 1969 KPDQ slogan: The sound of inspiration. By October 1969 David Winchester was Program Director.

On November 24, 1970 KPDQ was granted Pre-Sunrise Authority to operate 6AM to sunrise with 491 watts. In 1972 KPDQ had 13 full-time & part-time employees and was rated one of The Top 4 Religious Stations in the Nation, by the NRB. (National Religious Broadcasters). By December 1975 Joe Alcorn was Operations Manager & Gary Hurst, News Director. By 1976 KPDQ slogans: Inspirational Radio Northwest. Portland's sound of inspiration.

In 1977 KPDQ moved studios to 5110 S.E. Stark St. On August 19, 1977 licensee name changed to Inspirational Broadcasting Corp. By December 1979 Jack Davis II was President. By December 1981 Jim Heim was Chief Engineer. By 1982 KPDQ slogan: Pacific Northwest Christian Radio. In 1984 KPDQ joined the Mutual Broadcasting System. By December 1984 John Davis II was General Manager as well as President. Also Joe Alcorn became Program Director & Larry Wilson, Chief Engineer. By December 1985 Ken Broeffle was Chief Engineer.

On July 28, 1986 KPDQ was sold to Salem Media of Oregon, Inc. (group owner: Salem Communications Corp., Stuart W. Epperson, Chairmen & Edward G. Atsinger III, President & Chief Executive) for 6.5 Million (price included FM simulcast sister). Transfer took place 8-86. Jack P. Kandel, General Manager. KPDQ slogans: Sharing the good news throughout the day. Radio that makes a difference. In 1989 KPDQ began 24 hour operation, lowering power to 500 watts at night. In 1993 Darrell E. Kennedy became General Manager. Slogans: AM 800, your inspiration station. Thanks for choosing Portland's talk alternative. In 1994 KPDQ dropped the Mutual Network. In 1995 KPDQ installed a new Gates 1 transmitter.

On July 25, 1996 KPDQ took over the Contemporary Christian music format from it's former FM sister KDBX "Spirit 107.5" becoming "The new Spirit 800 AM". Some day parts continued simulcasting religious programs from KPDQ-FM. (Salem Media of Oregon, Inc. purchased KDBX in 1995 for over 1 Million, selling on 7-25-96 to American Radio Systems License Corp. for 14 Million). Scott Veigel & Scott Stevens Co-Music Directors. KPDQ slogans: Portland's new home for the best Christian music, the new Spirit 800 AM. Sharing the moments of your day. Portland's Spirit. By December 1996 Chuck Tyler was Operations Director, Lew Davies, News Director & Alan Garren, Chief Engineer. By June 1997 KPDQ slogans: Todays Christian radio. Spirit 800 AM. By December 1997 Dennis Hayes was General Manager & John White, Chief Engineer.

On August 24, 1998 KPDQ dropped it's Contemporary Christian music format for Talk Radio & affiliated with it's parent company's SRN Radio Network. KPDQ slogan: The new True Talk 800 AM. In October 1999 Don Perkin became Chief Engineer. On August 22, 2000 Joseph D. Davis became Senior Vice-President of Operations for Salem Communications. By December 2000 Andy West was Operations Director & Program Director. On October 30, 2001 Joseph D. Davis became Executive Vice-President-Radio Division. KPDQ slogan: True Talk 800 AM.

On June 10, 1948 the FCC granted a application for a new 1KW AM daytime station in Portland OR. on 1290kc. to Mercury Broadcasting Co. (Gordon E. Bambrick, President & Harold K. Krieger, Vice-President. a minority interest was held by attorney Alfred P. Kelly). Mr. Bambrick was previously Production Manager of KGW for 7 years. Mr. Krieger had also been employed at KGW as well as KOIN. Calls KBKO were assigned and stood for majority owners last names: Bambrick, Krieger & the state of Oregon. On December 28, 1948 licensee name changed to Mercury Broadcasting Co., Inc. On January 9, 1949 KBKO conducted it's first test broadcast at 10AM.

On January 10, 1949 KBKO began commercial operation at 7:30AM. Studios were located at The Carmen Building (3908 N.E. Sandy Blvd.) in The Hollywood District. The transmitter site was located at Oaks Park. (no physical address to this day, between 320 & 330 foot of S.E. Spokane St., on S.E. Oaks Park Way, access road, formally the KWJJ transmitter site until 8-48). Transmitter building: 29x32. Tower: 229 feet. KBKO broadcast sunrise to sunset daily. Mr. Bambrick became G.M. & Chief Announcer as well as President., Mr. Krieger was Chief Engineer as well as V.P., Lloyd A. Sutherland was an additional Announcer. KBKO specialized in "Sweet-type music". Slogan: The sweetest spot on the dial. By December 1950 Eddie Lehay was Sports Director. By 1951 KBKO slogan: The station of continuous musical entertainment.

On September 25, 1952 W. Gordon Allen & Thomas P. Kelly purchased 75% of Mercury Broadcasting Co., Inc. for $26,800. Gordon Bambrick remained President & General Manager. (FCC approval 1-28-53). On November 1, 1952 KBKO became KLIQ. Call slogan: cLIck radio. By December 1952 Mr. Bambrick was Program Director as well as President & General Manager. In late 1953 Thomas P. Kelly became General Manager as well as part Owner.

On April 12, 1954 KLIQ was silenced, after Agents of The Federal Bureau of Internal Revenue padlocked the door of the KLIQ studio building. The radio station had not paid withholding taxes for 1953 and had liens totaling $8,600.

On May 5, 1954 the I.R.S. held an auction of the KLIQ assets, outside the transmitter building at Oaks Park. Highest bid was Callison-Peterson Radio Associates (Glenn B. Collison, V.P. of Engineering for Trinity Broadcasting Corp., owners of KLIF Dallas & Merle B. Peterson, Chief Engineer of KOLO Reno) for $5,500. KLIQ was under a 90 day "Silent Period" granted by the FCC. This grant ran out on July 12, 1954. For unknown reasons KLIQ did not return to the air. One reason may have been the new land lease with Oaks Park. This had to be negotiated first. In December 1954 the KLIQ studios were relinquished.

This just in from former "Radio Click" DJ Bob Adkins, who would later be known as Addie Bobkins.

When KBKO became KLIQ on November 1, 1952 The Oregonian & Oregon Journal newspapers dropped radio listings for the station. Up to now, I did know what that ment. Mr. Adkins was kind enough to E-Mail me & clear this up.

KLIQ was the first Portland station to drop block programming for music. But more important, KLIQ was the first Portland station to switch to a Popular Music format.

The Radio Click air staff included: Tom Kelly, sunrise-9 (& majority owner), Rick Thomas 9-Noon & PD, Jeryll Burris (female) Noon-1, Bob McCarl 1-4PM, Bob Adkins 4-sunset & Noon to sunset Sundays. KLIQ used a clicker sound (clicker in hand looked like a frog) when announcing the Slogan: This is KLIQ, Radio Click. (click!!)

Bob Adkins did his air show 7 days a week and sold Ad time as a KLIQ Salesman all for $29.45 a week against a 10% commission. This was his first radio job and was led to believe that "double billing" was a normal thing in radio.

When KLIQ was silenced on April 12, 1954 Mr. Adkins was owed about $1,500. which he collected most of through a court order from sponcers, accounts & trades.

Rick Thomas & Bob McCarl were hired as DJ's at KXL & converted the station to Popular Music from block programming. This was the beginning of KXL's Rock & Roll days and the two would become KXL's on air main stay's from the mid to late 1950's.

Mr. Adkins moved to Aberdeen following Tom Kelly to (KXRO?) to become Sales Manager. Mr. Adkins returned to Portland shortly and was hired by Rick Thomas at KXL to do Weekends & fill-ins for Don Porter, Mornings, Rick Thomas & Bob McCarl.

In 1957 Bob Adkins moved to KEX full time doing his "Bob's Danceland" show 7-midnight. The KEX DJ line up: Barney Keep, Bob Blackburn, Russ Conrad, Bob Adkins & Al Priddy, all night.

In Fall 1957 Mr. Adkins moved to KEED Eugene, then to KVAL (TV) to do this first show as "Addie Bobkins" 4:30 to 6:00 afternoons. In the fall of 1961 he moved his show to KPTV. Then took on KISN 10-Noon at the same time. In the Fall of 1964 he was hired by sister station KCOP (TV) to do his show in Los Angeles.

On September 20, 1951 KPAM began operation on 1410kc. with the power of 1KW. KPAM was owned by Broadcasters Oregon Limited. (Stanley M. Goard, President & General Manager). 2nd floor studios & transmitter were located in Healy Heights on Sentinal Hill. (4700 S.W. 19th Ave.). Call meaning: Portland Amplitude Modulation. KPAM simulcast it's FM sister station KPFM, 9AM to sunset daily. KPAM was brought in to help bolster KPFM's small listenership. Stand alone FM's were going dark all over the country. FM broadcasting had not caught on as fast as predicted. (for more on the studio building & FM side, see: Stan Goard's KPFM To KKSN-FM). KPAM's P.D. was Thomas Hotchkiss & Charles K. Dickson, C.E. KPAM broadcast a few classical programs along with opera & organ music.

On July 27, 1953 KPAM broadcast hours expanded 6AM to sunset Monday through Saturday & 9AM to sunset Sunday. By December 1954 Dougles Ducklow was P.D. & John C. Lewis, N.D. KPAM's format by now was Classical music. Slogan: Portland's high fidelity station. By December 1955 James T. McGuire was P.D. & Gordon R. Larson, C.E. Slogan: Portland's good music station. On March 11, 1956 KPAM broadcast hours were reduced 6:30AM to sunset daily. By August 1957 the studio & transmitter address changed to 4700 S.W. Council Crest Drive. On January 6, 1958 KPAM broadcast hours expanded 6AM to sunset Monday throught Saturday & 6:30AM to sunset Sunday. By early April 1958 KPAM/KPFM had the largest schedule of taped classical broadcasts in the Country. By August 1958 Jim McGuire was Assistant Manager as well as Program Director.

On September 1, 1958 KPAM raised power to 5KW. First Continental 315-B transmitter to be installed in the West. By November 1958 KPAM slogans: Radio high fidelity. Your good music station. On April 23, 1959 KPAM was sold to Gospel Broadcasting Co. (Reverend F. Demcy Mylar, President) for $200,000. (price included simulcast FM sister). Robert W. Ball became G.M. Transfer took place on 5-20-59. Then on July 15, 1959 the FCC ordered KPAM & FM returned to it's previous owner, pending a hearing on protest from KPDQ. (5-20-59 permit temporarily stayed). KPDQ questioned Rev. Mylar's ownership of KRWC Forest Grove, constituting part of the Portland Market. Rev. Mylar withdrew.

On January 9, 1960 KPAM was sold to Chem-Air, Inc. (William E. Boeing, Jr., President) for $200,000. (price included simulcast FM sister). Transfer took place on 4-1-60. Del G. Leeson, G.M., Don Wirtz, P.D., Theodore Hanberg, C.E. In June 1960 Bob McClanathan became C.E. (formally from KEX). By August 1960 KPAM slogan: Portland's fine music station. By September 1961 Don Vincent was P.D. On October 18, 1961 KPAM joined the 17 station non-interconnected QXR Classical Network. (flagship: WQXR-FM N.Y.C.). Slogan: The home of the classics. In 1963 the studio & transmitter address changed to 3101 S.W. Fairmont Blvd. The mailbox had been moved to a private road just off Fairmont, which is just below Council Crest Dr. By July 1963 Lloyd Yunker was P.D. By 1964 KPAM's slogan was: Better music.

On October 19, 1964 KPAM dropped it's Classical music, switching to an MOR format. On October 1, 1965 KPAM was sold to Romito Corp. (derived from last names of owners: Walter "Wally" P. Rossman, President & General Manager, Dr. Samuel L. Miller & Marvin R. Tonkin, of Marv Tonkin Ford Sales, Inc., 1/3 interest each) for $175,000. (price included FM simulcast sister). Transfer took place on 12-1-65. John Edwards, P.D. (aka Warren Weagant, of the family owned KKEY) & Nat Jackson, N.D. By Fall 1966 the KPAM air staff included: John Edwards 6-10AM & P.D., George Goode 10-2PM, George Boston aka Boston Blackie 2-7PM, Bob King 7-sunset, Nat Jackson, N.D. & Bob McAnulty (show time unknown).

On June 20, 1967 Wally Rossman purchased full ownership of Romito Corp. for $20,000. and assignment of liabilities. (price included FM simulcast sister). By November 1967 George Goode was N.D. By March 1969 KPAM had changed format to Top 40 with D.J. "Sunny Day" doing Afternoon Drive. By July 1969 the KPAM air staff included: Bob King 6-10AM & P.D., George Goode 10-2PM, Bob Brooks 2-7PM, Dan Foley 7-sunset & Bob Lee, N.D. By March 1970 station I.D. KPAM-FM & AM Portland. Slogan: K-Pam, AM 14. By June 1970 Craig Walker (formally on family owned KROW) was Jocking Middays. By September 1970 Paul Hansen was N.D.

In November 1970 K-Pam affiliated with abc's American Contemporary Radio Network. In September 1971 the K-Pam air staff included: Mike Dinean 6-9AM, Bill Donovan 9-noon, Dick Jenkins noon-3, Craig Walker 3-7PM & P.D., Mark Lewis 7-sunset & Mike Turner, N.D. In June 1972 the K-Pam air staff included: Michael O'Brien (formally on KISN) Morning Drive, Bob Marks (aka Micheal Bailey) Middays, Gary Stevens (formally Sunny Day on KPAM & Jimmy Cassidy on KISN) Afternoon Drive & P.D. Jim Donovan, PM-sunset & Mike Turner, N.D. Also in 1972 the studio & transmitter address changed back to 4700 S.W. Council Crest Dr. In 1973 K-Pam dropped the abc Contemporary Network. By September 1973 Edward Hoyt was P.D. & Tom Cauthers, C.E. (formally with KISN News).

On December 7, 1973 KPAM became KLSC. Call slogan: cLaSsiC radio, KLSC. On this date KLSC began broadcasting an automated oldies format supplied by syndicator A.I.R. (American Independent Radio). AIR's "Classic Gold" format featured hits from 1955 to 1963. KLSC slogan: All the oldies, all the time. The KLSC automation & studio were on the 1st floor basement, near the transmitter. In April 1974 syndicator AIR changed it's name to reflect joint owners: Drake-Chenault Enterprises, Inc. (Bill Drake & Gene Chenault: Consultants, were behind the music & sound of "Boss Radio" 93 KHJ). By November 1974 Fred C. Delahey was KLSC's G.M. In February 1975 Mark Lewis bacame N.D. Also in 1975 KLSC expanded it's oldies format to include hits from 1955 to 1969 & Pat Pattee began a live Weekend Afternoon Show. (formally on KISN).

On April 30, 1976 KLSC became KPAM once again, simulcasting it's FM sister's Top 40 format. KPAM also re-affiliated with the abc Contemporary Network. Slogan: K-Pam, AM 14. In October 1976 Byron Swanson became C.E. (formally KISN C.E. & D.J. Johnny Dark). By December 1976 Charlie King was G.M. & Bob Beran, N.D. (formally with KGW News). By December 1977 Victoria Stewart was N.D. Slogans: The soundship K-Pam. The best of both worlds (AM & FM). Real people radio. AM 14. By December 1979 Bill Maye was P.D. & Pat Wood, N.D. By 1980 KPAM was using a Harris MW-5A transmitter. In June 1980 Gary Hilliard became C.E.

On September 5, 1980 KPAM was sold to Duffy Broadcasting, Inc. (Robert J. Duffy, President) for 3.5 Million (price included FM simulcast sister). Harold Hinson, General Manager. Between October 5 & 12, 1980 KPAM switched to a Contemporary Christian format. Slogan: Music you can believe in. K-Pam dropped the abc Contemporary Network. Tom Farley, Station Manager & Program Director. The studio was across the hall from it's sister station, on the 2nd floor.

On July 26, 1982 KPAM became KCNR. Calls from FM sister. KCNR began simulcasting it's FM sister's Hot A.C. format. Greg Fabos became G.M. By December 1982 Thomas T. Farley was G.M., Richard Harker, P.D., Sherm Meyer, N.D. (formally with KISN News) & Jack Ondracek, C.E. In October 1983 Martin Greenberg became President of Duffy Broadcasting. By December 1983 Gary Hilliard was back as C.E. In January 1984 Tom Farley became V.P. as well as G.M. By December 1984 Trevlyn Holdridge was P.D. In January 1985 David McDonald became V.P. & G.M. In Spring 1985 the KCNR air staff included: Jim Donovan (formally on KPAM-FM & KGW) Morning Drive, Bill Jackson, Middays, Glynn Shannon (formally on KGW) Afternoon Drive & Carolyn Meyers, N.D.

On July 1, 1985 it was announced that KCNR's FM sister was purchased by FVBC, Inc. and that Duffy Broadcasting was looking for a buyer for KCNR. Finding a buyer for a stand alone daytimer, proved to be more difficult than first thought. KCNR continued to simulcast it's former FM sister. By July 14, 1985 the air staff included: Jim Donovan 6-10AM, Bryan O'Neal 10-3PM, Scott McLeod 3-6PM & P.D. & Jon Windus 6-sunset. On October 7, 1985 KCNR switched format to what was described as "a careful blend of Adult Contemporary music geared to the 25 to 44 age group." The slogan changed to: K-Lite. By November 1985 the air staff included: Dave Allen 6-10AM, Bryan O'Neal 10-3PM, Bill Jackson 3-6PM & P.D., Jon Windus 6-sunset & Dana Jeffries, N.D. Slogan: K-Lite, playing favorites from yesterday & today.

On April 1, 1986 KCNR was sold to Gothic Broadcasting Corp. (Richard A. Hodge, Owner & President. Mr. Hodge was a Superior Court Judge in California). On this date KCNR change to a Jazz format. Roger W. Morgan, G.M. (formally on KISN). KCNR was run by volunteers & had no sales staff. On December 25, 1986 KCNR became KKUL. Call slogan: cooL jazz. The calls were changed on Christmas Day, so the air staff could wish it's listeners "A Cool Yule." In February 1987 KKUL began paying it's air staff and started going after commerial business. George Fendel, P.D. In Summer 1987 KKUL moved studios to The Imperial Hotel. (400 S.W. Broadway).

On October 16, 1988 KKUL went dark. Five days later on October 21, 1988 the FCC granted transfer of license to KKUL Radio, Inc. (Fred W. Hudson, principal) for $225,000. 1410 would return in 2 1/2 months, but that's another story. Stay tuned....

Between January 12 & 24, 1952 testing began on the reactivation of KGW-FM. KGW AM's owners had renewed interest in FM broadcasting at this time. FM had stabilized for the most part and KGW was the only Portland network affiliated station without an FM simulcast sister. KGW-FM would continue on it's last assigned frequency of 100.3mc. Power was increased to 57KW. (was 54KW). Tower was 205 feet. The four-bay antenna was 1,240 feet above sea level. KGW-FM was owned by Pioneer Broadcasters, Inc. (Quenton H. Cox, President, group owner: The Oregonian Publishing Co., E.B. MacNaughton, President). For more on the original station, see "KGW-FM: First FM In The Northwest".

On February 1, 1952 at 3:00 PM KGW-FM rejoined the ranks of Portland FM broadcasters. Studios were located with AM sister on the 4th floor (5 studios) of The Oregonian Building. (1320 S.W. Broadway). The transmitter site was still located on Healy Heights. (4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive). S.I. Newhouse, Jr., G.M., Donald F. Whiteman, P.D. & Harold C. Singleton, Chief Engineer & original station builder. By 1952 Mr. Singleton had built his home at 4646 S.W. Council Crest Drive which was almost directly across the street from the KGW-FM tower. (very handy. He also owned property at 4488). Call meaning from AM sister. KGW-FM began simulcasting it's sister once again and the NBC schedule. KGW-FM broadcast 3:00 PM to 10:15 PM daily.

On November 1, 1953 KGW-FM was sold to North Pacific Television, Inc., comprising of five Portland business men, seeking a VHF-TV channel. (Gorden D. Orput, President, Henry A. Kuckenberg, Co-Vice-President, Paul F. Murphy, Co-Vice-President, Frank W. Cookingham, Secretary, W. Calder McCall, Treasurer) and one Seattle business woman buying 40% of North Pacific within the transaction. (Mrs. Alexander Scott Bullitt, Executive Vice-President. She was also President of King Broadcasting Co., owner of KING AM-FM-TV Seattle). Price included AM sister in the $500,000. purchase. Quenton Cox became Station Manager.

On October 20, 1954 KGW-FM was sold for $3,750. to it's Manager, Quenton H. Cox, the same G.M. that launched the station in 1946. (transfer took place 11-54). The transmitter site was leased to Mr. Cox. North Pacific was considering the location as a possible transmitter site for it's forthcoming TV station. On December 1, 1954 KGW-FM became KQFM. Call meaning: Q's FM. Mr. Cox nickname was "Q". Also on this date studios were opened at The Terminal Sales Building, room 423 (1220 S.W. Morrison St.). Trivia: KEX's original home, room 201, 1925 to 1934. Quenton H. Cox, President & General Manager, Helen Cox, Program Director & Charles K. Dickson, Chief Emgineer. KQFM broadcast 9AM to 9PM Monday through Saturday. Off the air Sunday. KQFM was primarily a music station.

On January 23, 1955 KQFM added Sunday to it's broadcast schedule. (9AM to 9PM). In Summer 1955 KQFM reduced power to 17KW with antenna height at 960 feet. By September 1956 KQFM's format was described as "background music". On June 14, 1960 King Broadcasting Company's charitable corporation, The Bullitt Foundation, Inc. (Mrs. Alexander Scott Bullitt, Chairman) donated the (KQFM) transmitter site at 4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive by way of Community Television, Inc. (Mrs. Robert E. Stearns, President) to the State of Oregon, Acting By & Through The State Board of Higher Education. "Gift of Portland property worth $65,000. as a channel 10 broadcasting site, subject to the donors agreement." "Stipulated that the property would revert to the giver if the property were used for anything except non-commercial educational broadcasting." KQFM would have to move. (deed recorded 7-5-60. side note: The property had originally been offered to Community Television, Inc. of Portland, for an educational TV station on channel 10 in November 1956, when financial outlay was beyond the State Boards scope).

On October 27, 1960 KQFM left the air to move it's transmitter across the street to the KGMG tower at 4636 S.W. Council Crest Drive. KGMG had only been broadcasting a month. Rain hampered the mounting of the antenna for days. The antenna tubs could not get wet. By early November 1960 KQFM was back on the air.

On March 21, 1962 KQFM was sold to Point-O-Salescast, Inc. (Juan Young, President) for One Dollar, plus assignment of liabilities totaling $10,000. Point-O-Salescast, Inc. formed in 1950, installed tape cartridge playback devices in stores permitting commericals to be interspersed with music. In 1963 KQFM's antenna height was lowered to 930 feet. In 1964 KQFM studios moved to The 18th Avenue Building. (405 N.W.18th Ave.). By October 1964 Arlie D. Kent was General Manager. On July 5, 1965 the transmitter site changed ownership name to the KXL-FM tower. By 1968 KQFM broadcast 8AM to 11PM daily.

On September 1, 1969 KQFM & Point-O-Salescast, Inc. were sold to David M. Myers for $59,000. (FCC approved 8-5-69). Mr. Myers owned the "Music By Muzak" franchise from Medford to Randle WA. The franchise began in 1957. Mr. Myers purchased the franchise in 1963 with Audio Electronics Co. Formed in 1952, this firm designed, installed & maintained communication systems. At this time the Muzak service moved in the Portland area from phone line distribution to KQFM's new SCA (Subsidiary Communications Authorization) subcarrier. Jon I. Wright became KQFM's P.D. with William E. Laurens, Chief Engineer. In 1970 KQFM moved studios in with Mr. Myers other businesses at 2815 S.W. Barbur Blvd. By June 1970 KQFM's format was described as "Familiar instrumental music". On April 26, 1972 KQFM raised power to 100KW. By October 1972 Jon I. Wright became G.M. & KQFM slogan was: Just good instrumental music 24 hours a day.

In August 1975 KQFM moved with Mr. Myers other companies to a new modern building in the Johns Landing area. (The Audio Group Building, 5005 S.W. Macadam Ave.). David M. Myers had formed a new group corporation to oversee his five companies. He was now President & Chief Operation Officer of The Audio Group. Comprising: Audio Electronics Corp., The "Muzak" franchise, Point-O-Salescast, Inc. with the KQFM license, Metro Music (like "Muzak", but specializing in Rock to Country formats) & Dub-Master (high fidelity tape duplication). With this move KQFM began stereo broadcasting with new computerized automation equipment. KQFM's format also changed to what was described as "sprighty, classy, foreground. It is music for the discriminating popular taste." Slogans: Q-Music, no Bach, no Rock. The sparkling sound of Q-Music. Bob Reed, Program Director. In Fall 1976 Audio Group severed it's "Muzak" franchise, creating it's own service called "Q-Music". By 1977 KQFM's format was described as "Soft MOR".

On December 21, 1977 the FCC approved the sale of KQFM to Golden West Broadcasters, Inc. (Recording, Radio, TV & Movie Star, Gene Autry, Chairman of The Board, John T. Reynolds, Executive V.P. & Operating Officer, Michael M. Schreter, V.P. of Finance, Administration & Treasurer, Clair Stout, V.P. & Secretary) for $500,000., plus a $90,000. consulting agreement. (transfer took place 1-23-78). Two days earlier on December 19, 1977 KQFM's new sister KEX had broken ground on the new Golden West Broadcast Center adjacent to The Audio Group Building. Richard P. Kale became V.P. & General Manager, Bill St. James, Program Director (formerly with KBCQ Roswell & 1976 Billboard Top 40 P.D. of the year) & Paul Mathew, Chief Engineer.

On January 1, 1978 KQFM began broadcasting with Golden West personnel. Studios remained at The Audio Group Building with production & sales offices at the KEX studios located at The 5th Avenue Building. (2130 S.W. 5th Ave., Suite 12). KQFM began a slow music transition ending on 2-23-78. On this date a new format was unveiled, described as "Pop album oriented contemporary music". Slogan: Stereo Q100. The Q100 air staff included: Scotty Johnson 6-11AM, Bill St. James 11-2PM & P.D., Todd Dennis 2-7PM, M.L. Marsh 7-12AM & M.D., John Libynski 12-6AM, Bruce Pokarney & Lisa Stark, News (formerly on KGAY, now with abc News) & Dave Spacek, Weekends. On November 11, 1978 it was announced that Richard P. Kale had been named Vice-President of Radio for Golden West Broadcasters.

On November 29, 1978 KQFM & sister KEX announced that they had moved to the new Golden West Broadcast Center. (4949 S.W. Macadam Ave.). The multi-story office structure cost $1 Million to build with KQFM & KEX on the 2nd level occupying 11,000 square feet. (1st level was for lease). Also on this day Jack McSorley was announced as KQFM Station Manager. In February 1979 the Q100 air staff included: Karen Tracy 6-11AM (1st Portland Female Morning Drive D.J., formerly on KGON, KPAM-FM & KYTE), Mark Newell 11-2PM, Bill St. James 2-7PM & P.D., Jim Robinson 7-12AM, Sleepy John Cuthbertson 12-6AM (formerly on KVAN), Bruce Pokarney & Lisa Stark, News with Dave Spacek, Weekends.

On April 8, 1979 KQFM switched to a Progressive Rock format. In an ad announcing the change: Hear it on Q100 before it's beaten to death. Mr. McSorley said, target audience is 25 to 34. The Q100 air staff included: Karen Tracy 6-10AM, Mark Newell 10-2PM, M.L. Marsh 2-4PM & Interim P.D., Jim Robinson 4-8PM (formerly KGON P.D.), Rick Miller 8-12AM, Dave Spacek 12-6AM, Bruce Pokarney & Lisa Stark, News. Also in 1979 Victor Ives became Vice-President of Golden West FM Stations. In late 1979 KQFM acquired a new RCA 20KW transmitter with a newly built RCA circular polarized antenna system. By December 1979 Greg Reed was Vice-President, Norm Gregory, Program Director, Mike Turner, News Director (formerly KPAM/KPFM N.D. & KGON N.D.), Jim Robinson, Music Director & Tom Rose, Chief Engineer. Slogans: Q100, take a bite. You're on Q, Q100.

By Spring 1980 the Q100 air staff included: Bill Slater & Mike Turner 6-10AM, Mark Newell 10-3PM, The Big B.A. (Bob Ancheta, formerly KVAN P.D. & KGON M.D.) & Chris Burns (formerly KLIQ N.D. & KGON N.D.) 3-7PM, Rick Miller 7-12AM, Dave Spacek 12-6AM, Thom O' Hair, Program Director & Cynde Slater, Music Director. On October 21, 1980 Bob Brooks was announced as KQFM's new Program Director, moving from KEX Production Director. (formerly on KPAM/KPFM & KGON P.D.). By December 1980 KQFM's format was described as "AOR".

In Summer 1981 KQFM switched to an Oldies format. Slogan: The new Solid Gold FM-100. KQFM was using a new Harris 9000 3 automation system. Automation problems were frequent. D.J.'s were always standing in. Thus the FM-100 air staff lineup: Gorden Scott 6-10AM, Bob Brooks 10-2PM & P.D., Rick Miller 2-7 PM, Dave Spacek 7-12AM & Steve Naganuma, Part-time. In January 1982 Walton S. Reid became V.P. & General Manager. Slogan: Solid Gold FM-100, the best damn music. On April 6, 1982 William Ward became President of Golden West. In Spring 1982 KQFM switched to an A.C. format. Slogan: KQFM-100. Bill Dodd, Program Director. In April 1983 Golden West Broadcasters was reorganized. Gene Autry was now sole Owner. By October 1983 Ken Bartell was Station Manager.

On November 2, 1983 KQFM became KKRZ. Call slogan: The Rose. KKRZ's format was described as "Young adult top tracks". KKRZ affiliated with the abc/FM Network & the RKO (young adult) Network. KKRZ slogan: Portland's Rose. On March 14, 1984 KKRZ was sold to Taft Broadcasting Co. (Charles S. Mechem, Jr., Chairman of The Board, David S. Ingalls, Vice-Chairman, Dudley S. Taft, President, George E. Castrucci, Executive V.P. of Finance, Carl J. Wagner, Executive V.P. of Radio) for $8,127,391. (price included AM sister). David Crowl was named KKRZ Station Manager.

On March 16, 1984 at about 6:00PM KKRZ changed format to CHR. Slogan: Z100, the switch is on. First song played was "Rock The Casbah" by The Clash. KKRZ dropped RKO & switched from abc/FM to The abc Rock Radio Network. By April or May 1984 the Z100 air staff included: Brian Thomas (formerly part of "Thomas & Ross" on KMJK), Mark Garrick, News & Val Currey, Traffic, together forming the first "Morning Zoo" 6-10AM, Mark Newell 10-3PM & P.D. (formerly on KQFM), Scott Drake 3-7PM & M.D., Peter Lett 7-12AM (formerly on KMJK) & Matt Jones 12-6AM Board Op with stagers. In June 1984 Gary Bryan became Program Director (formerly KISW & KNBQ P.D.).

By September 1984 the Z100 air staff included: Gary Bryan, P.D., Dan Clark (formerly on KGON), Lorna Dee, News & Tony Martinez, Traffic, making up The Zoo 6-10AM, Dennis Nakata 10-3PM, Scott Drake 3-7PM & M.D., Johnny Edwards 7-12AM & Terry Donahue 12-6AM. By early 1985 the Z100 air staff included: the addition of Randy Middleton (later known as Nelson) to "The Morning Zoo" 6-10AM, Sean Lynch 10-3PM A.P.D. & M.D., Scott Drake 3-7PM, Chet Buchanan 7-12AM (formerly on KNBQ) & Terry Donahue 12-6AM. KKRZ slogans: Go bananas with Z100. Portland's number 1 hit music station. Z100 means music. By December 1985 Richard Wilson was Chief Engineer.

In March 1986 Byron Swanson became Chief Engineer. (formerly KISN C.E. & D.J. Johnny Dark, also KPAM-FM C.E.). Also in 1986 Dave Milner, Sr. became General Manager. In Fall 1986 Sean Lynch became Program Director. By November 1986 the Z100 air staff included: John Murphy, Dan Clark, Lyle Arthur, News (formerly on KGW), Tony Martinez, Traffic & Ray Middleton, making up The Zoo 6-10AM, Sean Lynch 10-3PM & P.D., Scott Drake 3-7PM & Chet Buchanan 7-12AM. (12-6AM ??). In Summer 1987 KKRZ moved it's transmitter site to the KPDX TV tower at 211 N.W. Miller Rd. A new Harris FM-35K transmitter was installed with the old RCA as auxilary. Antenna height was raised to 1,433 feet or 438 meters. Power was reduced to 95KW

On October 12, 1987 licensee name changed to Great American Broadcasting Co. (group owner: Great American Television & Radio Co., Carl J. Wagner, President), after a management buyout. In early 1988 Carl Gardner became V.P. & General Manager. In Spring 1988 Mark Capps became Program Director. KKRZ slogans: Todays best music. The most continuous music. In 1989 the SCA subcarrier on 100.3Mhz. was ended. In 1991 Bill Ashenden became Station Manager. In 1992 Ken Benson became Program Director. In 1993 Tommy Austin became Music Director. In January 1994 Clint Sly became General Manager. KKRZ slogans: Portland's new Z100. Something's new at the Z, the new Z100, now playing a decade of hits. In June 1994 licensee name changed to Citicasters Co.

On February 14, 1996 Jacor Communications, Inc. (Randy Michaels, C.E.O., Robert L. Lawrence, President & C.O.O.) announced that it would purchase the 19 Citicasters stations for $770 Million. Jacor would own 54 stations. (Federal Court consent 12-31-96). By September 1996 KKRZ slogans: Portland's hottest music's on Z100. Portland's Z100. In 1997 Byron Swanson became Engineering Manager with Shane Ruark as Chief Engineer. In 1998 Ronald S. Saito (formerly KGW G.M.) became V.P. & General Manager with Tommy Austin, Program Director & Valleri Ring, News Director.

On October 8, 1998 Clear Channel Communications, Inc. (Lowry L. Mays, Chairman & C.E.O, Mark Mays, President & C.O.O.) announced that it would purchase Jacor Communications, Inc. for $6.4 Billion (FCC approval 5-4-99). Clear Channel would own some 450 stations. Randy Micheals became Clear Channel Radio Chairman & C.E.O. KKRZ licensee name changed to Citicasters Licenses, Inc. shortly there after. In 1999 Shane Ruark became Chief of Engineering.

In July 2001 KKRZ moved it's transmitter site to the KGW/OPB-DT tower at 299 N.W. Skyline Blvd. A new Harris transmitter was installed with dual 20KW's & all automatic switching. Plus three Harris ZD-5 auxilary transmitters for KKRZ & sisters. Antenna height was raised to 470 meters with a beam tilt. In August 2001 Michael Storm became Program Director. On May 1, 2002 Byron Swanson retired from broadcasting after 40 plus years. By June 2002 slogan: The new Z100, todays hottest music. Also by 2002 Michael Hayes was Program Director & Rob Ryan, Music Director. KKRZ slogans: Portland's number 1 hit music station, Z100. The Portland Original, Z100.

A rare find. Spring radio ratings from A.C. Nielsen, taken from April 25th through June 19th. Published in The Oregonian on August 6, 1960. Added on are programs & shows during this time period.

MORNING 6-9AM 1. KOIN 40.1 World News 6AM/Koin Klock 6:15/Frank Goss News 7:30/The Bob Hazen Show 7:45/Consumer News 8AM/Shelley Serenade 8:30-9AM 2. KEX 27.4 Barney Keep 6-9AM 3. KWJJ 18.0 Newsreel 6AM/Frank Hemway News 7AM/Frank Tyrer 7:15/Don Kneass News 7:45/Frank Tyrer 8AM/Paul Harvey News 8:55-9AM 4. KISN 15.9 Hal Raymond 6-9AM 5. KGW 12.4 Bill Davis 6-9AM (NBC News hourly) 6. KPOJ 10.4 Larry Kilburn 6-9AM 7. KXL 7.7 Morning Overture 6-9AM 8. KPAM 5.7 Concert At Dawn 6-9AM

9AM-NOON 1. KOIN 36.6 This 'N' That 9:05/Mid-Morning News 9:30/Fred McKinney's Piano 9:45/Happiness 10:05/Mrs. Burton 10:15/Dr. Malone 10:30/Ms. Perkins 10:45/Next Door 11:05/Pat Buttram 11:45-12PM (CBS News hourly) 2. KWJJ 20.3 Don McNeill's Breakfast Club 9AM/John Holbrook News 10AM/Tell-O-Test 10:15/Sammy Taylor 10:30-12PM 3. KISN 20.1 Bob Stevens 9-12PM 4. KGW 18.9 Bill Davis 9AM/R.H. Peck 10-12PM (NBC News hourly) 5. KEX 15.2 Barney Keep 9AM/Russ Conrad 10-12PM 6. KPOJ 12.9 Larry Kilburn 9AM/Chuck Bernard 10-12PM 7. KXL 10.5 Serenade In The Morning 9-12PM 8. KPAM 5.5 Coffee Concert 9AM/Festival of Music 10-12PM

NOON-3PM 1. KOIN 30.8 Come & Get It 12:15/Arthur Godfrey Time 1:05/ Art Linkletter's House Party 2:05/The Garry Moore Show 2:30/The Bing Crosby-Rosemary Clooney Show 2:45-3PM (CBS News hourly) 2. KWJJ 19.6 Sammy Taylor 12PM/Paul Harvey News 12:15/Sammy Taylor 12:30/Frank Tyler 1-3PM 3. KISN 18.5 Bill Jackson 12-3PM 4. KGW 16.7 R.H. Peck 12PM/Red Robinson 2-3PM (NBC News hourly) 5. KEX 13.2 Russ Conrad 12PM/Lee Smith 2-3PM 6. KXL 10.5 Serenade In The Afternoon 12-3PM 7. KPOJ 9.2 Chuck Bernard 12PM/Mark Allen 1-3PM 8. KPAM 8.0 Concert Matinee 12PM/Stereophony 2-3PM

AFTERNOON 3-6PM 1. KOIN 30.0 The Little Show 3:05/Newspaper of The Air 3:30/Art Kirkham News 4:05/Julius Walter 4:15/Shelly Serenade 4:30/Part of Law 4:45/Lowell Thomas Sports 5:05/News & Weather 5:15/Tom Harman Sports 5:30/The Little Show 5:45-6PM (CBS News hourly) 2. KISN 19.1 Jack McCoy 3-6PM 3. KWJJ 17.1 Sammy Taylor 3PM/Don Kneass News 5PM/Paul Harvey News 5:15/Speaking of Sports 5:30/Stock Market 5:45-6PM 4. KEX 15.5 Lee Smith 3-6PM 5. KGW 14.2 Red Robinson 3-6PM (NBC News hourly) 6. KXL 11.9 Serenade In The Afternoon 3PM/Limelight 4-6PM 7. KPOJ 11.5 Mark Allen 3PM/Bob Blackburn 4-6PM 8. KPAM 6.6 Concert Variations 3PM/Commuters Concert 5-6PM

EVENING 6-9PM 1. KOIN 31.4 Johnny Carpenter News 6:05/The Big Show 6:15/Frank Goss News 6:30/The Big Show 6:45/Amos 'N' Andy 7:05/Capitol Assignment 7:30/Bob & Ray 7:45/The World Tonight 8PM/Masters of Melody 8:15/The Big Show 8:45-9PM (CBS News hourly) 2. KWJJ 17.6 Edward Morgan 6PM/Virgil Pinkly 6:15/John Daley News 6:30/Quincy Howe 6:45/ The Holy Rosary 7PM/Voice of China 7:15/Back To The Bible 7:30/Allen Revival 8PM/Girls Town 8:15/Eve Meditation 8:30-9PM 3. KISN 16.9 Jack McCoy 6PM/Tom Murphy 7-9PM 4. KPOJ 15.2 Bob Blackburn 6PM/Dick Novak 7-9PM 5. KEX 11.6 Bob Liddle 6-9PM 6. KXL 10.3 Limelight 6-Sunset 7. KGW 9.6 Wes Lynch 6-9PM (NBC News hourly) 8. KPAM 3.6 Candlelight & Silver 6PM/Berg's Chalet 7-Sunset

9PM-MIDNIGHT 1. KOIN 23.2 The Big Show 9:05/Capitol Cloakroom 9:30/Five Star Final 10:05/Time To Remember 10:30/The Late Show 11:05/Meditation 11:55-12AM (CBS News hourly) 2. KEX 16.2 Bob Liddle 9-12AM 3. KPOJ 13.7 Dick Novak 9-12AM 4. KISN 12.2 Tom Murphy 9-12AM 5. KWJJ 7.3 The World Tomorrow 9:05/ The Quiet Hour 9:30/Dreamland 10:05/Easy Listening 10:30-12AM (ABC News hourly) 6. KGW 6.2 Wes Lynch 9-12AM (NBC News hourly)

The Oregonian on August 18, 1959. Added on are programs & shows during July 1959.

MORNING 6-9AM 1. KOIN 44.3 World News 6AM/Koin Klock 6:15/Weather 7AM/Koin Klock 7:05/Headline News 7:15/Frank Goss News 7:30/The Bob Hazen Show 7:45/Consumer News 8AM/David Vaile News 8:15/ Rusty Draper 8:30/Shelly Serenade 8:35-9AM 2. KEX 25.6 Barney Keep 6-9AM 3. KWJJ 19.9 Newsreel 6AM/Sports Newsreel 6:45/Frank Hemingway News (ABC) 7AM/Jack Hayes 7:15/Don Kneass News 7:45/? Engle News 8AM/World News 8:15/Organ Music 8:30/Paul Harvey News (ABC) 8:55-9AM 4. KGW 18.2 Bill Davis 6-9AM 5. KISN 16.3 Hal Raymond 6-9AM 6. KPOJ 14.5 The Larry Kilburn Show 6-9AM (Breakfast News 7:45) 7. KXL 11.3 Bill Jackson 5-9AM

9AM-NOON 1. KOIN 37.4 The Wayne King Show 9:05/This 'N' That 9:20/Harry Babbitt 9:30/Mid Morning News 9:45/Happiness 10:05/Mrs. Burton 10:15/Young Dr. Malone 10:30/Ma Perkins 10:45/Whispering Streets 11:05/The Couple Next Door 11:15/The Romance of Helen Trent 11:30/The Pat Buttram Show 11:45-12PM (CBS News hourly) 2. KGW 23.6 Bill Davis 9AM/R.H. Peck 10-12PM 3. KWJJ 17.4 Don McNeill's Breakfast Club 9AM/Sammy Taylor 10AM/Tell-O-Test 10:15/ John Holbrook News (ABC) 10:30/Sammy Taylor 10:45-12PM with news at :25 & :55 4. KEX 17.0 Barney Keep 9AM/News 10AM/Kay West 10:05/Russ Conrad 10:20-12PM 5. KPOJ 13.3 The Larry Kilburn Show 9AM/The Chuck Bernard Show 10-12PM 6. KISN 10.8 Jim Tate 9-12PM 7. KXL 6.0 Bob McCarl 9-12PM

NOON-3PM 1. KOIN 40.6 Local News 12:05/Weather 12:15/Come & Get It 12:20/Arthur Godfrey Time 1:05/Art Linkletter's House Party 2:05/The Galen Drake Show 2:30-3PM (CBS News hourly) 2. KEX 20.4 George McGowen 12-2PM/Russ Conrad 2-3PM 3. KWJJ 19.6 Paul Harvey News (ABC) 12PM/Local News 12:15/Sammy Taylor 12:20/News 12:55/Jack Hayes 1-3PM with news at :25 & :55 4. KGW 19.5 R.H. Peck 12PM/Red Robinson 2-3PM 5. KPOJ 12.7 Todays News 12PM/The Mark Allen Show 1-3PM 6. KISN 11.6 Steve Brown 12-3PM 7. KXL 10.0 Bob Liddle 12PM/Bob McCarl 1-3PM

AFTERNOON 3-6PM 1. KOIN 42.7 The Little Show 3:05/The Wayne King Show 3:25/Come To The Fair 3:30/Newspaper of The Air 3:35/Art Kirkham News 4:05/Julius Walter 4:15/Local News 4:30/Shelley Serenade 4:35/Baker, Law 4:45/Lowell Thomas Sports 5PM/P.M. Sports 5:10/News 5:15/Weather 5:25/Tom Harmon Sports 5:30/Johnny Carpenter News 5:45/Sports 5:55-6PM (CBS News hourly) 2. KWJJ 20.3 Sammy Taylor 3PM/News 3:25/Sammy Taylor 3:30/News 3:55/Sammy Taylor 4PM/Frank Hemingway News (ABC) 4:15/Sammy Taylor 4:30/Don Kneass News 5PM/Sports, Stocks & News 5:15/Jess Mason 5:30/Headline News 5:45-6PM 3. KGW 17.7 Red Robinson 3-6PM 4. KEX 16.3 Russ Conrad 3-6PM 5. KPOJ 13.7 The Mark Allen Show 3PM/Bob Blackburn Traffic Jamboree 4-6PM 6. KISN 12.4 Wally Thornton 3-6PM 7. KXL 10.0 Bob Liddle 3-6PM

EVENING 6-9PM 1. KOIN 32.6 Johnny Carpenter News 6:05/The Big Show 6:15/Frank Goss News 6:30/The Big Show 6:35/Amos 'N' Andy 7:05/Local News 7:30/Griff. ? 7:35/George Burns & Gracie Allen 7:40/Bob & Ray 7:45/The World Tonight 8PM/Masters of Melody 8:15/The Big Show 8:45-9PM (CBS News hourly) 2. KGW 15.9 Wes Lynch 6-9PM 3. KISN 15.8 Tom Murphy 6-9PM 4. KEX 15.4 Al Priddy 6-9PM 5. KPOJ 15.2 Action News 6PM/Bob Blackburn Traffic Jamboree 6:05/Dick Novak's Rhythm Room 7-9PM 6. KWJJ 12.1 Edward P. Morgan News (ABC) 6PM/Virgil Pinkley 6:15/John Daley News (ABC) 6:30/? Gorme 6:35/Music 6:45/News 6:55/The Holy Rosary 7PM/Voice of China 7:15/Back To The Bible 7:30/The Allen Revival 8PM/Girls Town 8:15/Evening Meditation 8:30-9PM 7. KXL 4.8 Bob Liddle 6-sunset

9PM-MIDNIGHT 1. KGW 21.1 Wes Lynch 9-12AM (Ray Horn 12-6AM) 2. KPOJ 18.8 Dick Novak's Rhythm Room 9-1AM 3. KOIN 18.7 The Big Show 9:05/News Flashes 10PM/Five Star Final 10:15/Sports 10:25/Good Evening 10:30/The Late Show 11:05/Meditation 11:55-12AM (CBS News hourly) 4. KISN 13.9 Tom Murphy 9-12AM (Dennis James 12-6AM) 4. KEX 13.9 Al Priddy 9-12AM (Lee Smith 12-6AM) 6. KWJJ 7.2 The Radio Church 9PM/The Quiet Hour 9:30/John Vandercook News (ABC) 10PM/Dancetime 10:05/Eager Beaver 11:45-3AM

Pulse Ratings published in The Oregonian on August 19, 1959. Added on are formats.

1. KISN 17% Rock 'N' Roll 2. KOIN 16% Variety 2. KEX 16% Popular 4. KGW 15% Rock 'N' Roll 5. KPOJ 14% Rock 'N' Roll KWJJ Variety KXL Rock 'N' Roll

On September 23, 1959 the FCC granted a construction permit to build an FM station on 95.5 mc. in Portland OR to (I.G.M.) International Good Music, Inc. (Lafayette "Rogan Jones", President; David Mintz, Executive Vice-President). IGM, founded in 1958, was a builder of broadcast automation systems, headquartered in Bellingham WA, where the company operated KVOS AM-TV. In early October 1959 calls KGMG were assigned, standing for "Good Music", the format term for classical music.

On December 22, 1959 at 3:00 PM property on Healy Heights (4636 S.W. Council Crest Drive) was auctioned and sold to Tower Sites, Inc. (group owner: I.G.M., Inc.). KGMG license was changed to Tower Sites, Inc. shortly after. Winning bid was $45,500.00 for real estate, broadcast studio building and a 248 foot tower. This facility was previously KHTV Television. Channel 27 declared bankruptcy after it's 10-31-59 sign off. (KHTV launched on 7-6-59, property purchased on 10-22-58). Previous to this in 1947 the property was the transmitter site for the failed KPRA (FM) and later the second failed attempt as the first KWJJ-FM in 1949. By coincidence these stations operated on 95.5 mc. In 1950 the property became the site of the first broadcast test of Television in Oregon.

June 30, 1960 was announced as the target date KGMG would commence broadcasting with Marc Bowman, Station Manager & Ernie Harper, Chief Engineer. Power: 68.35KW. Antenna height: 920 feet above average terrain. Target date was moved to July 15, 1960. In August 1960 licensee name changed to KGMG, Inc. (Rogan Jones, President; C.W. Jones, Secretary; group owner: I.G.M., Inc.). By September 9, 1960 KGMG was testing intermittently.

On September 25, 1960 KGMG began regular operation at 7:00AM with it's IGM automation system. Mr. Bowman: "We will broadcast the great classics, lighter works, folk music, jazz & music from Broadway." KGMG broadcast 7AM to 1AM daily. Only selected commercials would be played. No singing jingles allowed. Newspaper Ad: "FM listeners can share the enjoyment of the worlds' greatest music. Heritage Music, programmed by a staff of musical experts. Selected from one of the largest music libraries in the world. 18 hours a day are now programmed for you. Music carefully balanced to the time and mood of the day." Slogan: Your Heritage station.

By this time "Heritage Music" programming was also heard on other IGM owned FM stations: KGMI 92.9 Bellingham, KGMJ 95.7 Seattle, KFMU 97.1 Los Angeles & KFMW 99.9 San Bernardino. In November 1960 KQFM moved it's transmitter & antenna across Council Crest Dr. to the KGMG facitity. In early 1961 KGMG power was reduced to 68KW. In October 1961 KPDQ-FM & Electromatic, Inc. also began leasing antenna space at the KGMG Tower site. By March 1962 KGMG was broadcasting the recorded "Heritage Concert" series. Slogan: Heritage Music FM.

On March 17, 1962 KGMG became the 2nd Portland station to broadcast in multiplex stereo. In July 1962 KGMG began leasing antenna space to Pacific Motor Trucking Co. for a 25 watt VHF transmitter. By October 1962 James L. Hamstreet was General Manager. He was based in Bellingham. Marc Bowman continued as Station Manager. By November 1963 William J. Trader was Station Manager. On April 20, 1964 KGMG switched to an automated MOR format from IGM. By mid 1964 KGMG was broadcasting 9AM to 11PM daily. By October 1964 John S. Mackwood was Station Manager & Chief Engineer with Virgina C. Kupfer as Program Director.

On May 13, 1965 the FCC approved the sale of KGMG, Inc. to Seattle, Portland & Spokane Radio, a joint venture of Dena Pictures, Inc. & Alexander Broadcasting Co. (Entertainer: Danny Kaye aka David Daniel Kaminsky, 80% & Lester M. Smith, 20% & General Manager) for $125,000. (transfer took place 6-18-65). KGMG moved studios to new AM sister KXL studios in Harmony, OR. (S.E. 82nd Ave. & Sunnyside Rd., numbered address not available, now site of Clackamas Town Center Mall, 12000 S.E. 82nd Ave.).

On July 5, 1965 KGMG became KXL-FM and began duplicating KXL's "Good Music" format (all instrumental lush strings) 9AM to 9PM. Slogans: KXL & KXL-FM stereo, double your musical pleasure. Living stereo. Melvin M. Bailey, Program Director; John Salisbury, News Director & Bryce Howard, Chief Engineer. By September 1965 KXL-FM had a new pair of RCA BTF-20 transmitters to form the RCA BTF-40 E, 40KW transmitter. The new antenna was an RCA (dielectric) BFC-5, 5 bay circular pole mounted antenna.

On June 15, 1966 it was announced that Mel Bailey was now Station Manager. Les Smith continued as GM. In September 1966 KXL-FM staff began taping it's evening "Good Music" programming for syndicator IGM, now known as BPI (Broadcast Programming International) which provided the software to many FM stations nationwide. (IGM continued to build the hardware). In December 1967 KLIQ-FM began leasing antenna space at the KXL-FM Tower site. By January 1968 KXL-FM slogan: More good music, 24 hours a day. (KXL-FM simulcast hours: 9AM to 4PM). In September 1968 KJIB began leasing antenna space on the KXL-FM Tower. Rent for each station was $200.00 a month.

In 1969 KXL-FM raised power to 100KW and increased antenna height to 990 feet. By October 1969 Wayne Jordon was Program Director. In 1970 KXL-FM & sister switched to a "Popular Music" format. KXL-FM continued to simulcast 9AM to 4PM. Slogans: KXL-FM stereo, the beautiful music station. A beautiful music oasis. By October 1970 Les Smith was named Executive Director. By October 1971 Ray G. Watson was Station Manager & Robert Kellogg, Operations Manager. On June 29, 1972 licensee name changed to Alexander Broadcasting Co., Inc. & Dena Pictures, Inc., a joint venture, doing business as Kaye/Smith Enterprises. By October 1972 Ray Watson was General Manager & William Bise, Chief Engineer.

On July 27, 1974 retired KGW AM-FM C.E., Harold C. Singleton sold his home & property at 4646 S.W. Council Crest Dr. to KXL (Kaye/Smith Enterprises) for $98,000. This adjacent property to the KXL-FM Tower site was to become the new studio home of KXL AM-FM. The City of Portland did not approve this move since the property was not zoned for business use. At this point Mr. Singleton's former residence became a rental and KXL AM-FM the landlord. In Fall 1974 KBOO moved it's transmitter & antenna from the adjacent former Singleton properties 50 foot tower to the KXL-FM site. With this move came Consolidated Frightways Corp. VHF mobile base transmitter & antenna, two radio transmitters from Pacific Union Paging & Radio Cab Co. transmitter & antenna.

On October 21, 1974 Larry Wilson became Chief Engineer. (formerly KPOK AM-FM, KUPL AM-FM O.M. & C.E.). In 1977 KXL-FM & sister moved studios to the Buckman District of Portland (1415 S.E. Ankeny St.) after the Clackamas Town Center studio deal fell through. At this time KXL-FM's 50% simulcast was ended. By December 1977 Larry Roberts was Program Director. By December 1978 KXL-FM slogan: Stereo 95. On April 9, 1981 licensee name changed to Alexander Broadcasting Co., Inc. (group owner: Kaye/Smith Enterprises). Also by April 1981 slogan: KXL-FM 95, the place to relax. By February 1982 Howard Huntley was Operations Manager & Robert Kellogg moved to Production Director. KXL-FM was programming SRP's Beautiful Music Service. (James Schulke Radio Productions). Additional slogans: Easy Listening 95.5 KXL-FM. Beautiful KXL-FM.

In November 1982 Tim McNamara became Sales Manager. By February 1983 the KXL-FM booth announcers included: Howard Huntley 6AM-2PM (live mornings, voice tracked middays & O.M.), Joel Cole (Formerly on KUIK, KLIQ, KWJJ & KYXI) 2PM-10PM (live afternoons & voice tracked evenings), Mike Thissel 10PM-6AM (all voice tracked). In 1983 BPI (Broadcast Programming International, Inc.) became a property of Kaye/Smith Enterprises. In March 1984 KXL-FM switched to TM's "Beautiful Music" service & was playing 5 to 6 vocals an hour. By 1987 BPI had shortened it's name to BP and moved to Seattle. In February 1987 KKRZ moved it's antenna off the KXL-FM Tower to the KPDX TV Tower. In 1989 Ray Watson became VP & GM. KXL-FM was running Unistar's "Special Blend" satellite format with George Walker doing local Mornings.

In April 1990 KXL-FM changed format to Lite Favorites, also called Easy Favorites. Satellite music service except for drive times. Slogans: We're the new K-95.5. Light Favorites with less talk. I love my music, K-95.5 (jingle). In August 1990 KBOO, KGON & KPDQ-FM moved off the KXL-FM Tower, moving their antenna's to the new adjacent KGON Tower. In Fall 1990 Tom Parker became Operations Manager. (formerly on KGW, KFRC, KKLI, KMXI & KXL). By Summer 1991 the K-95.5 air staff included: Lee Gordon, Mornings; Randy O'Neil, Middays; Tom Parker, Afternoons & O.M.; Scott Curtis, Evenings & Claudia Marshall, News Director. In November 1991 KWJJ-FM moved it's antenna off the KXL-FM Tower to the KGON Tower. In 1992 Les Smith became Chairman, with Irv Karl, President & Tim McNamara, General Manager. KXL-FM slogans: Portland's more music station is Lite 95.5. Home of the guaranteed 45 minute music sweep. In September 1992 Dennis Kelly became Operations Manager. (formerly KXL N.D.). By this time KXL-FM had installed a "Broadcast Electronics FM-35 A" transmitter and continued to use one of the "RCA BTF-20" transmitters as backup.

On September 27, 1993 KXL-FM switched to a Hot A.C. format. Slogan: The new Star 95.5, no soft oldies, no kid stuff, just superstars of the 80's & 90's. Star 95.5 with another Star-set. 25 minutes of music non-stop. In July 1994 Dan Packard began weekends on KXL-FM. (formerly on KMJK, KYTE, KJR, KBSG & KWJJ). By or on October 24, 1994 KXL-FM switched format to "Music of The 70's". Slogans: Now there's a station that plays only the 70's, all day & all night, on Best of The 70's, the new FM 95.5. Best of The 70's, 95.5 KXL-FM. Jingles: Jam's "70's Station" Image voice: Ron Erak. The FM 95.5 air staff included: John Williams (as of 10-17-94, formerly on KTAC, KREM, KGW & KKSN-FM) with Gloria Johnson, News Director (formerly on KVAN, KGON & KKSN-FM) 5-9AM also with Captain Steve Sanders, Traffic & Tom Hunter, Producer; Randy O'Neil 9-1PM; Chuck Tyler 1-3PM; Shawn Taylor 3-7PM; Scott Forrest 7-12AM & Dan Packard began a succession of name changes during the hosting of the Saturday night "70's Dance Party". Pseudo names: Timothy, Timmy Martinez, Timmy T., Timmy Terio, T.K. Terio & Timmy Tornado by February 1995.

On November 1, 1994 Chuck Tyler became KXL-FM Program Director. By January 1995 Ruby Blake was doing 7-Midnight with Glenn Nobel 2-6PM Saturdays & Noon-6 Sundays. In March 1996 KXL-FM & sister moved studios to the John's Landing area. (0234 S.W. Bancroft St.). On April 15, 1996 KXL-FM modified it's 70's format to include the 80's. Slogans: Some stations think music from the 80's has been lost. Tell'em we've found it. The greatest hits, music radio, 95 KXL. More than just the 70's. The greatest hits of the 70's & 80's, 95 KXL. Jingles: Jam's "The Retro Point". Mike Dirkx, Operations Manager; Scott Tom, Music Director & Marie Dodds, News Director. The 95 KXL air staff included: Scotty & Marie, 5-9AM (Scott Tom & Marie Dodds, formerly KXYQ-FM Mornings) Tom Hunter, Producer; Randy O'Neil 9-2PM, John Williams 2-7PM, Ruby Blake 7-12AM & Barbara Voight 12-5AM.

In Fall 1996 KXL-FM modified it's format again to 80's & 90's music. Slogans: Music Radio 95 KXL-FM. Portland's best mix of the 80's & 90's, 95 KXL. By December 1996 Ray Watson was Senior Vice-President. In March 1997 KXL-FM switched to a new slogan: 100,000 watts of power, crystal clear stereo, Portland's best mix of the 80's & 90's, has a new name, Mix 95.5. It's a maximum music mix exclusively from Mix 95.5. Jingles: Jam's "Breakthrough". Image voice: Ron Erak. In March 1997 John Williams moved to KEX and Glenn Nobel took Afternoons 2-7PM.

In December 1997 Carl Widing was hired as Program Director of KXL-FM (formerly KINK P.D. for 12 years). In February 1998 KXL-FM switched to an Adult Album format. Slogan: 95.5 FM. Air staff included: David Shult & Marie Dodds, N.D. 5-9AM, Ruby Blake 9-2PM, Scott Tom 2-7PM, Terri Magnuson 7-12AM & Barbara Voight 12-5AM. In August 1998 KXL-FM moved off it's 39 year old tower to the adjacent 4700 Tower (formerly called The KGON Tower) 4700 S.W. Council Crest Dr. Antenna height was raised from 302 meters to 386 meters. (Jampro JTC-3 antenna). A new "Broadcast Electronics FM-35 T" transmitter was installed. The old "B.E. FM-35 A" was moved to the site as the backup transmitter. The KXL-FM Tower site was now unoccupied.

On November 3, 1998 KXL-FM was sold to Rose City Radio Corp. (Paul G. Allen, Owner & C.E.O.; Renne Rank, Chairman & Marketing Director) for $55 Million (price included AM sister). FCC approval on 11-30-98. On March 26, 1999 at 5:20 PM KXL-FM switched to a Rhythmic Contemporary Hit format. (Rap, Hip-Hop & R&B). First song played was "Changes" by 2Pac. KXL-FM slogans: Jammin' 95.5, Portland's new hit music station. For people who like to dance and can. John Christian, Program Director (formerly KWIN Stockton P.D.).

On April 30, 1999 KXL-FM became KXJM. Call slogan: JaMmin'. The Jammin' 95.5 air staff included: The Breakfast Party 6-10AM (Ebro & Christina with Doug Zanger, Producer), Alexa 10-2PM, Mario Devoe 2-6PM, Louie Cruz 6-10PM (formerly on KWIN), Pretty Boy Dontay 10-2AM & M.D. (formerly on KWIN), Doug Zanger (Board Op) 2-6AM. In mid 1999 BP (Broadcast Programming) was acquired by Jones Media Networks Limited and merged with Jones Radio Networks (JRN). In October 1999 Mark Adams became KXJM's Program Director.

On February 22, 2000 "The Playhouse" debuted on Jammin' 5:30-10AM with PK, Scooter, Ebro & Sonie (Doug Zanger, Producer). By June 2000 KXJM slogan: Portland's party station. Also in 2000 Larry Wilson became Director of Engineering for Rose City Radio Corp. The City of Portland declared the old KXL-FM Tower "abandoned" after two years unused and ordered it dismantled. The 4700 Tower name changed to The Stonehenge Tower, named for new owner Stonehenge investor group of Seattle. In March 2001 BP became JBP (Jones Broadcast Programming).

On December 20, 2001 Kent Randles became Chief Engineer. Also by December 2001 James Derby was KXJM Operations Manager. In January 2002 Alexa became Jammin's Music Director. In October 2002 the old KXL-FM Tower was dismantled. On November 1, 2002 the KXL-FM Tower property and adjacent former Singleton home & property were sold to Gray Frierson Haertig. Mr. Haertig is remodeling the KXL-FM transmitter building into an apartment for rent. On July 18, 2003 Larry Wilson became Chief Engineer of KXJM & sister once again & continued as Director of Engineering for Rose City Radio Corp. KXJM slogans: Jammin' 95.5, Portland's Hip-Hop station. There's only one Jammin' 95.5.

On December 26, 1946 the FCC granted a "Class B" conditional grant to Westinghouse Radio Stations, Inc. (Walter C. Evans, President) for 92.3mc in Portland OR. In early 1947 KEX-FM calls were assigned. In August 1947 a construction permit was issued in lieu of the conditional grant.

On November 25, 1948 (Thanksgiving Day) at 3:00PM KEX-FM began operation. (trivia: sister KEX began on Christmas Day 1926). KEX-FM studios were located at Radio Center. (1230 S.W. Main St.). KEX-FM transmitter site was located on Healy Heights (4504 S.W. Carl Place. Street connects with west side of Council Crest Drive). A 10KW "Westinghouse Electric" transmitter, employing a four-bay pylon antenna, mounted on a 146 foot self-supporting steel tower. The antenna was 955 feet above average terrain, with the power of 56.4KW. The KEX-FM signal was heard within a radius of 85 miles. KEX-FM was Portland's 6th FM station, duplicating it's sister and the ABC Radio schedule. KEX-FM operated 3:00PM to 10:15PM daily. Cy S. Young was General Manager with Robert L. Thomas as News Director & Thomas T. Ely, Chief Engineer.

On September 1, 1949 KEX-FM reduced hours of operation 3:00PM to 9:00PM daily. By December 1950 John B. Conley was General Manager & (Mel) Melvin M. Bailey, Program Director. By December 1952 E.V. Huggins was President & Joseph E. Baudino was Executive Vice-President of Westinghouse Radio Stations, Inc. On January 22, 1954 licensee name changed to Westinghouse Broadcasting Co., Inc. (Chris J. Whitting, President). By December 1954 Jack A. Erwin was Chief Engineer. By December 1955 KEX-FM had reduced power to 56KW & Donald H. McGannon was President, also Jesse E. Leonard was News Director. By December 1956 Herbert L. Bachman was General Manager. On December 17, 1956 KEX-FM was quietly taken off the air.

On August 5, 1957 KEX-FM was reactivated. A new policy: All Westinghouse FM's would adopt a Classical format. Westinghouse also controlled programming by mandating records by numbers. KEX-FM was now operating 5:00PM to Midnight, Monday through Friday. Slogan: You're in tune with Westinghouse, KEX-FM in Portland. By this time Robert A. McClanathan was a staff Engineer & Don Wirtz a staff Announcer. (formerly on KPAM/KPFM). On October 18, 1958 Ed Gilbert was appointed Chief Announcer with John R. Gordon to assist. By August 1959 Ed Gilbert was working the evening shift. In late 1959 KEX-FM increased power to 57KW. On March 25, 1960 Paul LaRiviere, KEX-FM's Program Director announced, control of Classical programming was now in KEX-FM hands. On May 29, 1960 KEX-FM & sister moved to new studios at 2130 S.W. 5th Ave. (offices moved a day earlier) The facility cost approximately $200,000.

On October 25, 1961 Westinghouse announced plans to donate KEX-FM to the state of Oregon. Westinghouse had previously donated other FM's to educational interests in some of it's markets. KEX-FM's G.M., Herbert L. Bachman originated the idea here. Portland was without an outlet for Oregon Educational Broadcasting Radio. The City had just seen it's sister television service begin 8 months earlier. (KOAP Channel 10). On March 15, 1962 the transfer "by deed as gift" to licensee: State of Oregon, Acting by And Through The State Board of Higher Education, was accepted. The gift included broadcast equipment and the 3 to 4 thousand KEX-FM Classical Music Library. A total value of $100,000. On April 8, 1962 KEX-FM left the air. The FCC approved the transfer on 4-30-62. The story continues under the title "KOAP-FM & The Building of OPB".

On May 1, 1959 Gordon A. Rogers, President, P.D. & licensee of "Radio Station KBLA" a 250 watt broadcaster on 1490kc. in Burbank CA, made an announcement. Mr. Rogers had applied for a 1KW daytime station on 1550kc. in Vancouver WA. On January 10, 1962 the FCC granted a construction permit. Estimated construction cost was $13,675. First year operating cost $72,000. First year anticipated advertising revenue $75,000. Proceeds from the KBLA sale by July 1960 were used for the building of the new station. Trivia: KBLA switched to 1500kc. & 10KW daytime in 1964, broadcasting a Top 40 format with DJ, Humble Harv. KBLA was reprised with Humble Harv in the 1980 movie "The Hollywood Knights" depicting Halloween night 1965.

On August 10, 1963 KGAR began operation at 5:00AM. KGAR studio & transmitter were located in the Fruit Valley vacinity of Vancouver WA (2808 Walnut St., in a former home). The transmitter was a Bauer 707, serial number XT-1 (1st 707 & prototype). The tower was about 100 feet of sewer pipe. The studio consisted of a Collins 212B console, 2 Russco turntables, a Western Electric microphone, 3 Magnecord PT-6 reel-to-reel tape machines & 2 Spotmaster cart machines. Equipment was originally refurbished or castoff from KBLA.

Behind The Mike column 8-15-63. "We run an all-news format says Gordon A. Rogers to The Oregonian. Sunday will be offered to churches for commercial religious programs. Religious music and smooth standards may also be played Sunday along with the news. No jungle or teen-age frantic music will be played at any time. We program to the adult listeners and at the same time invite the youngsters to tune in and find out what is going on in the world around them. We will not play down Vancouver. We are licensed as a Vancouver radio station and are proud to admit that our signal emanates from that beautiful city.(jab at KISN?). Our broadcasts will serve Vancouver, Portland and the adjacent environs on an equal basis."

Gordon A. Rogers was President & licensee; Gordon A. Rogers, Jr., General Manager; Bob Van Roy, News Director (formerly KKEY N.D.); Leo Erickson, Chief Engineer and station builder. KGAR call meaning: Gordon Arthur Rogers. KGAR operated 5:00AM to sunset daily. (6AM sign on in Winter). KGAR slogans: All news, all day. KGAR has it all over Vancouver, Portland. The KGAR Newscasters were Bob Van Ray, Tom Cauthers (formerly with KGON-1230, KYJC, KRVC, KNND M.D., KKEY & KGRO) & Gordon Short (aka Al Gordon).

Tom Cauthers remembers September 1963: "The reporters...us three guys would rotate doing shifts. All the news was rip n' read off the UPI teletype machine. The first newscast was assembled off the wire, and had to last at least 30 minutes. It was recorded as it was delivered live on the air. Then, about 3 minutes of PSA's ran while the reporter re-wound the tape to air it. That newscast would run again, while the reporter assembled the next half hour newscast. When the first tape was over, the reporter would read another half hour while the tape recorded."

"When it was over, the first tape ran. Then the second tape, while the reporter got ready to read the third segment while it was being recorded. After that, every other half hour was fresh, and recorded for later playback." Refered to on the air as "The KGAR News-wheel". News shifts were 5-11AM, 11-4PM & 4-sunset. In January 1964 Tom's brother, Bruce Cauthers began Saturday newscasts & fill-ins. (formerly with KFLY, KLOO & KGRO).

In January 1966 KGAR switched to a Top 40 format. 50KW KYMN 1520kc. had abandoned it's Top 40 format on 2-1-65 after battling 1KW KISN 910kc. for 6 months. The KGAR feud would be more personal, a battle KISN would never forget. KGAR's Program Director became A.J. Harold (formerly on KSNN, later aka Bobby Noonan). Tim L. Freed, Chief Engineer (formerly on KBPS, KPAM-KPFM). KGAR slogan: Everything's nifty on 15-50. The KGAR air staff included: Tim Freed, 6-10AM; Rob ???, 10-2PM; A.J. Harold, 2-sunset.

On January 31, 1966 Robert T. Fletcher joined the KGAR sales staff (formerly on KEED, KOMB, KBAR, KFLY, KGAY, KRXL, KLOO & KWAY G.M.). In March 1966 Robert T. Fletcher aka Bob Duke became Program Director. On May 1, 1966 KGAR launched it's "Boss Radio" slogans: Boss radio at 1550. The IN sound in town. The Boss 1550. More rockin' rhythm, more often. KGAR plays more music. Much more music machine, KGAR 1550. (Boss Radio duplicated from "93 KHJ" slogans launched 5-3-65).

On May 10, 1966 KGAR moved studios to Portland OR. Baker's Dozen by Doug Baker 5-9-66: "Early this year one Gordon Rogers, Sr. the owner of KGAR radio in Vancouver WASH. secretly leased the Flatiron Building at the corner of S.W. 10th & Burnside (949 S.W. Oak St.). Once he had a 10 year lease Rogers took pains to white wash the windows of the building with poster paint thus masking from view what has happened in the building during the past six weeks. The building you see is directly across the street from KISN studios at N.W. 10th & Burnside." (10 N.W. 10th Ave.) More to come...

Just to turn the knife in the wound, Rogers will erect on his new building large signs. The first one due to go into position this Monday (today), will read "KGAR Boss Radio, Dial 1550". On the side of the building which faces KISN's building another big sign will read "Radio IS KGAR". Although KGAR is moving it's sales and administrative offices into the new Portland site, it will continue says Rogers to keep it's Vancouver WASH., identification, operating studios there and licensing it's news truck in Washington."

"Rogers, while he plans to spoof KISN's various promotions has no intention of spending the large sums of money spent by the Star Broadcasting Co. on it's promotional efforts. He gave as an example, his recent "Bat Guanomobile" contest ran in rebuttal to KISN's "Batmobile" contest. KISN gave away large prizes, KGAR only a wheelbarrow of guano and a trip to Scappoose." KISN's only comment came on 5-12-66 in "Baker's Dozen" from a staff member not mentioned. "KGAR took a big gamble in signing a 10 year lease. The radio biz being what it is, it was risky..."

The Oak Street studio was used on air mornings & afternoon drive only. Middays the studio was a production room. By July 1966 The Boss Personalities were: Don Coss, 5-9AM (formerly on KWAY & KUIK); Big Daddy Duke (aka Bob Duke) 9-Noon; Tim Freed, Noon-2; A.J. Harold, 2-sunset. In late September 1966 Robert T. Fletcher became Assistant G.M. & Paul Oscar Anderson aka P.O.A. became Program Director (formerly on KISN). The Boss Jocks were: P.O.A., 5-9AM; Don Coss, 9-Noon; Tim Freed, Noon-2 & A.J. Harold 2-sunset.

On October 17, 1966 in a civil action before Circuit Judge, Robert E. Jones, Paul E. Brown aka Paul Oscar Anderson claimed he was fired for refusing to go along with KISN election coverage. Mr. Brown told the court that on September 22, 1966 Don Burdon, President of KISN told him he planned "to put Mark Hatfield in the U.S. Senate." KISN News reports on rival Bob Duncan were to "show Duncan in a bad light." Mr. Brown believing this policy to be in violation of the FCC equal time provision, refused to play promotional spots announcing special coverage and was fired by KISN's Program Director. (PD name not mentioned).

On October 18, 1966 the KISN slanted news charge was "not substantiated by the preponderance of evidence." KISN had sought an injunction enforcing a no-competition clause in Mr. Brown's contract for one year. The Judge ruled Mr. Brown could not broadcast on KGAR until December 1, 1966. "Gordon A. Rogers, owner of station KGAR, said Brown will immediately go to work for his station doing sales. On December 1st he will go on the air as our top morning disc jockey." Rick Chase was interim mornings.

In hindsight October 17, 1966 would mark the beginning of the end for KISN & the Star Stations, Inc. group. In December 1966 P.O.A. dropped the "Boss Radio" slogans in favor of "KGAR, the hard rock of the Northwest." By early 1967 P.O.A. had parted from KGAR and Bob Fletcher was P.D. again, as well as Assistant G.M. By Summer 1967 Gene Nelson was doing Afternoon Drive on KGAR.

On January 1, 1968 abc Radio divided it's network into four services. KGAR became an affiliate & debuted the "American Contemporary Radio Network" to the Portland market. By May 1968 the KGAR air staff included: Don Coss, 5-10AM; Tim Freed, 10-3PM; Todd Dennis (younger brother of Don Coss) 3-sunset. By this time the KGAR BIG '15' music surveys were being distributed. By October 1968 KGAR was listed as programming "Negro music 6 hours weekly". By June 1969 KGAR's format was described as "Top 30 and R & B music." By October 1969 Danny Dark aka C. Norman Chase was News Director & Chief Engineer.

In late 1969 KGAR closed it's Oak Street studio. (by fall 1970 the studio was the new location for "Ron Bailie School of Broadcast"). By late 1969 the KGAR air staff included: Big Daddy Duke, 6-Noon & Danny Dark, Noon-sunset. Sundays included: Dave Stone (formerly on KRDR as Junior Rockaway, later aka Dave "Record" Stone) 10-sunset. KGAR slogan: The music station. On December 15, 1969 Bob (Duke) Fletcher became General Manager, as well as P.D.

On April 7, 1970 KGAR began a transition from "Top 30" to "Golden Hits" freaturing afternoon talk shows "Just Pain Jack" hosted by Jack Hurd (formerly on KLIQ) 4-6PM & Bob Duke, 6-sunset. On May 1, 1970 KGAR switched to all "Golden Hits". By October 1970 Michael W. Johnson was Program Director.

On January 18, 1971 KGAR switched format to Country & Western. Slogans: Town & Country KGAR. The Country 1. Country 1550. KGAR call slogan: Great American Radio. Bob (Duke) Fletcher, G.M. & P.D., also on the air 3:30-sunset; Michael Johnson, Music Director. The abc Contemporary Network was dropped. By October 1971 Dan Ramsey was News Director.

On September 13, 1972 KGAR switched back to a "Top 20 Rock" format. Slogans: We found it, KGAR 1-55. There's only one KGAR. Bob (Duke) Fletcher, G.M., P.D. & M.D.; Mike Garland, News Director. On March 23, 1974 KGAR added Soul music to weekends with DJ's, Jimmy "Bang-Bang" Walker & Roy Jay-Soul (later KQIV G.M.). KGAR weekend slogan: The Soul of Portland. Also in 1974 KGAR affiliated with the Mutual Black Network (news at 50 after the hour)(founded by MBS on May 1, 1972, MBN featured a Black perspective on the news). KGAR also re-affiliated with the abc Contemporary Network (news at 55 after the hour). By October 1974 KGAR's address had changed to 2808 N.W. Walnut St.

In 1975 KGAR opened an additional studio at the "Inn At The Quay" aka "Inn At The Quay Motor Inn" (100 Columbia St.) in Vancouver. (Collins console). In 1976 KGAR dropped the Mutual Black Network & added APR Audio news. KGAR broadcast 6 hours of Black programming, 1 hour of farm news & 6 hours of religion weekly. KGAR slogan: Super Rock. By 1976 Peter A. Mann was Music Director; Dave Beck, News Director (formerly on KOIN) & Oliver Potter, Chief Engineer. On September 2, 1976 KISN signed off the air after the 5 Star Stations were denied FCC licenses on 1-31-75. Charges brought back to life on 12-3-70. Gordon A. Rogers had won the war. (for more on this, see "KVAN & KISN: The Originals").

On December 22, 1976 KGAR's license was transferred to KGAR, Inc. (Gordon A. Rogers, President & 51% owner; Lloyd Graham, 24.5%; Robert Schaefer, 12.75% & John Wynne, 12.75% interest).

On December 24, 1976 at 3:38AM KGAR began 24 hour operation from it's new main studio & transmitter site in Orchards WA. Land now part of SEH America, Inc. (4111 N.E. 112th Ave.). KGAR increased power to 10KW with directional nights. The two Blaw-Knox towers were formerly the KXL towers from the old Clackamas Town Center site. KGAR had installed a Continential Electronics 316F transmitter with the Bauer 707 as back up in the new cinder block building. The Walnut Street location was now sales & production only.

KGAR expanded it's Top 40 programming and added the talk show "Family Forum & Fun" hosted by Al Emrich (formerly on KLIQ) Monday through Thursday 11-1AM. Fridays talk show "Rapline" was hosted by A.C. (Al C. Emrich, Jr.) 11-1AM. By March 1977 KGAR slogan: Music Radio 1550. By late Spring 1977 the "KGAR Music Men" were: Bob "Big Daddy" Duke, 6-10AM; Mark O. Foster, 10-2PM; Bob Meyer, 2-7PM; Jay McCrae (formerly on KYAC, later aka Kelly McCrae) 7-11PM; Al Emrich, 11-1AM; A.C. 1-6AM. Weekenders: Steve Naganuma, afternoons (formerly with KGW & KPAM-FM) & Hal Hill, evenings. By May 1977 additional slogan: 1-55 KGAR.

On August 1, 1977 KGAR switched to a Country format for the 2nd time. Robert T. Fletcher, G.M. & P.D.; Roger Hart, Music Director (formerly on KLIQ & KEX as Roger Ferrier; KISN, KGAY P.D., KGAL P.D., KKEY, KGON & KISN as Roger Hart); "Al" Alfred C. Emrich, Promotion Manager. KGAR slogan: Country 1550. KGAR dropped the abc Contemporary Network. By October 1977 KGAR had abandoned it's "Inn At The Quay" studio.

By November 1977 the KGAR air staff included: Roger Hart, 6-10AM; Bob "Big Daddy" Duke (Fletcher) 10-3PM; Dave Stone (the original) 3-7PM; ????, 7-12AM; Steve Dougles, 12-6AM; Sundays: Steve Bradley, alternating 7-12AM & 12-5AM (formerly at KPOK AM-FM, KUPL AM-FM & KKEY). Sunday talk shows: Al Emrich, 8-9AM; Geno Martini, 9-10AM. KGAR slogan: There's only one KGAR. By October 1978 the KGAR air staff included: Bob Meyer, 6-10AM; Steve Meredith, 10-3PM; Bob Taylor (formerly on KPOK) 3-7PM; Judy West (formerly Judy Grindstaff on KOAP-FM) 7-12AM & Earlray, 12-6AM.

On December 1, 1978 KGAR, Inc. was purchased by Inland Radio, Inc. (group owner: Capps Broadcast Group, Inc.; David N. Capps, President & 40% interest; Gary L. Capps, Vice-President & 40% interest) for about $1 Million. The brothers also owned under the Capps banner: Inland Radio, Inc., KSRV Ontario OR; Juniper Broadcasting, Inc., KGAL & KXIQ (FM) Bend OR (also corporate offices); Eastern Oregon Broadcasters, Inc., KTIX Pendleton OR; Capps Broadcasting, Inc., KGAL Lebanon OR & Capps Broadcast Group, Inc., KEEP & KEZJ (FM) Twin Falls ID. (FCC approval: 11-17-78. License transferred:: 11-22-78).

"We really feel that Vancouver never had a radio station that paid attention to Vancouver" Capps explained. "It (Clark County) is a growing market, and it's worthy of at least one-station." Ron Hughes became General Manager & P.D.; James (Al) Boyd, Corporate Director of Engineering (formerly on WRBL, KBND P.D., KTIX P.D., N.D. & C.E.; KGRL O.M.). Also in December 1978 KGAR moved it's sales & production offices to the "Avenide del Sol" shopping center (5620 N.E. Gher Rd., Suite H).

In March 1979 Bill Cole became Program Director & M.D. (formerly KLOG P.D. & C.E., KGAL, KASH, KPUG P.D., KPOK, KWJJ, KTNT-KNBQ P.D., KMPS). In January 1980 the KGAR air staff included : Bill Cole, 6-9AM, Rick Elgin (formerly on KYXI) 9-Noon; Bob Taylor, Noon-3; Jeff Williams (formerly on KRDR & KGAY) 3-7PM; Judy West, 7-12AM; Dale Hansen, 12-6AM, Steve Meredith, morning news & News Director; Candice Seigal, afternoon news. In June 1980 Rick Freeman was doing Noon-3. In early 1981 Barry Burkes was Noon-3. KGAR slogan: The only one. (KGAR). In Spring 1981 Bill Cole became Operations Manager as well as M.D.

On May 4, 1981 KGAR became KVAN. Call slogan: VANcouver Radio. This was the 3rd KVAN. The original was on 910kHz. and the 2nd on 1480kHz. KVAN slogans: K-Van is Clark County proud! Vancouver Country. Sometime after the call change, the studio & transmitter address became known as "1550 KVAN Way". In October 1981 Jeff Williams became Music Director. By December 1981 Ron Hughes was V.P. & G.M.; Becky Hale, News Director & James Boyd, KVAN Chief Engineer. In April 1982 Dick Manning became News Director. In June 1982 KVAN reduced hours of operation 5AM to Midnight. In early 1983 Jim McEwen was on air 6-12AM (formerly aka Jim Conway on KRDR, KWJJ & KAAR). In December 1983 Jeff Williams became News Director. In Summer 1984 Bill Cole became Station Manager.

On May 15, 1985 studios moved to the "Avenida del Sol" shopping center with sales & production. K-Van expanded into an adjacent suite, taking out a wall. In July 1985 KVAN moved it's transmitter site to Sifton WA (15307 N.E. 34th St. This land was formerly the KPVA, KVAN & KARO transmitters site. All had been on 1480kHz. The address then was 15507 N.E. 34th St.). Two tower array. The Continental & Bauer transmitters were moved from the old site to the new and the land sold to SEH America for their expansion. In October 1985 James Boyd became Corporate Director of Engineering, again. By December 1985 Dave Lee was Program Director & M.D. plus doing afternoon drive.

In early 1986 KVAN was sold to Gentry Development Corp. (David N. Capps, retained 39.68%; Bruce L. Engel & William G. Williamson) for $1,289,964. Mr. Engel was also President of Tigard-based WTD Industries, Inc. which owned timber mills. In Spring 1986 KVAN switched format to Adult Contemporary. Warren Franklin, Program Director & M.D.; James Boyd, KVAN Chief Engineer, again.

On December 31, 1986 it was announced that Magic Radio, Inc. (Bruce L. Engel, principal owner, with Matt Capps & Gary L. Capps) purchased KMJK (FM) 106.7MHz. Lake Oswego OR for $3.9 Million. Gary L. Capps, C.E.O. (transfer in 4-87). By December 1987 Warren Franklin was K-Van's Program Director; Paul Duckworth, Music Director & afternoon drive. In February 1988 KVAN affiliated with the Mutual Network. Also in 1988 KVAN & KMJK (FM) licensee names merged and became Engel Communications Group (Bruce L. Engel, President; Terri Engel & David N. Capps).

On February 4, 1989 it was announced that KVAN was purchased by Rogue Broadcasting Corp. (group owner: Fairmont Communications Corp.; John P. Hayes, Jr., President & COO) for $7.4 Million. (price included FM sister. FCC approval: 5-5-89. Transfer: 8-1-89). On September 12, 1989 David McDonald became Vice-President & G.M. of Rogue Broadcasting Corp.

On October 2, 1989 at 10:37AM most of the K-Van staff was laid off "purely for economic reasons." "Ten K-Van employees were terminated effective immediately, with three scheduled to continue operating the business end and the operation. It left employees in a state of shock. Some were described as in tears by the time the brief session ended." During the meeting at 10:23AM KVAN began simalcasting sister KMJK (FM)'s Classic Rock format from studios located in the "Kristin Square" building (9500 S.W. Barbur Blvd., Suite 302) in Portland OR. KVAN played local spot breaks within the simulcast along with it's own local newscast (news copy faxed from KMJK) and continued local sports broadcasts. KVAN's affiliation with the Mutual Network ended. Bill Stairs, Program Director; Brad Dolbeer, Music Director; John Dimeo, KVAN Manager. Slogan: Classic Hits 106.7 KMJK.

On October 12, 1989 KVAN became KMJK. Call meaning from FM sister history as Magic. (this was the 2nd KMJK (AM). The 1st was on 1290kHz.). By this time Jeff Williams had been re-hired as 1550's Public Affairs Director. In December 1989 Mark O. Hubbard became President of Fairmont. In January 1990 KMJK (AM) moved it's studio to the smaller 800 square foot "Suite L" within the "Avenida del Sol" shopping center. On February 19, 1990 KMJK & KMJK-FM switched to a Hot A.C. format. By December 1990 Michael Ellis was Program Director. On January 25, 1991 simulcast sister KMJK-FM became KMXI.

On February 15, 1991 KMJK became KVAN once again. On February 18, 1991 KVAN dropped it's simulcast of KMXI 6AM to 10PM daily. KVAN adopted a "light contemporary adult music" format and began utilizing National Broadcasting School graduates & students as air talent. Dave McDonald, V.P. & G.M. "had decided that it was not cost effective to generate revenue with KVAN." From 10PM to 6AM KVAN continued to simulcast KMXI. KVAN re-affiliated with the Mutual Network, carrying news at 30 minutes passed the hour. Les Friedman, Manager (formerly on KVAN-1480); Rocket (real name unknown) P.D. KVAN slogans: Clark County radio. Number 1 in Clark County. Clark County's choice.

On August 28, 1992 Fairmont Communications Corp. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. $128.7 Million in assets and $235.5 Million in liabilities. Fairmont owned 4 AM's & 5 FM's. Between September 20 & 27, 1992 KVAN switched to a Talk format. Night simulcasting with KMXI ended. Terry Richard, Manager. Slogans: People power for the Pacific Northwest. Vancouver's own K-Van.

In April 1993 the NBS school agreement ended and KVAN was turned over to KWBY 940kHz. Woodburn OR, under a L.M.A. Donald D. Coss became President of KVAN. Mr. Coss was also President, G.M. & licensee of KWBY. KVAN began simulcasting KWBY's Classic Country format with some talk programming from studios at "Pacific Plaza" (1585 North Pacific Hwy., Suite H). KVAN also featured block programming from the K-Van studio. KVAN operated 5AM to Midnight. Kiefer Mitchell became General Manager. In Summer 1993 K-Van added Spanish programming.

On July 12, 1993 KVAN was sold to Vancouveradio, Inc. (Richard A. Granger, Sr., President & G.M., a former Clark County Commissioner) for $177,750. plus $6,340. back taxes. (FCC approval on 9-10-93). James Boyd, Contract Engineer. On September 4, 1993 license transfer took place and KVAN was shut down. A larger facility was needed for the forthcoming full service station.

On October 25, 1993 KVAN returned to the air as a 24 hour News station with a local morning news block. Studios opened in the new "Pacific Business Center" (7710 N.E. Vancouver Mall Drive, Suite F) in Vancouver WA. K-Van occupied 1,904 square feet of space. Jeff Williams, Assistant G.M., Operations Manager & News Director; Bill Cole, Station Manager. KVAN affiliated with CNN Headline News. Slogans: We're Clark County's information station, K-Van 1550. Clark County owned, Clark County operated, Clark County proud! Clark County's K-Van. Clark County news comes first on K-Van 1550.

By mid February 1994 KVAN had change to a News/Talk format, affiliating with Major Talk Network, Mutual, Talk America, United Stations Radio Network & Westwood One. K-Van became the Portland area's first "Hot Talk" station. KVAN slogans: Clark County's hot talk, K-Van 1550. Talk to hot for Portland.

In March 1994 David Granger became General Manager; Jeff Williams, Operations Manager & Mark Granger, News Director. Also in March 1994 KVAN dropped CNN for abc News. In the first week of October 1996 KVAN was knocked off the air for six days following a fire at the transmitter site from electrical problems. Also in October 1996 Mark Granger became Program Director as well as News Director. By 1997 K-Van had dropped Major Talk Network, Talk America, United Stations Radio Network , Westwood One and added the WOR Radio Network. Between October 15 & 17, 1997 KPAM 860kHz. Troutdale OR began operation from the KVAN transmitter site. In 1998 KVAN installed a new Nautel XL-12 transmitter. The Continental 316F became the back up.

On November 20, 1998 KVAN was sold to Pamplin Broadcasting-Washington, Inc. (group owner: Pamplin Communications Corp.; Dr. Robert B. Pamplin, Jr., President, CEO & Chairmen; Gary A. Randall, COO & Vice-Chairman; Kevin Young, Vice-President & G.M.) for $1.65 Million. On April 18, 1999 Westwood One pulled the plug on the Mutual Network after 62 years of service to the Northwest. MBS programming moved to Westwood One & KVAN became an affiliate. In August 1999 Paul H. Hanson became News Director (formerly KVAN-1480 N.D., KPAM-KPFM N.D., KYXI, N.D.). In September 1999 KVAN added affiliations with ESPN Radio & Radio America.

On January 1, 2000 David Bischoff became Chief Engineer (formerly with KOIN AM-FM, KVAN-1480 C.E., KYTE-KLLB-KRCK C.E., KKCW C.E., KEX-KKRZ). Early 2001 KVAN slogan: Clark County Radio. On April 11, 2001 Gary A. Randall retired from Pamplin Communications Corp. Also in April 2001 Mark L. Ail became Operations Manager (formerly with KISN sales). On July 7, 2001 KVAN dropped it's local morning news block along with ESPN Radio & Radio America networks. In November 2002 Bill Gallagher became Program Director (formerly KGW N.D., KXL, KEX, KEWS). On December 19, 2002 KVAN was granted "Program Test Authority" through 6-20-03, to begin work on a power increase.

On March 25, 2003 KVAN became KKAD. Call slogan & format: ADvice talk. KKAD added affiliations with AP Network News, Jones Radio Network, Talk America, Talk Radio Network & Wall Street Journal Radio. abc & Westwood One were dropped. KKAD slogan: Sound advice, no politices. In April 2003 KKAD increased power to 50KW day & 12KW directional nights. Four towers, 81.7 meters in height. A new Harris DX-50 transmitter had been installed. The Nautel XL-12 became the back up. The old Continental & Bauer were dismantled and junked. Also in 2003 Tim Hohl was News Director.

On the weekend of September 1, 2003 KKAD moved studios to sister KPAM at the "Pioneer Tower" building (888 S.W. 5th Ave., Suite 790) in Portland OR. (studios formerly home to KKCW & KXYQ-FM, 1993-95. KKRH-KRSK, KKSN & KKSN-FM, 1995-99).

On June 14, 2004 KKAD changed format to "The Music of Your Life" Radio Network, syndicated by Jones Radio Networks. KKAD dropped Talk America, Talk Radio Network, Wall Street Journal Radio & WOR Radio Network. Slogans: The all new AM 1550 KKAD. You're listening to the music of your life on AM 1550 KKAD. In Summer 2004 Bill Gallagher became News Director. On September 9, 2004 Paul Clithero became General Manager. On December 16, 2004 KKAD added the slogan: Sunny 1550. KKAD slogans: Thanks for listening to the all new Sunny 1550 KKAD. It's the music of your life on Sunny 1550 KKAD.

KEX 1956 Barney Keep, 6-10am Kay West, 10-10:30am Russ Conrad, 10:30-4pm Bob Blackburn, 4-7pm Bob Atkins, 7-10pm Jess Mason, 10:15-?

KPOJ 1959 Larry Kilburn, 6-10am Chuck Bernard, 10-noon Mark Allen, noon-4 Bob Blackburn, 4-8pm Dick Novak, 8-1am

KISN 1961 Hal Raymond, 6-9am Bob Stevens, 9-noon Mike Phillips, noon-3 Jack Par, 3-7pm Tom Murphy, 7-1am Johnny Dark, 1-6am

KGW 1962 Jim Kelly, 6-9am Ray Horn, 9-noon Rick Housely, noon-4 Wes Lynch, 4-7pm Frank Bonnema, 7-1am

KISN 1964 Frank Benny, 6-10am Addie Bobkins, 10-noon Roger Hart, noon-3 Don Steele, 3-7pm Tom Murphy, 7-1am Pat Pattee, 1-6am

KPFM 1966 John Edwards, 6-10am George Goode, 10-2pm Bob McAnulty, 2-7pm Bob King, 7-midnight Bob Brooks, midnight-6

KISN 1967 Michael O' Brien, 6-10am Tom Michaels, 10-noon Bobby Noonan, noon-3 Roger W. Morgan, 3-7pm Judge Ramsey, 7-midnight Pat Pattee, midnight-6

KGW 1972 Don Wright, 6-10am Craig Walker, 10-2pm Phil Harper, 2-6pm Tom Parker, 6-10pm Joe Cooper, 10-2am Ed Riley, 2-6am

KISN 1972 Roger W. Morgan, 6-10am Tom Michaels, 10-noon Bobby Noonan, noon-3 Mother Bear, 3-7pm Dave Stone, 7-midnight Pat Pattee, midnight-6

KPAM-FM 1972 Michael O' Brien, mornings Bob Marks, middays Gary Stevens, afternoons Jim Donovan, evenings

KGW 1976 Bruce Murdock, 6-10am Craig Walker, 10-2pm Tom Parker, 2-6pm Bob Anthony, 6-10pm Dave Hood, 10-2am Mark Rivers, 2-6am

KVAN 1976 Iris Harrison, 6-10am Gloria Johnson, 10-2pm Bob Ancheta, 2-sunset

KGW 1977 Craig Walker, 6-10am Glynn Shannon, 10-2pm Dave Hood, 2-6pm Jim Donovan, 6-10pm John Williams, 10-2am Mark Rivers, 2-6am

KGON 1977 Iris Harrison, 6-10am Bob Ancheta, 10-2pm Gloria Johnson, 2-6pm Dick Sheetz, 6-midnight George Bier, midnight-6

KEX 1980 Jimmy Hollister, mornings Bob Swanson, middays Bob Miller, afternoons Nick Diamond, evenings

KGW 1984 Craig Walker, 6-10am John Williams, 10-2pm Steve Lloid, 2-6pm Brian Mathews, 6-10pm Joanne McCall, 10-2am Scott Tom, 2-6am

KKRZ 1986 John Murphy-Dan Clark, 6-10am Sean Lynch, 10-3pm Scott Drake, 3-7pm Chet Buchanan, 7-midnight

KXL-FM 1996 Scott Tom, 5-9am Randy O'Neil, 9-2pm John Williams, 2-7pm Ruby Blake, 7-midnight Barbara Voight, midnight-5

KYXI 1972 Jim Liniger, 6-9am Ken Lomax, 9-noon Bob Brooks, noon-3 Ric Elgin, 3-7pm Don Boyd, 7-midnight Mark Andrews, midnight-6

KYXI 1975 Steve O'Shea, 6-10am Jim Liniger, 10-noon Mark Andrews, noon-3 John McComb, 3-6:30pm Dick Novak, 7-midnight Ed Smith, midnight-6

KGON 1977 Iris Harrison, 6-10am Bob Ancheta, 10-2pm Gloria Johnson, 2-6pm Dick Sheetz, 6-midnight George Bier, midnight-6

You left out 1960 KISN had 6-9am Hal Raymond 9-12am Bob Stevens, jack mccoy 12-3 Mike Western, Mike Phillips 3-7pm Bill Jackson, Jack Par 7-12pm Tiger Tom Murphy news-Bill Howlett 12-6am Russ Ripley, Ben Dawson

Kex had Barney keep Ted Rogers (I can't remember what year) Frank Benny Roger Ferrier (Roger Hart) Russ Conrad

KISN-91 Dec 1971

Michael O'Brien AM John Christy AM Tom Michaels Noon (not exactly sure who did afternoons in December) Ron Ugly Thompson 7-mid Pat Pattee Mid

The staff that followed in 71 Obrien Michaels JJ Jordan (new pd from wrko) Chuck Martin (went on to become pd at KHJ) Pattee then in 72 Roger W Morgan -mornings Dick Jenkins-mid days Mother Bear- (was also Buddy Scott) Stone-evenings Pattee (news: Mike Ray who is now the producer of the ABC evening news) Buzz Kelly-weekends

uncle don of course was the last KISN morning man in 1976.

Uncle Don Wright AM . . Dick Sims 3-7PM (aka Bwanna Johnny) Dave Stone 7-mid

KQIV, Line-up at launch, Sept. 1972 Glen Adams, 6-10am Ed Hepp, 10am-2pm Jeff Clarke, 2-6pm Steve Shannon, 6-10pm Dick Jenkins, 10pm-2am Michael Stroufe, 2-6am Ben Marsh, ND

KQIV, Sept. 1973 Steve O'Shea, 6-10am Mike Sakellarides, 10am-2pm Norman Flint, 2-6pm Jeff Clarke, 6-10pm Larry Scott, 10pm-2am Joe Collins, 2-6am Jim LaFawn (PD), Weekends Joel "J.R." Miller (CE), Weekends

KB101/ROCK DELUXE Early 1980-Fall 1980:

6-10am John Earling Mark Gerek (News) 10am-2pm Steve Naganuma Diana Jordan (News) 2-7pm J.J. Jeffrey Vicki Stewart (News) 7pm-Mid John Walker Mid-6am Gregg Lenny

KB101...Leading The Gold Rush Fall '80-Spr. '81:

6-10am Michael O'Brien Mark Gerek (News) 10a-Noon Robin Mitchell Diana Jordan (News til 3pm) 12N-3pm John Earling 3-7pm J.J. Jeffrey 7pm-Mid John Walker Mid-6am Gregg Lenny

KB101...Hot Hits-Cool Oldies Summer '81-Dec '81

6-10am Michael O'Brien 10a-1p John Earling 1p-3pm J.J. Jeffrey (+ production) 3-7pm John Walker 7pm-Mid Terry Donahue Mid-6am Matt Williams

KB101...January '82-Nov. '82:

Don't recall the exact lineup

Michael O'Brien mornings Uncle Don Wright PM Drive ...race around the world promotion Bwana Johnny..was part-time I thought, as was Ron Leonard.

KARadiO 1480

Early 1980

6am-10am Bwana Johnny 10am-2pm Bruce Taylor 2pm-6pm Kelly McCRae 6pm-midnight John Windus Midnight-6am Ray Bartley

KMJK Line-up '86-'90

Those Guys in the Morning (Todd Brandt & Rick Rydell)(6-10) Glynn Shannon (Middays 10-3) Craig Johnson (Afternoons 3-7) Brad Doelber (Evenings 7-12) Bob Anchetta (Overnights 12-6)

On September 9, 1948 the FCC granted a construction permit to build an AM station on 1260kc with 1KW daytime only to McMinnville Broadcasting Co. (Jack B. Bladine, President & also Publisher of McMinnville's "Telephone-Register" newspaper. Station co-Owner & brother Phillip N. Bladine was also associated with the newspaper). Call letters KMCM were assigned, standing for city of license, McMinnville OR. KMCM was originally applied for as an FM station in 1946. The application was withdrawn after West Coast FM growth did not bear out. In December 1948 licensee name changed to Yamhill Broadcasters.

On January 28, 1949 ground was broken, when work began on the tower radials. Copper wire was buried 10 inches deep and extending out 200 feet from the base, every three degrees. 120 in all. By the end of February 1949 a 210 foot tower had been erected by C.H. Fisher & Son of Portland. On March 31, 1949 studio building forms were poured next to the tower at 2163 Lafayette Ave. in McMinnville. The exterior of the building was done in natural cedar siding with the pylon painted green. The inside had decorative mahogany trim. The 1,600 square foot building was built by "Clete" Gell Building & Remodeling. KMCM estimated construction cost was $27,500.

On June 11, 1949 KMCM tested it's new Western Electric 443A-1 transmitter for the first time at 5:15am. Then on Saturday June 18, 1949 at 11:00am KMCM began operation when McMinnville Mayor, R.H. Windisher threw the switch. A one hour inaugural program was broadcast from the stage of "The Mack Theater" (510 N.E. 3rd St.) and was viewed by an audience. Local dignitaries had been invited from every community in Yamhill County. KMCM staff were introduced. Music was provided by Steve Paietta & his Orchestra with vocals by Brad Reynolds. KMCM's first newscast was broadcast directly from the stage.

KMCM had 9 employees, with Louis F. Gillette (formerly on KPQ, KHQ, KGA & KPOJ) Station Manager; Gilbert Tilbury, News Director; Bruce Brown, Sports Director; Glasco P. Branson (formerly on KELA) Commercial Manager & announcer; George "Skip" Hathaway (later KUGN CE) Chief Engineer; Phyllis Bladine (owner relation) Receptionist-Bookkeeper; Ivan Smith, announcer; Eugene K. Kilgore (formerly on KRUL) announcer. The station was equipped with an "Echo-tape" reel to reel recorder. The format was local block & syndicated programming.

KMCM utilized Capitol Records Transcription Program Service, which featured 15 minute programs such as: The Eddie LaMarr Show, The Jan Garber Show, Lullaby In Rhythm, Music From Hollywood, My Serenade, Rhythm Ranch, Sunset & Vine, Tex Ritter's Music Corral. Other national transcription programs carried were: Chuckwagon Jamboree, Plantation House Party, Hawaiian Echoes, Carle Comes Calling. Weekends included: Southland Spirituals & Voice of The Army.

Local Programming included: The Alarm Clock Club (mornings), Bargain Bulletins, Newberg On The Air, Sheridan On The Air, Amity On The Air, Noon News, Farmers Exchange, Yamhill County Today, 1260 Time (afternoons), Sports From The Sidelines, Northwest News, Kilgore Auction Time. Saturday nights featured the one hour "Hayloft Jamboree" from remote locations like Eagles Hall. By June 22, 1949 KMCM had listener reception reports "Heard loud and clear" in Tillamook & Delake (now part of Lincoln City). Also heard as for south as North Bend and north to Seattle and east to Maupin. KMCM operated 6:00am to sunset but had gained directional night approval. By September 1949 KMCM slogan: Always good listening.

On November 4, 1949 KMCM began 1KW directional night operation with an additional tower added. KMCM operation expanded 6:00am to 10:30pm weekly. On March 1, 1950 KMCM joined KBS (Keystone Broadcasting System, founded in 1941). On October 2, 1950 KMCM affiliated with the Liberty Network (Liberty Broadcasting System, founded in 1947 by Gordon B. McLendon. LBS studios were at flagship KLIF Dallas TX) LBS was primarily a sports network with some newscasts and entertainment programs but was growing fast with 300+ affiliates. At this time LBS was the 3rd largest radio network.

By December 1950 Homer Rhose was News Director; Dudley Gaylord, Farm Director & Sports Director; Betty Barton, Womens Director & Milt Muir, Chief Engineer. In 1951 KMCM incorporated. License now read: Yamhill Broadcasters, Inc. By September 1951 KMCM slogan: Yamhill County's listening habit. By early 1952 LBS was the nations 2nd largest radio network with 458 affiliates. On May 16, 1952 The LBS Radio Network folded. By December 1952 Ivan A. Smith was Program Director (later KGW-TV Newscaster).

On February 12, 1953 the owners of KMCM & "Telephone-Register" merged newly acquired newspaper the "News-Reporter" forming the "News-Register". By December 1953 Glasco P. Branson was KMCM's General Manager, N.D. & C.M. By December 1954 Leslie Cunningham was Program Director; Craig E. Singletary, Sports Director & Jack Adkins, Chief Engineer. KMCM slogan: Willamette Valley's favorite radio station. By December 1955 Glasco P. Branson was G.M., P.D. & C.M.; Craig E. Singletary was News Director & S.D.; Edwin Nuhring, Chief Engineer.

By December 1956 Craig E. Singletary was Program Director & S.D. By March 1957 KMCM operated 6:00am to 10:00pm weekly. Also in 1957 Phillip N. Bladine became President of Yamhill Broadcasters, Inc. By February 1958 KMCM broadcast 6:00am to 8:00pm weekly. By July 1958 Glasco P. Branson was General Manager & C.M.; Craig E. Singletary, Program Director & N.D. By July 1959 Craig E. Singletary was P.D., N.D. & Farm Director. KMCM operated 6:30am to 6:30pm weekly.

On August 22, 1959 it was announced that KMCM was purchased by Yamhill Radio Co. (Jerry Carr, President; John Courcier, Vice-President & G.M.) for $80,000. (FCC approval on 10-1-59). Larry D. Lanz became Program Director & Glasco P. Branson, Commercial Manager. In December 1959 a call slogan was introduced: K-Mac radio 1260, always the best in listening. By August 1961 Gary Hamilton was Program Director & Robert Lewis, Chief Engineer. By June 1962 the K-Mac air staff included: Gary C. (believed to be Gary Hamilton) 6:30-9am; Marv Ryum, 9-noon; "Newsreel" with Bill Powell, noon-12:30; Marv Ryum, 1-3pm; Larry Lanz, 3-6:30pm. KMCM format was M.O.R. (Middle of The Road). KMCM slogan: The most happy sound. By September 1962 Larry D. Lanz was General Manager, P.D. & C.E.; Gary Hamilton, News Director & William S. Powell, Commercial Manager.

On April 1, 1963 KMCM was sold to 25 year old Ray A. Fields for $100,000. Licensee "Ray Andrew Fields" who was President & G.M. Larry D. Lanz became Program Director & C.E.; Tom Butler, Commercial Manager. KMCM dropped it's liaison with KBS. By October 1963 Craig E. Singletary was back as Sports Director again. Also on K-Mac were Marv Ryum & Whitey Coker (formerly on KNPT, later KISN ND). On October 29, 1963 KMCM opened it's expanded studios at 2163 Lafayette Ave. In July 1964 Bud Charles became News Director (formerly on KEX). In September 1966 Richard W. Bacon became Sports Director. The K-Mac air staff included: Dick Bacon, 6:30-9am; Ray Fields, 9-noon; "The Noon News" with Ralph Keyser & Larry Lanz, noon-1pm; Larry Lanz, 1-3pm; Zane Williams, 3-5pm & Ralph Keyser, 5-6:30pm.

In January 1967 KMCM switched to a Top 40 format. Hours of operation expanded 6:30am to 10:00pm Sunday through Thursday & 6:30 to midnight Friday & Saturdays. Ray A. Fields became President, G.M. & Program Director. By April 1967 Jay Van Dyke was News Director & S.D.; Bill Barger, Chief Engineer & Robert Williams, Sales Manager. The 1260 air staff included: "The Clock Watcher Show" with Ray Fields & Jay Van Dyke, news, 6:30-9am; Mike White, 9-noon; Bill Barger, noon-3; Ralph Keyser, 3-6:30pm & Peter Marland (formerly on KROW) 6:30-10pm (his slogan "Listen to P.M.". Later aka Peter Marland Jones or P.M.J. on KEX, KKEY & KVAN). On January 1, 1968 KMCM bacame a charter affiliate of the "American Information Radio Network" abc's new on the hour service.

On October 29, 1968 KMCM was sold to Norjud Broadcasting, Inc. (Judith Irene Aldred, President & co-Treasurer with father, Theodore H. Johanson, Vice-President & co-Treasurer) for $97,500. Transfer of control took place on 11-16-68. Judy's husband, 38 year old Norman P. Aldred became General Manager, P.D. & C.M.; Charles McKeen, News Director & Grant Fickert, Chief Engineer. KMCM's format was switched back to M.O.R. In 1969 KMCM installed a new Collins transmitter. By October 1969 Jim Hardy was Chief Engineer. By December 1969 Norman P. Aldred was General Manager & C.M.; Ed Smith, Chief Engineer. In March 1970 Harry Girtman became Program Director. KMCM had no on air slogan, although letterhead stated: Sounds like fun.

By October 1971 KMCM's format was M.O.R. with some Country-Western. Norman P. Aldred was General Manager; Tim Elliott, Program Director & Bart Tolleson, Sales Manager. By October 1972 KMCM's format was entirely Country-Western. KMCM call slogan: More Country Music. Gene Page, Program Director; Jeff Davis, Music Director & Ed Owens, Chief Engineer. By September 1973 Stan Ohl was Program Director; Don Lee, Music Director; Jerry Robertson, News Director; Wally Keller, Chief Engineer & Warren Pomeroy, Sales Manager.

By November 1974 19 year old Jeff Davis was back as Program Director & C.E. (Oregon's youngest P.D.); Michael R. Kolb, Music Director; Philip Pratt, News Director & Paula Gunness was a KMCM Newscaster before leaving for KATU Eyewitness News. By November 1976 KMCM's format was Country & M.O.R. Ken Paul was Program Director; Jeff Davis, Music Director (later on KPAM-FM, KWJJ PM, KYXI, KSGO PD & KPDQ); Pat Hellberg, News Director & Randy Rist, Chief Engineer.

In early 1977 KMCM switched to an Adult Contemporary format and expanded it's broadcast day 6:00am to 2:00am. Also in 1977 Norjud Broadcasting, Inc. was reorganized with Norman P. Aldred as President. In Fall 1977 abc Radio cancelled it's contract with KMCM. The station lost it's "Information" Network affiliation. Scuttlebutt was, KMCM had played local spots during abc commercials. KMCM then became an affiliate of the Mutual Broadcasting System shortly there after.

By November 1977 Larry Ward was General Manager; Jack Berry, Program Director; Rod Lewis, Music Director; Ron Ross, News Director; Ed Olmstead, Chief Engineer & Larry Miller, Sales Manager. In 1978 KMCM began Top 40 music evenings with Jim Maass (later on KVAN 1550 & KGW APD). By November 1978 Jack Barry was General Manager; Ron Romain, Program Director & C.E.; Scott Martin, Music Director. KMCM slogan: The only station you'll ever need.

On July 1, 1979 KMCM became KCYX. Mr. Aldred stated, the calls were changed "to repair damage" done from the former G.M. "running the station into the ground!" KCYX call slogan: K-siX. Reflecting part of the dial position (1260). The call slogan was dropped shortly there after. KCYX jingle package was called "Someplace Special - MOR" by T.M. Productions, Inc. (Sent to KCYX on 6-15-79). Slogans: Someplace Special KCYX. The spirit of Oregon. Broadcast hours were shortened 6:00am to midnight. Norman P. Aldred, President, G.M. & P.D.

By November 1979 Kay Egle was News Director; William Stemg, Music Director; Ed Olmstead back as Chief Engineer; Jackie Fields (wife of former KMCM owner Ray Fields) Sales Manager & Dave Hanson, Sports Director. In February 1980 Michael R. Kolb (formerly KMCM MD, KFOG, KPEN PM) became Program Director and hired Craig Foster as a weekender. In May 1980 KCYX dropped it's Top 40 music evenings and returned to Adult Contemporary as other day parts.

On May 30, 1980 KCYX was sold to 1260 Radio, Inc. (Merrill "Deane" Johnson, President & G.M. with wife Kathleen Johnson, General Sales Manager, 66.66%; Vera T. Frederick, 23.33%; Delwin Peterson & wife Marilyn Peterson, 10.01%) for $475,000. The land continued to be owned by the Aldred's. (Assignment of license on 5-21-80). Son, Michael Johnson was Chief Engineer & Craig Foster, Music Director. Added slogans: The new KCYX. Yamhill County's KCYX.

In September 1980 Steve Kenyon became Sports Director. The KCYX air staff included: Mike Kolb & Brian Edwards with Kay Egle, news, 6-9am; "Open Line" with Kay Egle, 9-10am; Tom Shannon, 10-3pm; Jim Sayers, 3-7pm (later aka Jim Bickel on KXL); Craig Foster, 7-12am (Mutual Radio Theater 10-11pm)(later aka Craig Adams on KAAR & KKSN AM/FM). Weekends: Steve Kenyon. Bill Ashenden (later KKRZ SM, KXL GSM) added to the sales staff. In January 1981 Steve Kenyon moved 7-12am weekly. On August 20, 1981 KCYX became one of a handful of Oregon stations to use a satellite dish for network news. Mutual installed the $6,000. dish free, even before Portland's distribution dish. (Westar I Satellite).

In January 1982 Brian S. Edwards became Program Director. In June 1982 Steve Kenyon became Program Director as well as S.D. & mornings 6-9am. On September 6, 1982 KCYX dedicated it's newly rebuilt "Studio A". By November 1982 Deane Johnson was President; Kathleen Johnson, General Manager & G.S.M.; Dee Dee Harrington, News Director. In August 1983 Ben Gutierrez & Chris Taylor began as weekenders. Also in 1983 Todd Butterfield was 3-7pm. In February 1984 Al Schwartz became News Director & Brad Eaton (formerly on KLIQ AM/FM, KUGN, KATR, KXA, KKEY) became Public Affairs Director for "Open Line" 9-11am.

In Fall 1984 Steve Kenyon became Station Manager as well as S.D. (later on KUMA). Also by this time Deane Johnson was President & G.M. again & Kathie Johnson, General Sales Manager. In October 1984 Ben Z. Gutierrez became News Director. In late 1984 Chris Taylor became Program Director & on 11-3pm. (later on KCNR-FM, KKLI, KMXI, KPAM, KKRZ & KYSJ). In Spring 1985 Jim Patterson became Program Director. In August 1985 Ben Z. Gutierrez became Music Director as well as N.D. (later on KHVH, KHNR ND, KITV Weatherman).

On July 31, 1987 KCYX was sold to Matrix Media, Inc. (Michael S. Symons, President) for $681,812. Matrix Media also owned KBCH & KCRF (FM) Lincoln City. In October 1987 Gregg K. Clapper became General Manager (later on KKGT, KTLK & KPAM PD); Rich Patterson (formerly with KEX) Program Director & afternoons (later KEX APD & KPAM). KCYX format changed to A.C. & Talk. KCYX became the Portland outlet for "The Larry King Show". In January 1988 K.C. McCormick became Public Affairs Director (later aka K.C. Caldwell on KGON & KTWS). In Spring 1988 Warren Franklin (formerly on KAPS, KBAM, KVAS, KSLM, KGAL, KTDO, KVAN PD/MD, KYKN) became General Manager (later KBZY VP).

On May 16, 1990 KCYX suspended operations for an indefinite period. Thomas Huntsberger trustie of the bankrupt estate of Matrix Media, Inc. announced Eugene businessmen Larry R. Bohnsack purchased KCYX for $120,000.

On June 20, 1990 calls were changed to KLYC which stood for: Leading Yamhill County. This slogan was not used on air. On October 2, 1990 the FCC approved the license transfer to Bohnsack Strategies, Inc. (Larry R. Bohnsack, President & G.M.). Also on this date KLYC began operation. [There is no information on station personnel available during this period]. KLYC format was Adult Contemporary & Oldies. KLYC affiliated with CNN Radio News. The Mutual Network had been dropped. KLYC slogan: The best is always here on 1260.

In 1993 KLYC studios moved to 1975 Calvin Court, N.E. By November 1996 Kevin Weeks was News Director. KLYC slogans: We're Yamhill County's Choice. We've got the entertainment you want, and the information you need. Your radio for Yamhill County. Your station for Yamhill County's favorite music. Your community connection. By November 1997 Phillip Bohnsack (owner relation?) was News Director. By November 1998 Mark Marshall was Vice-President of Programming (later on KOTK) and Tim Riley (formerly on KUIK) News Director (later on KOTK). By November 1999 Scott Simmons was Vice-President of Programming & Asst. Music Director. Also Aaron Andrews, Music Director.

In 2000 KLYC moved it's transmitter site to 10027 Warmington Rd., S.E. Directional night power was reduced to 850 watts. In 2001 KLYC changed format to Oldies exclusively. On September 24, 2002 the FCC denied Bolnsack Strategies, Inc. a request for a waver of the late payment penalty concerning the FY2001 regulatory fees due for KLYC. By August 2003 Eve Fuller was Program Director & News Director.

By December 2004 Mr. Bohnsack's wife Laurel "Stella" Bohnsack was Public Affairs Director & James Boyd (formerly KBND PD, KTIX PD ND & CE, KGAL OM, KGAR/KVAN CE, KSLM CE, KEJO CE)Chief Engineer (later with KBCH/KYTE/KCRF/KNCU CE, KYTT/KYSJ CE, KDCQ CE, KWBY CE, KBZY CE, KCKX CE,KWIP CE, KXPC CE, KMCQ CE, KUIK CE). In 2005 Larry R. Bohnsack became Program Director as well as President & G.M.; Laurel "Stella" Bohnsack, Operations Manager & Eve Fuller, News Director. KLYC slogans: Radio for Yamhill County. 1260 KLYC, playing the songs you want to hear.

This is the last of the radio format series to be posted. "The Oregon Journal" began listing formats in June 1969. There are 10 format changes since the 1965 listing.

AM 550 KOAC Educational/Classical nights (NER) 620 KGW Middle of the Road/night Talk (NBC) 750 KXL Good Music (Instrumentals) 800 KPDQ Religious 910 KISN Top 40 Music 940 KWRC Middle of the Road 970 KOIN CBS & Local Programs 1080 KWJJ Country-Western (abc) 1150 KKEY Cosmopolitan Music (abc 2ndary) 1190 KEX Popular Music 1230 KRDR Country-Western/Top 40 nights 1260 KMCM Top 40 Music 1290 KLIQ Talk/Religious mornings 1330 KPOJ Popular Music/night Talk (MBS) 1360 KUIK Country-Western 1410 KPAM Middle of the Road 1450 KBPS Educational 1480 KVAN Top 40 Music 1520 KYXI Beautiful Music 1550 KGAR Top 40 Music

FM 89.3 KRRC Music Variety 91.5 KOAP-FM Educational/Classical nights (NER) 93.7 KPDQ-FM Religious-Music nights 95.5x KXL-FM Good Music (Instrumentals) 97.1x KPFM Middle of the Road 98.5 KPOJ-FM Popular Music/night Talk (MBS) 100.3 KQFM Instrumental Music 101.1x KOIN-FM Classical Music

x denotes stereo

There are 9 format changes since the 1963 listing.

AM 550 KOAC Educational 620 KGW Middle of the Road (NBC) 750 KXL Instrumental Music 800 KPDQ Religious 910 KISN Top Tunes 940 KWRC Middle of the Road 970 KOIN CBS & Local Programs 1080 KWJJ Country-Western (abc) 1150 KKEY Cosmopolitan Music (abc, 2ndary) 1190 KEX Popular Music 1230 KRDR Country-Western 1260 KMCM Middle of the Road 1290 KLIQ Jazz/Religious mornings 1330 KPOJ Popular Music/night Talk (MBS) 1360 KUIK Country-Western 1410 KPAM Middle of the Road 1450 KBPS Educational 1480 KVAN Country-Western 1520 KYMN Good Music 1550 KGAR All News 1570 KWAY Top Tunes

FM 89.3 KRRC Classical Music 91.5 KOAP-FM Educational/Classical nights 93.7 KPDQ-FM Religious-Music nights 95.5x KXL-FM Instrumental Music 97.1x KPFM Middle of the Road 98.5 KPOJ-FM Popular Music/night Talk (MBS) 100.3 KQFM Instrumental Music 101.1 KOIN-FM CBS & Local Programs

x denotes stereo

It's been very hard over the years researching formats of Portland area radio stations since both "The Oregonian" & "Oregon Journal" never published format listings in the 1960's. I've pieced together what I believe was broadcast during 1963 using format terms of the time and The Oregonian's late 60's layout. Input welcome.

AM 550 KOAC Educational 620 KGW Middle of the Road (NBC) 750 KXL Better Music 800 KPDQ Religious 910 KISN Top Tunes 970 KOIN CBS & Local Programs 1080 KWJJ Middle of the Road (ABC) 1150 KKEY Cosmopolitan Music 1190 KEX Popular Music 1230 KRDR Country-Western 1260 KMCM Middle of the Road 1290 KLIQ Good Music 1330 KPOJ Popular Music/night Talk 1360 KUIK Top Tunes 1410 KPAM Better Music 1450 KBPS Educational 1480 KVAN Top Tunes 1520 KGON Modern Music (MBS) 1550 KGAR All News 1570 KWAY Top Tunes

FM 89.3 KRRC Classical Music 91.5 KOAP-FM Educational/Classical nights 93.7 KPDQ-FM Religious-Music nights 95.5x KGMG Great Classics 97.1x KPFM Better Music 98.7 KPOJ-FM Popular Music/night Talk 100.3 KQFM Instrumental Music 101.1 KOIN-FM CBS & Local Program

AM 550 KOAC Educational 620 KGW Top Tunes (NBC) 750 KXL Better Music 800 KPDQ Religious 910 KISN Top Tunes 970 KOIN CBS & Local Programs 1080 KWJJ ABC & Local Programs 1150 KKEY Top Tunes 1190 KEX Popular Music 1230 KGRO Good Music 1260 KMCM Middle of the Road ? 1290 KLIQ Good Music 1330 KPOJ Popular Music 1360 KUIK Top Tunes 1410 KPAM Fine Music 1450 KBPS Educational 1480 KVAN Popular Music ? 1520 KGON MBS & Local Programs 1570 KWAY Top Tunes

FM 89.3 KRRC Classical, Folk & Jazz 92.3 KEX-FM Classical Music 93.7 KPDQ-FM Religious-Music nights 95.5 KGMG Great Classics 97.1x KPFM Fine Music 98.7 KPOJ-FM Popular Music 100.3 KQFM Background Music 101.1 KOIN-FM CBS & Local Programs

x denotes stereo

AM 550 KOAC Educational 620 KGW NBC & Local Programs 750 KXL Top Tunes 800 KPDQ Middle of the Road ? 910 KVAN Country-Western 970 KOIN CBS & Local Programs 1080 KWJJ Popular Music 1150 KHFS Hi-Fi Music 1190 KEX ABC & Local Programs 1230 KGON Syndicated & Local Programs 1260 KMCM Middle of the Road ? 1330 KPOJ MBS-DLBS & Local Programs 1360 KRTV Middle of the Road ? 1410 KPAM Good Music 1450 KBPS Educational 1570 KRWC Middle of the Road ?

FM 92.3 KEX-FM ABC & Local Programs 97.1 KPFM Good Music 98.7 KPOJ-FM MBS-DLBS & Local Programs 100.3 KQFM Background Music 101.1 KOIN-FM CBS & Local Programs

AM 550 KOAC Educational 620 KGW ABC & Local Programs 750 KXL Top Tunes 800 KPDQ Middle of the Road ? 910 KVAN Country-Western 970 KOIN CBS & Local Programs 1080 KWJJ Popular Music 1150 KHFS Hi-Fi Music 1190 KEX Top Tunes 1230 KGRO Sparkling Music 1260 KMCM Middle of the Road ? 1330 KPOJ MBS-DLBS & Local Programs 1360 KUIK Happy, Bright & Light 1410 KPAM Good Music 1450 KBPS Educational 1480 KRIV Popular Music ? 1520 KGON NBC & Local Programs 1570 KRWC Middle of the Road ?

FM 97.1 KPFM Good Music 98.7 KPOJ-FM MBS-DLBS & Local Programs 100.3 KQFM Background Music 101.1 KOIN-FM CBS & Local Programs

620 KGW, KINK, KEWS, KOTK, KDBZ, KTLK, KPOJ 970 KOIN, KYTE, KESI, KBBT, KUPL, KUFO, KCMD 1290 KLIQ, KMJK, KVIX, KLVS, KPHP, KKSL 1520 KGON, KYMN, KYXI, KSGO, KFXX, KKSN, KZNY, KGDD 97.1 KPFM, KPAM-FM, KCNR, KKLI, KKSN-FM, KYCH-FM 101.1 KOIN-FM, KYTE-FM, KLLB, KRCK, KKCY, KUFO 106.7 KQIV, KMJK, KMXI, KKBK, KKJZ, KLTH

550 KOAC Educational 620 KGW Top Tunes 750 KXL Top Tunes 800 KPDQ Religious 910 KISN Top Tunes 970 KOIN CBS & Local Programs 1080 KWJJ ABC-DLBS & Local Programs 1150 KKEY Country-Western 1190 KEX Popular Music 1230 KGRO Hi-Fi Music 1260 KMCM Middle of the Road ? 1290 KLIQ All News 1330 KPOJ Popular Music 1360 KUIK Middle of the Road 1410 KPAM Religious/Good Music 1450 KBPS Educational 1480 KPVA Popular Music ? 1520 KGON NBC-MBS & Local Programs 1570 KRWC Religious

FM 89.3 KRRC Classical, Folk, Jazz 92.3 KEX-FM Classical 97.1 KPFM Religious/Good Music 98.7 KPOJ-FM Popular Music 100.3 KQFM Background Music 101.1 KOIN-FM CBS & Local Programs

On November 16, 1950 KFGR began operation on 1570kc. with the power of 250 watts, daytime only. KFGR was owned by Irving Vincent Schmidtke. He was also General Manager & Chief Engineer. Studios & transmitter were located on Sunset Drive (between 26th & Willamina Aves.). The location at the time, was never assigned a numbered address. KFGR calls stood for Forest Grove Radio.

On December 28, 1953 KFGR became KRWC. Calls stood for Radio Washington County. In 1955 power was raised to 1KW. On January 1, 1958 Reverend F. Demcy Mylar became G.M. On September 10, 1958 KRWC was sold to The Christian Broadcasting Co. (Reverend F. Demcy Mylar, President & Doctor Robert M. Kines) for $50,000. Mr. Schmidtke retained ownership of the studio/transmitter property. Robert W. Ball became G.M. Programming was described as cultural & religious. KRWC call slogan: Keep Right With Christ.

On October 1, 1958 KRWC studios were moved to a mobile unit and placed on property at 2740 Pacific Ave. Mr. Schmidtke was now using the old studios for his other business he had operated at the same time, Smitty's Radio & Television Clinic. On November 8, 1959 KRWC was sold to Triple G Broadcasting Co. (Lester L. Gould, President, Dorothy R. Gould, Leroy A. Garr & Esther L. Plotkin) for $50,000. Patrick W. & wife Jean S. Larkin became Co-General Managers.

On December 1, 1959 KRWC became KGGG. Calls stood for first three owners last names. Slogans: K-triple-G, the voice of the valley. The station with a smile at the top of your dial. In the Fall of 1960, Triple G Broadcasting Co. was transfered to group ownership. Crawford Broadcasting Co. (Doctor Percy Bartininaus Crawford, President) for $65,000. (Company now owns KKSL, KKPZ & KPBC in the Portland area).

On January 1, 1961 KGGG became KWAY. Call stood for Washington And Yamhill counties. Rick Blakely became General Manager & Chief Engineer. Slogan: K-WAY. On June 1, 1963 KWAY was sold to Harold O. Savercool for $37.500. Paul W. Savercool became President & General Manager. The format then changed to Top 40. KWAY slogans: The K-WAY. Top tunes for teens. The golden sound. The better music sound of Washington County. (A put down to KUIK Hillsboro).

In early 1965 Harold O. Savercool became President of K-WAY. R.T. Fletcher became G.M. and the format changed to Country & Western. Slogan: Country K-WAY. On October 31, 1965 KWAY left the air for unknown reasons. The tower still stands as a

reminder of Forest Grove's Radio History. The KWAY calls live on in Waverly Iowa.

On June 6, 1948 KPOJ-FM began operation at 6AM on 98.7mc, with the power of 50KW. KPOJ-FM was owned by KALE, Inc. (P.L. Brown, President; & "The Oregon Journal" Newspaper). On this date, sister KALE became KPOJ at the 6AM sign on. Studios were located at 919 S.W. Taylor St. Building in Portland. KPOJ-FM's transmitter site was located on Mt. Scott. (antenna height 1,486). This was Portland's 4th FM station. Richard "Dick" M. Brown was G.M. KPOJ-FM simulcast KPOJ's entire broadcast day, (6AM to Midnight) and was a Mutual-Don Lee affiliate. Call slogan: This is KPOJ, Portland Oregon Journal.

On July 7, 1948 the licensee name changed to KPOJ, Inc. In August 1949 KPOJ AM & FM moved studios to The Odd Fellows Building. (1019 S.W. 10th Ave.). Also in 1949 KPOJ-FM reduced power to 44KW. By 1952 KPOJ-FM's slogan was: Portland's personality station. In 1953 William W. Knight became President of KPOJ, Inc. In 1955 KPOJ-FM reduced power to 4.3KW. On June 29, 1956 KPOJ AM & FM inaugurated the first mobile studio on the west coast. Also in 1956 Richard "Dick" M. Brown became Vice President & General Manager. In 1957 KPOJ-FM's power was raised to 4.4KW. Slogan: KPOJ, the bright spot on your dial.

On January 28, 1958 KPOJ, Inc. applied for a Television License for channel 2. (KPOJ-TV). On March 23, 1959 KPOJ, Inc. asked the FCC to dismiss the Television Station Application. The Company was now looking at a new direction "independent radio". On April 15, 1959 KPOJ AM & FM dropped the Mutual-Don Lee Networks. (They were picked up by KGON, which also had NBC). Opting for music, the stations debuted "Action Radio" on this date. "Action Music" was popular music of today & yesterday. "Action News" was direct from the City Desk of The Oregon Journal. "The Action 5" were: Larry Kilburn 6-10AM, Chuck Bernard 10-Noon, Mark Allen Noon-4PM, Bob Blackburn 4-8PM, Dick Novak 8-1AM & Tom Morgan, Action News.

By 1960 KPOJ-FM was using additional slogan: The million dollar sound. In early 1961 Richard "Dick" M. Brown became President & General Manager. In 1962 KPOJ-FM reduced power to 4.1KW. (antenna height 1,100). By 1964 KPOJ-FM was broadcasting 24 hours, except weekends 5:30 to Midnight. On March 27, 1964 KPOJ-FM moved to 98.5mc. The move would make possible future power increases. (not possible because of Seattle's 98.9mc). On November 1, 1964 KPOJ AM & FM picked up the Mutual Network for the 2nd time. By 1965 KPOJ-FM's slogan was: The sing-a-long sound. By 1967 the slogan was: Fresher radio.

On August 15, 1968 KPOJ-FM became KPOK and began separate "stereo" programming with no network affiliation. On this date horizontal power increased to 100KW. (antenna height 1,036). KPOK's format was described as "The button-down sound" 30% hits, 60% standards & 10% mod sound. KPOK broadcast 6AM to Midnight. Call slogan: OK stereo. Slogan: Stereo 98. On June 9, 1970 KPOK became KPOK-FM and began 50% duplication of it's sisters MOR format. Slogan: OK makes you feel good all over. In late 1972 KPOK AM & FM switched to a Country format. Slogan: Rockin' Country.

On May 16, 1973 KPOK-FM was sold to Tracy Broadcasting Co. for $1,050,000. (price included AM sister). Richard B. Stevens, President. On July 11, 1973 KPOK-FM became KUPL. Call slogan: Couple. KUPL then switched to a separate automated Beautiful Music format. Slogans: 98-FM, the difference is the music. Blooming with beautiful music. Easy listening all day, all night, all nice. In December 1973 Robert O. Franklin became G.M. In 1974 Robert E. Sharon became G.M. In early 1975 Bob Oxarart became G.M. Between August 23 & 28, 1976 KUPL became KUPL-FM. In late 1976 studios moved to 6400 S.W. Canyon Court at Sylvan. In late 1977 KUPL-FM power was raised to 100KW horizontal & vertical. (antenna height still 1,036).

On September 1, 1981 KUPL-FM was sold to Scripps-Howard Broadcasting Co. (Jack R. Howard, Chairman). In 1982 KUPL-FM switched to an automated Easy Listening format. (also from Bonneville International Corp.). Slogan: The music of your life. In March 1984 Edward T. Hardy became G.M. KUPL-FM then began simulcasting it's AM sisters Country format. In 1985 KUPL-FM initiated separate Country programming. Slogans: K-98. More country favorites. On March 23, 1986 KUPL-FM's transmitter site on Mt. Scott suffered a $580,000. fire, forcing the station to return to the air at reduced power a week later.

In late 1986 KUPL-FM's antenna height was raised to 1,104 feet. In May 1989 Ed Hardy became Vice President & General Manager. By 1992 KUPL-FM slogan: Back to back country. In January 1993 KUPL-FM began simulcasting it's AM sister again. On October 20, 1993 KUPL-FM was sold to Baycom Oregon L.P. for 23 million. (price included AM sister). KUPL-FM slogan: Continous hit country favorites, more music Couple. In January 1994 Greg A Lindahl became G.M. In 1995 KUPL AM & FM moved studios to 222 S.W. Columbia St., Suite 350. Also in 1995 KUPL-FM added translator station K251AD on 98.1mhz in Beaverton, to clear up reception problems in the area.

On August 1, 1996 KUPL-FM was sold to Radio Systems of Miami, Inc. (group owner: American Radio Systems) Steve Dodge, C.E.O., Joe Winn, C.F.O., Stanley Mak, G.M. KUPL-FM slogans: Couple plays todays best country. The Northwest spells country K-U-P-L. On September 4, 1997 at 7AM KUPL-FM switched back to it's original frequency, 98.7mhz, after 33 years. KUPL-FM's transmitter was moved to an earlier site, it's AM sister (at the time KALE) used with then sister KOIN Radio, 57 years ago. (Sylvan Hill, 5516 S.W. Barns Rd.). KUPL-FM moved to the KOIN TV Tower. Power was reduced to 37KW horizontal & vertical (antenna height 1,443). This was done to clear up reception problems in the Beaverton area. K251AD was shut down. Slogan: 98-7 KUPL, we play the most music guaranted.

On June 4, 1998 KUPL-FM was sold to a new group owner: CBS Radio. On November 13, 1998 group ownership changed to: Infinity Broadcasting Corp. In 1999 Lee Rogers became Operations Manager. On August 7, 2001 KUPL-FM became KUPL. Slogan: Couple Country.

On October 3, 1934 KSLM began operation on 1370kc, with the power of 100 watts daytime only. KSLM was owned by Oregon Radio, Inc. (Harry B. Read). Studios were located at 345 Court St. in Salem. Transmitter was located one half mile from city limits. KSLM calls stood for SaLeM.

In early 1935 KSLM began night operation.(100 watts day & night). In early 1937 studios were expanded with a new address 343 Court St. On September 26, 1937 KSLM affiliated with the Mutual-Don Lee Broadcasting System. By 1938 KSLM was on the air 7AM to Midnight.

On April 28, 1939 KSLM switched to 1360kc. Power increased to 1kw day, 500 watts night, from it's new studio & transmitter location at 633 N. Front St.(now Front St. N.E.). A 218 foot Wincharger vertical radiator was installed. In 1940 KSLM raised night power to 1kw.

On March 29, 1941 KSLM switched to 1390kc. On March 1, 1944 KSLM was sold to auto dealer Paul V. McElwain & Glenn E. McCormick for $69,000. Mr. McCormick became President of Oregon Radio, Inc. & KSLM G.M. In mid 1944 KSLM moved studios to The Senator Hotel at 519 Court St.

On January 4, 1949 KSLM moved studios & transmitter to a new $100,000 building in Kingwood Heights. (520 West Hills Way N.W.) in West Salem. On September 30, 1953 KSLM was granted a construction permit for KSLM-TV channel 3. (5.5kw visual, 2.75kw aural). The TV station was never built. By October 1953 KSLM's slogan was: Radio Salem. By 1954 KSLM was operating 24 hours.

On May 26, 1959 KSLM raised day power to 5kw. In May 1959 KSLM switched it network affiliation from MBS to ABC. In late 1959 Lou C. McCormick succeeded her husband as President of Oregon Radio, Inc. On May 21, 1963 Mrs. McCormick became 100 percent owner, from 65.4 percent. Mrs. McCormick's new married name was now Lou C. Paulus. By 1964 KSLM was programming an MOR format. On January 1, 1968 KSLM affiliated with the abc Information Network. On February 29, 1968 KSLM switched back to it Mutual affiliation. On July 3, 1970 KSLM-FM began operation, simulcasting it's sister.

On October 30, 1977 KSLM was sold to Holiday Radio, Inc. for $684,000. Price included KORI(FM). Owners were Terry McRight, James B. Franklin & W.P. Buckthal. In 1980 KSLM added a CBS affiliation. In 1981 Mutual was dropped again. In 1982 KSLM switched to an AC format. Slogan: Holiday Radio, Salem's first station. (not true, see archive "Portland Station Becomes Salem's First".)

In March 1986 KSLM was sold to Ronette Communications of Oregon, Inc. for $1.2 Million. Price included KSKD(FM). Owners were Carl Como Tutera, Ron Samuels, Norman Drubner 50 percent & The Daytona Group of Oregon, Inc. 50 percent. In the Summer of 1986 KSLM switched to an Oldies format.

On July 26, 1988 KSLM was sold to 1010 Broadcasting, Inc. (John E. Grant) for $215.000. On April 6, 1992 KSLM was sold to K-Salem Communications (Greg Fabos) for $151,000. In February 1994 KSLM switched to SMN's satellite delivered "Kool Gold" oldies format.

In late 1994 KSLM was sold to Willamette Broadcasting, owners of KYKN Keizer OR. Willamette had 9 months to find KSLM a new transmitter site. The current site was now prime real state and the land lease was going to expire soon. By the Summer of 1995 Willamette was still looking, but time had run out. KSLM went dark.

In 1996 KSLM was granted a construction permit for 1660khz. in the new Expanded AM Band, which it still holds. In early 1997 KSLM returned to the air. Studios were now located with sister KYKN at 4205 Cherry Ave. N.E. in Keizer. Transmitter was now located in North Salem.

On October 22, 1998 KSLM was sold to Entercom Portland License LLC (Entercom Communications Corp.) for $605.000. Shortly after the sale, KSLM began simulcasting KFXX Vancouver WA from studios at 0700 S.W. Bancroft St. in Portland OR. Slogan: Sports Radio 910, The Fan.

---The Beginning of KGH Hillsboro---

On Monday September 20, 1920 The Federal Telegraph Co. purchased 331 acres for $41,500. from the Rood estate (Fred Rood of Hillsboro). Frank H. Barstow, Federal's local Manager will erect a 625 foot tower with a set of 6 smaller towers to hold 6 sets of antennas (KGH would be capable of broadcasting on 6 different wavelengths simultaneously).

The land was 3 miles east of Hillsboro, next to the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks near Newton Station. (What is today Newton OR is between S.E. 32nd Ave. & The Sunset Esplanade on Oregon Hwy. 8, The Tualatin Valley Hwy.). The total cost Barstow estimates will be $200,000.

The new station will take the place of the Lents Oreg. station (KFU was licensed in May 1915). It was taken over by the U.S. Government during World War 1, dismantled and transferred to Siberia for use by the U.S. Navy. The new station will send and receive from Europe and Asia but will be employed chiefly for corresponding with California stations.

A receiving set will be installed on top of "The Board of Trade" building in Portland Oreg. (270 Oak St., now: 310 S.W. 4th Ave.) where Federal has offices. Transmission lines will be placed between Hillsboro & Portland. Construction will begin in one month. [The Oregon Journal, September 22, 1920, page 4.]

KGH was licensed in June 1921 and was assigned the wavelengths: 300 meters (999.3kc), 600 meters (499.6kc), 8,300 meters (36.12kc), 9,400 meters (31.89kc), 14,200 meters (21.11kc), 15,300 meters (19.59kc). Many wavelength changes would occur in the years to come. KGH used synchronous rotary spark gap transmitters, called by operators across the country as "Stone Crushers" for the sound they made. The antennae had an elaborate counterpoise system that radiated in a circle around the main tower. There was a 3kw transmitter for close ships and a 5kw set for ships far out at sea.

From The Oregon Journal, September 25, 1927, section 2, page 8. KGH, just purchased by Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co. announced it has just in stalled a 500 watt shortwave transmitter. It's being used after 7:00 p.m. This fall a 1,500 watt arc & tube transmitter will be installed, replacing one of the old stone crusher types. I.F Julien is in charge of KGH with fellow operator G.B. Gould.

On December 31, 1928 Mackay Radio announced a new more powerful transmitter will be installed by March 1, 1929 making KGH The Most Powerful Marine Radio Station In The Northwest, said Eugene H. Price, Mackay District Manager. ____________________________________________________________

KEK Hillsboro began operation on July 9, 1923. KEK is owned by The Federal Telegraph Co. and is a Marine receiving station located on Council Crest. KEK has 4 long wave receivers. Two for ship work and two for shortwave reception.

Three or four signals from Federal's San Francisco operating room (KFS transmitter in Palo Alto, CA) are picked up simultaneously by KEK and passed down to the main office in Portland at The Board of Trade Building, where the operating room is located. The signals come in on a long wavelength automatically and are received on a paper tape. Operators transcribe the signals from the tape direct on to a telegraph blank card, ready for delivery at a speed of 40 to 80 words per minute over KGH, Federals transmitting station in Hillsboro.

Portland is one of the very few cities in the world that has a complete ship to ship and point to point radio service. KEK recieves news day and night of ships carrying loved ones, news of ships in trouble. Vessels 1,000 miles at sea report their positions nightly or might request medical aid. KEK's Council Crest site is hidden among fir trees. The receiving room building is no bigger than a garage. The pickup antenna uses a frame covered with wire mounted outside the building and rotated from the operating desk. Warren Clark is the Main Operator of KEK.

The "KG" block of calls has special meaning for the Portland area. We were assigned five "KG" calls. Of course the only remaining is KGW. With this in mind, the thought was to compile the original license assignments of the entire block. What's interesting about the "KG" block is that all were assigned to Pacific Coast States or ships. The following was gathered from Department of Commerce, Radio Service Bulletin's.

CALLS, COMMUNITY LICENSE(S), [VESSEL]

KGA Spokane WA, Oakland CA [COAMO] KGB San Diego CA, Tacoma WA, San Francisco CA [CAROLINA] KGC Kanatak AK, Hollywood CA (LUCKENBACH NO.2] KGD [SURUGA][DACIA] KGE Medford OR [WESTWEGO] KGF Candle AK, Pomona CA [LUCKENBACH NO.3] KGG Heceta Island AK, Portland OR [LUCKENBACH NO.4] KGH Hillsboro OR KGI Nellie Juan AK, Oakland CA KGJ [SAN JUAN] KGK [EDGAR F. LUCKENBACH] KGL Port Hobron AK [DOCHRA] KGM Ketchikan AK [MEXICANO] KGN Portland OR, Albina OR KGO San Francisco CA, Oakland CA, Altadena CA, Underwood WA KGP [PONCE] KGQ Todd AK KGR [CAMBRIDGE][ATLANTA] KGS [SENATOR BAILEY] KGT Fresno CA KGU Honolulu HI [ONEGA] KGV Los Angeles CA [FRED'K LUCKENBACH] KGW Portland OR [D.N. LUCKENBACH] KGX Port Wakefield AK [HARRY LUCKENBACH] KGY Olympia WA, Lacey WA KGZ ?

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

RADIO DIVISION

RADIO SERVICE BULLETIN

Issued monthly

Washington, August 30, 1930 - No. 161

BRANCH OFFICE OF THIS DIVISION OPENED IN PORTLAND, OREG.

A branch office of the Seattle office (seventh radio district) has been opened at 227 New Post Office Building, Portland. [today: Postal Building, 510 S.W. 3rd Ave.] Individuals or companies residing or located nearer to Portland than Seattle should apply to the radio inspector at Portland for information pertaining to operator licenses, station licenses, and other matters properly pertaining to the work of the division. ________________________________________________________

"PACIFIC TELEPHONE" PORTLAND DIRECTORY - November 1957

Federal Communication Commission-- Engnr In Charge Dist Ofc USCtHse - CA6-3361

Engnr In Charge Radio Mon Sta 2310 N.E. 148Av - AL4-2221

On July 28, 1929 The Department of Commerce, Bureau of Lighthouses, Airways Division, Aeronautics Branch announced plans to construct a weather station just east of Rocky Butte. At the time the Government was in the building stage of starting up a network of aviation weather stations. The Portland licensed station would serve aircraft for 700 miles. KCS La Grande had already been put into service earlier in July. KCS would serve the territory between Portland & Salt Lake City.

On October 15, 1929 KCY began operation, broadcasting weather reports at 30 minutes past the hour. KCY studio & transmitter were located in Wilkes Oreg. on Fisher Rd. (address unknown). Fisher Rd. began north, off Barr Rd. (now: N.E. Halsey St.) and ran towards the Columbia River. Fisher Rd. is now part of the longer N.E. 148th Ave. running south. KCY cost $25,000. to build. Ward E. Cutting was KCY's Chief Operator. Clyde H. Bruyn, KEX Chief Engineer helped with the transmitter installation. It is believed Mr. Bruyn was KCY's Contract Engineer since KEX's transmitter site was close at Buckley & Glisan (now: 122nd & Glisan). KCY's wavelength was 327kc. On this date KCY's sister weather station KCX Medford Oreg. also began operation on 344kc.

By March 1932 Oregon had a network of Airway Marker Beacon stations also owned by The Department of Commerce, Bureau of Lighthouses, Airways Division, Aeronautics Branch. They were: "H" Arlington 278kc. plus: 248kc. "F" Cascade Locks 278kc. plus: 248kc. & 284kc. "S" Meacham 278kc. plus: 320kc. "W" Medford, high power station at 266kc. "B" Portland, high power station at 284kc. "H" Sexton Mtn. 278kc. plus: 266kc. "O" Umatilla 278kc. plus: 320kc.

By 1932 The Department of Commerce, Radio Inspection Service, Monitoring Station was located in Portland's Healy Heights at 1005 Tualatin Ave. (now: 4149 S.W. Tualatin Ave.). Robert A. Landsburg, Inspector.

On April 3, 1912 the United States ratified the "Radio Act of 1912" and was assigned calls by the International Convention on May 9, 1913. The United States was assigned all of the "W" and "N" blocks of calls, plus part of the "K" block. KDA through KZZ. KAA through KCZ had already been assigned to another country. They were later allocated to the U.S. in 1929. The United States gave the U.S. Navy the "N" block but took call assignment control from the Navy Department and created a new administrative unit to assign calls. The Radio Division, Bureau of Navigation, U.S. Department of Commerce.

This new division was under the Bureau of Navigation since most call assignments went to telegraph stations on ships. As land stations grew more prominent by 1922, some of these early ship call assignments were re-assigned to land stations. By this time most of these land stations broadcast audio.

It's always been part of radio history lore to boast if your station calls were orginally assigned to a vessel. Here for the first time, is a compiled list from The Department of Commerce, Radio Service Bulletins. The following have been selected from west coast assignments.

CALLS, COMMUNITY LICENSE(S), [VESSEL]

KFI Los Angeles CA [I.D. FLETCHER] KGA Spokane WA, San Francisco CA [COAMO] KGB San Diego CA, Tacoma WA [CAROLINA] KGU Honolulu HI [ONEGA] KGW Portland OR [D.N. LUCKENBACH] KKP Seattle WA [PROTEUS] KLX Oakland CA [SAN PEDRO] KNT Kukak Bay AK, Aberdeen WA [MIELERO][MONTAUK] KNV Los Angeles CA [CUBADIST] KNX Los Angeles CA [MORENI] KOA Denver CO [HAMILTON] KOB Albuquerque NM, State College NM [PRINCESS ANNE] KOH Reno NV [GLENPOOL] KOL Seattle WA [MOUNT HOPE] KPO San Francisco CA [STANDTOW][TWILITE] KPQ Wenatchee WA, Seattle WA [SUNLITE] KQI Berkeley CA [INDIAN] KQP Portland OR, Hood River OR [PARTHIAN] KQY Vestal Substation CA, Portland OR [POWHATAN] KSL Salt Lake City UT, San Francisco CA [ST. LOUIS] KTW Seattle WA [DELAWARE SUN] KUJ Walla Walla WA, Longview WA, Seattle WA [MUNDALE] KXA Seattle WA [BOSTON] KXL Portland OR [CITY OF TAUNTON] KXO El Centro CA [CONNECTICUT] KYA San Francisco CA [ATALANTA] KYG Laguna Bell Substation CA, Portland OR [WILD DUCK] KYQ Honolulu HI [CALIFORNIA] KZC Parsons KS, Seattle WA [AZTEC] KZM Oakland CA [DIANA] WLS Chicago IL [ARBOREAN]

In 1919 The Radio Division began assigning ship calls with four letters.

KDAY Redondo Beach CA, Santa Monica CA [TOLOSS] KDBX Clear Lake SD, Banks OR, Boonville MO [MOUNT CLAY][DE KALB] KDBZ Anchorage AK, Portland OR [APUS] KDON Salinas CA, Monterey CA [VOLANT] KDOV Medford OR, Ashland OR, Medford OR [STONEWALL] KDUN Reedsport OR [RIPPLE] KDUX Aberdeen WA, Ocean Shores WA [G.N. WILSON] KFAX San Francisco CA [CHILLICOTHE] KFLS Klamath Falls OR [NEW ORLEANS] KIMN Denver CO [SALVATION LASS] KING Seattle WA [WATERTOWN] KINK Portland OR [LAKE GLASCO] KISM Bellingham WA [BALDBUTTE] KISN Belgade MT, Salt Lake City UT, Vancouver WA [LAKE FAGUNDUS] KISS San Antonio TX [LIBERTY LAND] KODL The Dalles OR [MENOMINEE] KODZ Eugene OR [OPHIS] KOLD Tucson AZ [ANTONIA] KOMB Fort Scott KS, Cottage Grove OR [LAKE GERT] KONG Everett WA, Visalia CA [MARGUS] KOPB Portland OR [LAKE FERNALDA] KORD Richland WA, Pasco WA [SUNDANCE] KORK Portland OR, Las Vegas NV [DRYDEN] KORL Honolulu HI [HALEAKALA] KOST Los Angeles CA [CHESTER VALLEY] KOTK Omaha NE, Portland OR [WEST NERIS] KUGN Eugene OR [LAKE HARESTI] KUPL Portland OR [CONNESS PEAK]

The NBC Network Chimes

by Robert M. Morris From OTB Volume 20, No. 1 (June, 1979)

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There has been controversy as to the first broadcasting station, but there has been little doubt that the first broadcast network program occurred on January 4, 1923, as a simultaneous transmission from WEAF New York and WNAC Boston of a New York-originated program. This program started at 8:03 PM with the selection "Habanera" from Carmen by Bizet, sung by Davera Nadwernay. This was followed a few months later with a more extensive network transmission originating at Carnegie Hall and broadcast by WEAF New York, WGY Schenectady, KDKA Pittsburgh, and KYW Chicago using facilities supplied by AT&T Co. This was followed quickly during the summer of 1923 with the construction of a second Telephone Company station, WCAP in Washington, D. C., and the regular linking of this and other stations with programs from WEAF. Facilities specially engineered for this purpose were originally called the "Red Layout," later the Red Network.

Operation of the broadcasting network required close coordination between the point of program origination and operating points along the network for proper switching of circuits and for making required station break announcements. It was determined that some special, readily identifiable, aural cue was needed. Voice cues by the announcer did not work with sufficient reliability to be satisfactory. As a result the four-tone Deegan chime, frequently used to announce dinner, was tried as an aural cue. It is not known who selected the chime melody used, but a seven note series as shown in Figure 1 became the red network cue and was used until operations under NBC moved to 711 Fifth Avenue. Both studios at 195 Broadway were equipped with a four tone chime for network cues.

In 1927 the new NBC broadcasting operation moved from previously used studios at 195 Broadway and 33 West 42 Street to new studios at 711 Fifth Avenue. With this move came many changes, including a change to a simpler three note network cue consisting of the notes G, E and C in that order. This chime cue was also used on the newly formed Blue Network of NBC headed by station WJZ. This method of cueing for station breaks using hand operated chimes and the three note NBC aural logo continued until shortly after the move to Radio City in 1933.

Sometime during the latter part of 1933, O. B. Hanson and R.M. Morris of NBC Engineering Department visited Captain Richard H. Ranger at his home in North Newark. This visit was for the purpose of inspecting and becoming better acquainted with an electronic organ developed by Captain Ranger. This organ, one of the first of its kind, bore little resemblance to later developments in this field, such as the Hammond. It was quite complex and had many features of the pipe organ but the equipment consisting of countless tubes, relays, oscillators, amplifiers, filters, modulators, etc., occupied all of a two car garage.

Later, the Captain accompanied Mr. Hanson and me back to downtown Newark where we slopped et the Robert Treat Hotel for some refreshment and a continuation of our discussion. It was during this quite informal conference that the subject of the NBC chimes arose with the thought that a push-button operated electric chime would be preferable to the method then used. The discussion concluded with the suggestion that Captain Ranger prepare a design of such a device and present it as a proposal to NBC. It was hoped that a reasonably simple and trouble free design, suitable for network use, would be forthcoming.

Somewhat to the surprise of NBC Engineering it was only a month and a half or so later that Captain Ranger appeared with a working model of his proposal. (Figure 2 shows Ranger [left] with his device.) It consisted of a unit suitable for rack mounting in which the chime tones were produced by three sets of 8 metallic reeds which plucked in sequence by studs on three motor driven drums. It was a small electric music box. Tone from the reeds was obtained by capacitive coupling of adjustable fingers mounted above each reed.

Tests of the new Rangertone Chime indicated that it had many desirable features but had a tone quality quite different from the soft voiced Deegan chimes. This problem was referred to the music experts of NBC with the result that Ernest LaPrade, concert master for Walter Damrosch and the Music Appreciation Hour, was assigned to work with Roland Lynn of the NBC Laboratory to achieve satisfactory tone quality from the new chime machine. After many days of effort, since both men were perfectionists, a pleasing but distinctive tone quality was achieved. After the necessary circuit changes were made in the studio control system, the new electronic chimes were put on the air in New York, and orders were placed for additional units for other major program originating points.

The Rangertone Chimes were used successfully by NBC for several years until they were replaced by all electronic chimes developed by the NBC Laboratory about 1939. The NBC Chimes were used on early television program s in the forties and early fifties and were even accompanied for a short time by a visual logo of a three bar chime in color. As television became dominant and switching was accomplished on a precision time basis the need for an aural switching cue faded. The three note G - E - C chime had however become well established as a trademark and aural logo of NBC. A musical selection based on the three note theme was written which is still heard as the theme for "NBC Movie of the Week". The three chime notes are also heard regularly as an aural logo for the NBC Evening News programs.

An interesting sidelight on the chimes occurred in 1938 during a trip the author made to England, Holland, Germany and France to observe progress in television in these countries. D.C. Birkenshaw of BBC one evening commented that he frequently listened to programs from the States over short wave from the General Electric stations at Schenectady. He thought it was most ingenious of them to use an aurally coded identification for the G E. stations by using chimes with the notes G - E - C for General Electric Company. I tried to persuade him that the chime signal came from NBC and had nothing to do with General Electric. I'm not sure he really believed it

So you think our 60 cycle electrical system was originally determined by our 60 seconds/minutes time standard? Not exactly.

When Westinghouse and others were determining the frequency for alternating current back in 1889 and 1890, several frequencies were developed. One of the first to be used was 133. The choice of this odd frequency was based on their generating unit which ran at 2000 rpm, had 8 poles and gave 16,000 alternations per minute or 133 1/3 cycles (16, 000 divided by complete alternation or 60 plus 60 = 133 1/3).

Other frequencies were tried depending on the power source: steam engines and water power. The cylinder type steam engine ran at a relatively low speed. At one time some thought was given to 16 2/3 cycles since an 8-pole generator at a lesser driving speed gave 2000 alternations or 16 2/3 cycles.

The lower frequencies worked great for large low rpm electric motors but were impractical for lighting purposes because of the pronounced lamp flicker.

A strong contender and one used for many years, particularly in heavy industry, was 25 cycles. This frequency originated at the Niagara Falls hydro power plant in the 1890's. After several compromises they settled on a 12 pole, 250 rpm machine which gave 3000 alternations or 25 cycles. It is only in recent years that 25 cycle has been phased out in most industry.

High speed turbo generators did the trick for soon six-pole, 1800 rpm generators became standard giving 60 cycles which was a compromise for drive speed and machine design.

So you see, our 60 cycle system was not necessarily decided by 'time' but by source of motor speed and generator design.

Morse, in the arrangement of his conventional telegraphic alphabet, took as a unit of space or length the shortest available length of line, technically termed a dot. His alphabet was then made up of signs, forty-five in number, formed from three elements: the dot, the space and the dash, arranged in various combinations, representing the following relative values:

The dot--one unit

The space or break between the elements of a letter--one unit

The space, employed in the "Spaced Letters,"--two units

The space, separating the letters of a word--three units

The space separating words--six units

The short dash--three units

The long dash--six units

Prof. S. F. B. Morse, in considering the mechanical means at command for producing at a distance any permanent mark, perceived that by means of the electromagnet, the motion of a lever, up and down, could be easily and surely commanded; and if a pencil at one extremity of it were made to strike upon a piece of paper. A dot would be made whenever the magnet was charged and quickly discharged. This action, however, without a further device, would be unavailing to produce variety, since the lever motion is limited to the simple movement of up and down. Hence the idea of moving the paper at a regular rate beneath the pencil.

Thus a dot could be made on the moving ribbon of paper, which, passing onward, the paper was ready to receive (after an interval more or less extended) another dot, or series of dots. Thus, the ability to produce dots in groups at pleasure was demonstrated, and, consequently, groups of dots expressive of various numerals were devised.

In pursuing the experiments with the numerals whose elements were a simple dot and space, it was perceived that, by means of the moving paper, not merely a dot could be produced at pleasure, but if the magnet was kept charged while the paper was in movement, the pencil produced a line long in proportion to the time in which the magnet was charged. This fact introduced a third element for combination, to produce variety in the groups, indicating letters, as well as numerals, to wit: the line or dash; so that dots, spaces and lines in any variety of combination were at command for forming a code of signs. Hence originated what is now universally recognized as the Morse code.

In the arrangement of the alphabet it was desired that no letter should occupy more than five dots, or nine units in length; and none of them, with the single exception of the letter J, exceeds that number. Another principle was specially observed, that of the letters occurring most frequently in the English language, were therefore composed of the fewest and shortest elements. The letter E is thus represented by a single dot; the I and T within the space of two dots or three units, and so on. The numerals were comprised within the value of six dots, or eleven units, to distinguish them more readily from the letters.

Upon the introduction of the Morse system into Germany many years ago, an important arrangement of the alphabet was devised, called the Continental or International Alphabet, and this has been adopted and become universal on all submarine cables as well as land lines, in all parts of the world where the Morse apparatus is used, except in America. It is founded on the Morse, and the only letters that differ from the Morse are c, f, j, l, o, p, q, r, x, y, z; the additional letters peculiar to foreign languages are ä, ö, and ü, é and ñ. The figures are all different, except the figure 4. All these letters and figures are made by dots and lines, the same as the Morse, and only differ in their relative position.

Amateur Radio in the 1950s: Romance and Reality

by Ronald R. Thomas 6415 Chastain Dr. NE Atlanta, GA 30342

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In the 1950s, amateur radio or "ham radio" seemed almost magical. There was no Internet, long distance telephone calls were expensive, and international air travel was limited. People knew that Hams talked to each other all over the world, which was perceived as glamorous and exciting. They also knew that Hams often provided emergency communications during disasters and had played an important role in military communications during World War II.

Most people were pleased to have a ham radio operator in their neighborhood. They were often even quite willing to allow a ham to run a long wire antenna across their backyard.

During that era, many home radios covered shortwave bands, which enabled people to listen to hams talking to each other. Some listeners decided to become hams themselves so that they could participate in this exciting hobby. Their first step would be to begin studying for a license.

Licensing

In the 1950s, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ruled supreme over the airwaves. The agency totally controlled radio broadcasting, commercial radio communications and, of course, amateur radio. Obtaining a ham radio license required passing Morse code receiving and sending tests and a stringent written exam.

Every aspiring radio amateur quickly acquired a copy of the American Relay League (ARRL) publications related to licensing. These included How to Become a Radio Amateur, The Radio Amateur's License Manual, and Learning the Radiotelegraph Code. The prospective applicant worked with these self-study aids and practiced Morse code until he or she felt ready to take the exam at an FCC office.

Larger cities, like Buffalo, Detroit, Boston and New York had FCC offices where amateur exams were given on a regular basis. In addition, FCC personnel gave examinations in other cities, like Cleveland and Pittsburgh, on a quarterly basis. Sitting for the examination often involved time away from work or school, and it sometimes required a long drive to an FCC examination location.

By the mid 1950s, the General class amateur radio license conferred operating privileges on many modes and bands. Higher license classes (Advanced or Extra), were required for voice privileges on some of the more crowded band segments. Later in the decade, General licensees were given full operating privileges. The license was issued for five years and was renewable.

Passing the exam for a General class license was not easy. First, the applicant took a 13 word-per-minute Morse code receiving test. If that test was passed, a 13-wpm sending test followed. The applicant was allowed to take the written test only after he or she passed the sending and receiving tests.

The prospective ham who had passed the written test went home and waited until the mail brought the coveted license. Anyone who failed any portion of the examination had to wait 30 days before trying again. Many failed some part of the exam on the first attempt.

Also, in that era, the FCC introduced a Novice class license. It was a one-year, non-renewable, license that offered limited Morse code operating privileges on special Novice shortwave frequencies plus voice privileges on two meters. The Novice class license required only a five-wpm code test and a very basic written exam. Also introduced was a Technician class license that had only a five-wpm code test, but required the same level of written exam given for the General class license. This license was good for five years, could be renewed, and provided operating privileges only on the very high frequency Ham bands, where there was relatively limited activity.

Ham Equipment

Once a new ham had obtained a license, he set about acquiring the necessary equipment to assemble his station. In the 1950s, most hams operated primarily on the shortwave (3 to 30 MHz) amateur bands and used separate receivers and transmitters. Hams usually bought a commercially built receiver from companies like Hallicrafters and National Radio and, quite often, built their own transmitters.

A wide variety of receivers was available ranging in price from $50 for a Hallicrafters S-38 to $359 for a National HRO-50. The selection of commercially built ham transmitters was somewhat more limited. A popular commercially built ham transmitter was the Viking Ranger offered by the E. F. Johnson Company for $293. It had an input power of 75 watts using CW and 65 watts using AM phone. It also had a built in variable frequency oscillator. A variety of low-powered, low-priced, crystal-controlled, CW rigs--tailored for the limited Novice operating privileges --were also on the market.

Hams desiring to build a transmitter would find a construction article in a magazine or the ARRL Radio Amateur's Handbook. Then they would search for the necessary parts, do the metal work on the chassis and cabinet, and solder in all the components and wiring. Unfortunately, no matter how good the final product, the builder had created a transmitter that had little resale value.

Those who wanted equipment with a commercial look yet wished to do their own building might shop for a transmitter kit. Companies like E. F. Johnson offered their equipment in kit form at a significant cost savings. For example, a $293 Viking Ranger transmitter sold for $215 in kit form.

The builder would receive a pre-drilled chassis, pre-painted cabinet, and all of the necessary components. He would then do all of the assembly, working from what was usually a very sketchy construction manual. It would have been a real challenge for a beginning ham to assemble one of those kits. It was a job for those with advanced skills.

The Heath Company changed the world of electronic kits, including ham radio kits, with their "Heathkit" line. Heath's great success was due in large part to the world-class assembly manual supplied with every kit. Those manuals made it possible even for beginners to successful assemble a Heathkit.

The Heathkit DX-100 transmitter was extremely popular in the 1950s. It had an input power of 120 watts on CW and 100 watts on AM phone and had a built in VFO. It sold for $190 in kit form. Heathkits were often less expensive than other kits, because Heath frequently used new, military surplus parts and bought many other components in large quantities at discount prices.

All of the equipment in that era used vacuum tubes, and the glow from those tubes was a sight never to be forgotten. Unfortunately, the equipment was large and heavy. A Heathkit DX-100 transmitter weighed 107 pounds and a National HRO-50 receiver weighed 84 pounds. Today, such a radio is often referred to (sometimes fondly, sometimes sarcastically) as a "boat anchor."

The final ingredient for getting on the air was the installation of an antenna. Wire antennas were widely used on all of the shortwave Ham bands. Also, some Hams used beam antennas on the higher frequency Ham bands.

On the Air at Last!

Every ham remembers his or her first on the air contact. It truly seemed like a magical moment to talk to someone via radio. The conversations included station equipment, occupations, the weather, and other non-controversial topics. In that era, hams did not talk about religion, politics, or anything that might be the least bit offensive. Nevertheless, the conversations were enjoyable.

As the QSL cards confirming contacts began to accumulate, they were proudly displayed for the admiration of friends, visitors, and neighbors. It was hard for someone to not be impressed when seeing the colorful cards from faraway places.

End of an Era

As the 1950s progressed, amateur radio began to change significantly. For example, vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors; AM phone was replaced by single sideband; separate transmitters and receivers became transceivers; and Hallicrafters, National, and Heath disappeared. Society changed also, and the ham radio operator no longer seemed to be a glamorous figure.

However, hams have always changed with the times. By the 1960s and 1970s, they accepted SSB, began using repeaters on the VHF Ham bands, and learned how to integrate computers into amateur radio. Nevertheless, those who first experienced ham radio in the 1950s will always remember the magic and romance of that era.

Did Marconi Receive Transatlantic Radio Signals in 1901? - Part 1

by Henry M. Bradford Site 1, Comp A0, RR2, Wolfville, N.S. B0P1X0

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We are again fortunate to have another article from Henry Bradford on the early years of the Marconi transatlantic stations. Henry presents a thought-provoking discourse on the controversy associated with Marconi's earliest transatlantic experiments. There's no doubt in my mind that, due to Marconi's misunderstanding of the limitations of his receiving equipment, the letter "S" was really heard on HF, not on MF as the inventor claimed.

Give this article a whirl and see if you are convinced. If you are convinced, you might speculate, as I did, where communications technology would be today if the communications effectiveness of HF was uncovered at the turn of the 20th. century, instead of some 25 years later.-- Frank J. Lotito, Editor, "Below 535"

In December 1901, Marconi claimed to have received, at St. John's, Newfoundland, a radio test signal transmitted by his high-powered spark transmitter station at Poldhu, Cornwall, England. This was the first reported transatlantic radio transmission, and it convinced Marconi that a transatlantic radio service was possible. In spite of his subsequent successes in transatlantic wireless communications, his celebrated original claim has remained the subject of controversy.

The doubts today centre around the reported wavelength and time of day: 366 metres (820 kHz), around midday and early afternoon at St. John's. At this time, much or all of the transatlantic path was in daylight. In the light of modern knowledge about radio propagation, Marconi could hardly have picked a worse combination of frequency and time of day for the transatlantic experiment. Imagine attempting transatlantic transmission on the North American AM broadcast band in the middle of the day!

As most radio listeners know, reception at these frequencies typically is restricted to within a few hundred miles from the station in the daytime, though it may extend many times further at night. The reason for this is this is that the D-layer of the ionosphere absorbs the energy of radio waves in this frequency range during the day, but disappears at night, allowing long distance reception via reflections from higher levels in the ionosphere.

So how did Marconi receive transatlantic radio signals in the middle of the day in what now is the AM broadcast band --if indeed he did? Let us examine all his early efforts at long distance radio communications for an explanation. (See References [1] through [3] for full descriptions of the events and equipment.) In 1900, Marconi built a powerful new shore station at Poldhu, Cornwall for ship-shore radio communications and experimentation. It was designed by Professor J. A. Fleming, a prominent electrical engineer. The station employed a spark transmitter, but unlike its battery-powered predecessors it was powered by a 35 kilowatt alternator. Encouraged by ranges of several hundred miles obtained with the new station, Marconi decided to attempt transatlantic transmission.

Most scientists of the time felt this was impossible. That opinion was based on the belief that radio waves, like light, should travel in straight lines, limiting radio communications to about horizon distances. Marconi knew that he had already exceeded that limit, and believed that radio waves, for some reason, followed the curvature of the Earth. Therefore he reasoned that with stations of sufficient size and power, he should be able to span the Atlantic. No one at the time knew that reflections from the ionosphere could greatly extend the range of radio transmissions.

Marconi chose Newfoundland as the receiving site for his first transatlantic experiment in order to minimize the length of the propagation path. In December, 1902, he sailed to St. John's with portable receiving equipment and set it up on Signal Hill, about 2100 statute miles, or 3500 kilometres, from Poldhu. The transmitting antenna at Poldhu was a fan, broadside to the Atlantic, made up of 54 vertical wires. The top of the fan was 60 metres (about 200 feet) wide, and was suspended 48 metres (about 160 feet) above the ground. The wires came together at the lower end where they were connected to the feed line to the transmitter. (See page 36 of Reference [3] for a good photo of it.)

The test schedule required Poldhu to transmit sequences of S's (three dots) in Morse code, together with short messages, interspersed with five-minute breaks at intervals. The transmissions took place from 11:30 AM to 2:30 PM Newfoundland time each day beginning December 11 [4]. The reported wavelength was 366 metres (820 kHz), and although there has been some controversy about this figure, it seems consistent with detailed modern analysis of the Poldhu transmitter [5,6].

Descriptions of the receiving equipment used are sketchy, and the details reported by different sources vary. I believe that the combined descriptions best fit two types of receiver developed by Marconi prior to 1900: an untuned receiver and a tuned ("syntonic") receiver. (See Figures 1 and 2.) Since there was no electronic amplification, the critical component in these receivers was the detector.

The detector used was called a "coherer," and there were two principal types. The best known of these consisted of a glass tube containing metal filings held between two metal plugs that served as electrodes. When a RF signal voltage was applied across its electrodes, the filings cohered, lowering the resistance of the device and causing the direct current in a battery circuit containing the coherer to increase.

This direct current typically operated a relay which fed a larger current to a paper tape recorder. The latter current also operated a tapper which decohered the filings after the receipt of each signal. Basically, the coherer acted like a voltage-controlled switch that closed when a radio signal was received. Many people were involved in the development of the coherer, including Sir Oliver Lodge, who gave the device its name.

In the second type of coherer, a drop of mercury was used in place of the metal filings. It was called a self-restoring coherer because it did not require a tapper. The behavior of this instrument is not well understood, but its detector action may have been principally due, like that of a diode, to its non-linear I-V characteristic. Although known as the "Italian Navy Coherer," this detector, used in conjunction with a "telephone" (earphone), probably was developed originally by Sir J. C. Bose of India [7]. Since there is a potential node and current antinode at the bottom of a grounded vertical aerial, Marconi stepped up the signal voltage applied to the coherer by means of a RF transformer, called a "jigger," in both his untuned and tuned receivers. The principal difference between the tuned and untuned receivers was that the primary and secondary circuits of the jigger were tuned in the former by means of variable inductors and capacitors, whereas no effort was made to tune the circuits of the latter.

End of Part 1.

References [1] Baker, W. J., A History Of The Marconi Company, Methuen & Co., London (1970). [2] Vyvyan, R. N., Wireless Over Thirty Years, George Routledge & Sons, London (1933). Reprinted as Marconi And Wireless, EP Publishing Limited, Yorkshire, England (1974). [3] Bussey, Gordon, Marconi's Atlantic Leap, Marconi Communications 2000, Coventry, England (2000). [4] Bondyopadhyay, Probir K., "Investigations on the Correct Wavelength of Transmission of Marconi's December 1901 Transatlantic Wireless Signal, Part 2," IEEE International Antennas and Propagation Symposium Digest, Seattle, Washington, June 19-24,1994, pp 217-220. [5] Ratcliffe, J. A., "Scientists' Reactions to Marconi's Transatlantic Radio Experiment," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 121, No. 9, September 1974. [6] Belrose, John S., "A Radioscientist's Reaction to Marconi's First Transatlantic Wireless Experiment--Revisited," Antennas and Propagation Society, 2001 IEEE International Symposium, Vol 1, 2001, pp 22-25. [7] Bondyopadhyay, Probir K., "Sir J. C. Bose's Diode Detector Received Marconi's First Transatlantic Wireless Signal Of December 1901 (The "Italian Navy Coherer" Scandal Revisited)," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 1, January 1988.

Did Marconi Receive Transatlantic Radio Signals in 1901? Part 2 (conclusion): The Trans-Atlantic Experiments

by Henry M. Bradford Site 1, Comp A0, RR2, Wolfville, N.S. B0P1X0

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We apologize for not mentioning in February that the installment of this article published then comprised only Part 1 and that the second and final part would follow in this issue.--MFE

On December 11, 1901, Marconi and his party used balloons to support the receiving aerial wire which was about 500 feet long. According to Marconi's assistant, George Kemp, "Marconi tried all the detectors from time to time" until a heavy gust of wind blew the balloons away, ending the day's experiment. "Signals appeared at intervals on a telephone in series, when using our sensitive tube (coherer) circuit, and, at times, the dots threatened to appear on the tapper." [8]. The receiver was the syntonic (tuned) type.

On December 12, a kite was used to support the aerial wire, and Marconi switched to the untuned receiver because the erratic changes in elevation of the kite made tuning the aerial too difficult. Later, in a recorded address, Marconi said that he "tried various microphonic self-restoring coherers placed in the secondary circuit of a transformer, the signals being read on a telephone. In many cases a succession of S's being heard distinctly (also heard by Kemp) although, probably in consequence of the weakness of the signals and the unreliability of the detector, no actual message could be deciphered. The coherers which gave the signals were one(s) containing loose carbon filings, another designed by myself, contained a mixture of cobalt and carbon filings, and thirdly the 'Italian Navy Coherer,' containing a globule of mercury between two (conducting) plugs" [4].

Marconi recorded in his diary: signals received at 12:30, 1:10, and 2:20 Newfoundland time [2]. Marconi said later "At 12:30 PM, while I was listening on the telephone receiver there came to my ear, very weakly, but with such clarity that there could be no possible doubt, a rhythmic succession of the 3 dots corresponding to the letter "S" of the Morse code..." [4]. Some signals also were received December 13 during the brief time that a kite could be kept aloft.

When Marconi announced his reception of transatlantic radio signals to the world, the Anglo-American Telegraph Company, which held a monopoly on telegraphy in Newfoundland, threatened court action if Marconi continued his wireless work there. That ended transatlantic radio experiments in Newfoundland. His announcement of success met with some scepticism, especially in England, based on preconceived notions about radio waves travelling in straight lines.

To counter this and fully satisfy the Board of his company, his next long range experiment was carried out on a voyage from Britain to New York aboard the SS Philadelphia in February, 1902. In this experiment, he continually monitored signals from the Poldhu transmitter, which was unchanged and still operating at a nominal 820 kHz (366 metres).

Judging from Kemp's description, the receiving antenna was a four-wire horizontal cage about 150 feet above the deck [8]. A syntonic (tuned) receiver was used. Morse code messages were received to a maximum range of 700 miles during the day and 1550 miles at night. The repeated Morse letter S (the test signal used in the Newfoundland experiment) was received up to about 2100 miles at night, approximately the distance from Poldhu to St. John's. Marconi tested the range of the Poldu station again in 1902 on voyages aboard the Italian naval vessel Carlo Alberto, presumably with a tuned receiver. The results were consistent with those obtained on the SS Philadelphia.

During a summer voyage around the European coast, signals were received about 1600 miles from Poldhu at night (not necessarily the maximum range), but only to about 500 miles by day. On an east-west transatlantic voyage in October, signals were received right into the harbour at Sydney, Nova Scotia at night, at a reported wavelength of 1100 metres (about 273 kHz). Although these voyages vindicated Marconi as far as proving that trans-Atlantic radio communications were possible, they indicated that they could only be made at night at wavelengths of hundreds of metres, raising questions about the daytime experiment in Newfoundland.

Marconi was finding by trial and error that better results were obtained at longer wavelengths. He used a wavelength (at least sometimes) of 1650 metres (about 182 kHz) at his first trans-Atlantic station at Glace Bay, but still was confined to intermittent night-time operation. When he finally opened a commercial trans-Atlantic radio service in 1907 between another station near Glace Bay ("Marconi Towers") and Clifden, Ireland, he was using a wavelength of about 5000 metres (60 kHz). This provided reliable daytime communications and usable, but more variable, night-time communications.

What does all this tell us about the first transatlantic experiment between Poldhu and St. John's? Firstly, all the results obtained with tuned receivers were at least qualitatively consistent with modern experience and knowledge about radio propagation, although the long ranges obtained with such primitive equipment might come as a bit of a surprise to the reader [9]. Though daytime ranges at 820 kHz were limited to several hundred miles, the night-time ranges were several times longer.

The fact that no definite signals were received at St. John's on the tuned receiver (December 11) is no surprise to broadcast band listeners, and is consistent with radio propagation theory. According to the Austin-Cohen radio propagation formula [10], the daytime field strength at 820 kHz at St. John's would have been about 1/1500 of the field strength at the maximum daytime range achieved in the SS Philadelphia experiment.

The only result that seems inconsistent with modern knowledge was the claim of daytime reception of the 820 kHz transatlantic test signal at St. John's on December 12, which was made with an untuned receiver. It has been suggested that Marconi may have mistaken atmospheric interference ("static") for the three dots of the letter S repeated continuously. I doubt this because Marconi was an experienced radio listener, and his description of the event, quoted above, sounds very convincing.

Assuming then that he did hear the test signal, the most reasonable explanation is that his untuned receiver detected it at some frequency or frequencies other than the nominal transmission frequency of 820 kHz. Spark transmitters were notorious for their broadband emissions, and it is quite probable that the spectrum of the Poldhu transmitter contained significant power in the HF (short wave) band. [5].

Propagation curves indicate that the daytime strength of a 7.5 MHz signal at St. John's would be about six times greater than the field strength of a 820 kHz signal 700 miles from a source of the same power (the maximum daytime range in the SS Philadelphia experiment), if ionospheric absorption is neglected [11]. However, only a fraction of the broadband HF spectrum of the Poldhu transmitter would likely reach Newfoundland; the ionosphere would absorb all of it except for a band a few MHz wide below the maximum usable frequency (MUF), which would have been about 12 MHz.

Add to this a host of more uncertain factors such as the relative performances at 820 kHz and HF of the transmitter, the antennas, and the receivers, and about all you can say is that spurious HF radiation from the Poldhu spark transmitter provides the most plausible explanation of the first transatlantic radio transmission. Ironically, improvements in tuning prevented this from happening again in transatlantic work, and the potential of short wave for long distance communications was not realized for another two decades.

References and Endnotes [8] Kemp, George, "Extracts from the diary of G. S. Kemp.," Vol. 3., Marconi Archives, Marconi plc.

[9] Typical ranges for shipborne 1.5 kW spark transmitters and receivers of the early 1900's (no electronic amplification) were a surprising 100 nautical miles at 1 MHz, and 185 nautical miles at 150 kHz. Factors contributing to such good results with such primitive equipment probably were: large receiving antennas with good ground connections to the hull of the ship, resulting in low antenna circuit losses; propagation over salt water; and the large impulsive power of a spark transmitter. The voltage-controlled coherer detector was well suited to detection of the peak signals provided by the spark transmitter impulses. Ratcliffe (Reference 5) estimates the RF power output of the Poldhu transmitter during the damped wave spark impulses to have been a few tens of megawatts, whereas the average power input was only 35 kilowatts! This large ratio of impulse power to average power was due to the spark being produced by the relatively short discharge of a capacitor.

[10] P. David and J. Voge, Propagation of Waves, Pergammon Press, 1969.

[11] Bremmer, Dr. H., Terrestial Radio Waves, Elsevier Publishing Co., 1949.

Oliver Lodge: Almost the Father of Radio

by James P. Rybak, W0KSD Mesa State College Grand Junction, CO 81501

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By the year 1887, the 36-year-old Oliver Lodge was already regarded in Great Britain as a highly accomplished scientist. A professor of physics at the newly-established University College in Liverpool, he was known for his brilliant scientific mind and ability to explain complex scientific principles in a manner that could be understood by virtually anyone. In 1887, the Royal Society of Arts asked Lodge to prepare a series of lectures, to be given the following year, concerning how buildings might best be protected from lightning damage.[1]

The designers of the lightning protection systems of that time assumed that lightning was a continuous direct current discharge. They believed that protection from lightning could be obtained by placing copper rods above the buildings and connecting them to the earth by means of heavy copper grounding cables with a very low dc resistance.[2]

The lightning protection "experts" could not understand why lightning discharges frequently ignored the copper conductors and chose what seemed to be higher resistance "alternate paths" to ground.[3] This often resulted in great damage being done to the buildings. Such failures of the lightning protection systems was typically blamed poor ground connections.[4]

Lodge had had an interest in learning more about the subject for several years.[5] He now planned to conduct a series of experiments on electrical discharges prior to giving the lectures. The scientist intended to learn why lightning often did not follow the low-resistance path provided by the copper conductors.[6] He immediately began a series of experiments to learn more about lightning protection.

These laboratory investigations proved to be extremely important. They would contribute substantially to the development of wireless telegraphy and establish Lodge's world-wide reputation as an outstanding scientist.

In addition to demonstrating the effects of inductance in circuits with time-varying currents, the experiments ultimately resulted in Lodge establishing the existence of electromagnetic waves independently of, but virtually simultaneously with, the German scientist Heinrich Hertz. Lodge also discovered the phenomenon of electrical resonance and found that the "coherer" effect provided a very useful means for detecting the presence of electromagnetic waves.[7]

It was commonly known in 1887 that a lightning discharge is produced when the accumulation of electric charge in a cloud causes the potential difference between that cloud and the earth to increase until the intervening air breaks down electrically and becomes a conductor. Lodge visualized this as being much the same process as when the voltage across a capacitor increases until the breakdown of the dielectric occurs.[8] It also was well known that the discharge of a Leyden jar (capacitor) produces an oscillatory current rather than a direct current.[9] Oliver Lodge erroneously believed, therefore, that a lightning discharge also is oscillatory.[2]

The physicist decided to perform some preliminary "alternate path" experiments to attempt to confirm his theories prior to giving his first lecture on lightning in March of 1888. He used Leyden jar discharges to simulate lightning. The jars were usually charged using a Voss machine that generated static electricity through friction. One of the experimental arrangements used by Oliver Lodge is shown as Figure 1.[4,6]

The Voss machine was connected to the terminals, A. These, in turn, were connected to the inner conducting surfaces of two Leyden jars. The outer conducting surfaces of the jars were connected to an adjustable spark gap, B. A long loop of very low resistance copper wire, L, was connected across this spark gap. The wire Lodge first used was approximately 12 meters in length but had a resistance of only 0.025 ohm. [4,6] It wire closely simulated the characteristics of the conductors normally connected to lightning rods.

The electrical charge stored in the Leyden jars could flow either through the very low dc resistance path provided by the loop of wire or it could flow across the very high resistance path through the air between the spark-gap terminals at B. It would seem that the obvious path for the charge to follow would be through the low resistance wire loop. Surprisingly, Lodge was able to produce very large sparks across the spark-gap, B, even though the dc resistance of the wire across the gap was only a fraction of an ohm.[4]

When Lodge gave his first lecture on lightning to the Royal Society of Arts, he argued that since (as he believed) lightning discharges have a very high oscillatory frequency, it is necessary to take inductive reactance effects into account when predicting which path the discharges will follow. Inductance was not a very well understood or accepted concept in those days.[6]

Michael Faraday in England and Joseph Henry in the United States, independently but almost concurrently, had observed some effects of inductance almost sixty years earlier. Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1853 had recognized the influence which inductance (Thomson called it "electro-dynamic capacity") has in causing the discharge of a Leyden jar to be oscillatory.[9]

Oliver Heaviside later demonstrated the importance of inductive effects in the transmission of signals along long telegraph lines and undersea telegraph cables. The concept of inductance, however, did not receive general acceptance or understanding until Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) publicly endorsed Heaviside's inductance theories in 1889. Lodge's lectures on lightning, however, occurred prior to Thomson's endorsement.[2]

Lodge maintained that, at the frequencies involved in the oscillatory lightning discharge, the inductance of the conducting cables resulted in a very high opposition to current flow. Therefore, the alternate path actually followed by a lightning discharge did indeed exhibit the lowest total opposition or impedance to the current flow even if its dc resistance was not the lowest.[6]

Those in attendance who did not subscribe to Lodge's inductance theories were quick to question the accuracy of simulating lightning with Leyden jar discharges. Particularly questionable, they argued, was the idea that a lightning discharge is oscillatory.[1]

Years later, Lodge realized that lightning is not an oscillatory discharge but is actually a rapidly pulsating unidirectional (dc) discharge.[2] However, the effects of the inductive reactance on the flow of these pulsating lightning currents is the same as Lodge predicted for oscillatory currents.[6]

The issue could not be resolved satisfactorily at the March lectures, and the critics wanted more convincing experiments to be performed. Further discussions on lightning were scheduled for the September 1888 meeting of the British Association to be held at Bath, England.[1]

Oliver Lodge continued his "alternate path" experiments during the spring and summer of 1888 with the purpose of investigating the behavior of the electrical oscillations produced by the Leyden jar discharges. He now replaced the loop of wire he had been using with a pair of long wires, each approximately 29 meters in length (Figure 2). The wires, L and L', were terminated in spark-gaps.[4,6] He found that the Leyden jars discharged in the usual manner at spark-gap A, but that a simultaneous spark was produced at spark gaps B1, B2, or B3.

Oscillatory currents were produced in the part of the circuit consisting of the Leyden jars and the spark-gap at A. The capacitance of the jars together with the inductance of the spark-gap wires at A determined the frequency of the oscillations.[4] Every time a spark occurred at A, however, Lodge found that a longer spark occurred at B1, B2, or B3. The spark at B3 always was the longest.

The electrical waves produced by the oscillations at A traveled along the wires and were reflected at the far ends. Lodge knew that the longer spark at B3 was due to what he called the "recoil impulse" or "recoil kick" at the end of the wires where the waves were reflected.[4] At spark gap B3 both the incident wave and the reflected wave had their maximum values and were in phase. This produced a voltage twice as large as the voltage at spark gap A.

More importantly, Lodge determined that the discharge at B3 was the most intense when the lengths of the two wires L and L' were one-half wavelength (or an integral multiple of one-half wavelength) for the oscillations produced.[4,8] Under these conditions, a maximum coupling of the oscillations produced at A was occurring in the wires. Oliver Lodge had discovered electrical resonance (or "syntony" as he later would call it[6]) between the two parts of the circuit.[4,8]

In addition, the scientist was able to demonstrate that standing waves existed along the wires. In a darkened room, he observed a visible glow along the wires at one-half wavelength intervals corresponding to the voltage peaks. He also performed a number of other experiments concerning the characteristics of discharging Leyden jars during that spring and summer of 1888.[11]

Oliver Lodge clearly knew that he had produced and detected the electromagnetic waves predicted some twenty-four years earlier by James Clerk Maxwell.[3] Before he presented these observations as part of the findings in his study of lightning conductors, however, Lodge went on vacation in that summer of 1888. It was while on vacation that Lodge read of Hertz's similar work with electromagnetic waves.[6,10] Lodge then added a postscript to his own paper acknowledging Hertz's work in an extremely positive way. He concluded the postscript by saying: "The whole subject of electrical radiation seems working itself out splendidly."[8]

Lodge presented his findings to the British Association meeting in Bath in September of 1888. The well known theoretician, G. F. FitzGerald, who reported on the results Hertz recently had published, chaired the meeting. Interestingly enough, FitzGerald had told Lodge in 1878 that it never would be possible for anyone to produce the electromagnetic waves predicted by James Clerk Maxwell. By 1882, however, FitzGerald had corrected his erroneous belief.[12] The following year, FitzGerald suggested that electromagnetic waves might be produced by discharging a capacitor through a very small resistance.[3]

Those in attendance and, later, other knowledgeable people, recognized that Lodge's findings were equivalent to those of Hertz and had been arrived at independently of, and virtually simultaneously with, Hertz's.[3,6] Heinrich Hertz, however, would always receive the world's principal acclaim and recognition because his work was published slightly before that of Lodge.

The electromagnetic waves generated by Hertz were radiated into space whereas those generated by Lodge were guided by wires. Consequently, the work of each man helped confirm the validity of what the other had done. Lodge and Hertz corresponded and exchanged scientific papers. They always maintained great respect and regard for each other as scientists and as human beings.[3] Lodge never resented the fact that Hertz's work received greater acclaim.[6] When Hertz died in 1894, Lodge wrote a magnificent tribute to his achievements.[13]

In 1894, Lodge discovered that a nonconducting tube containing metal filings (Figure 3) could be used to detect the presence of electromagnetic waves. His findings were based on an observation made in 1890 by Edouard Branly (1846-1940). Branly had discovered that the resistance measured across the ends of a such a tube normally was very high. However, if an electromagnetic wave was generated nearby, the metal particles became fused together and the resistance dropped to a low value. The resistance remained low until the tube was tapped and the fused particles returned to their original, separated condition.[14]

Earlier, Lodge had observed the same fusing effect between metal spheres in light contact with each other when an electromagnetic wave was produced. He called the fusing of the metal produced by the electromagnetic wave, the "coherer effect." Similarly, he called any detector of electromagnetic waves based on this effect, a "coherer." He quickly realized that the "filings tube coherer" represented the most convenient form for utilizing the coherer effect to detect electromagnetic waves.[15]

Perhaps Lodge's most important improvements to the filings tube coherer were the evacuation of the air from the tube and the development of an automatic "tapping back" device which utilised a rotating spoke wheel driven by a clockwork mechanism. The mechanical impulses provided by the tapping back device restored the filings tube coherer to its non-conducting state at regular intervals, independent of the detection of electromagnetic waves. This filings tube coherer detector was considerably more sensitive than was the simple wire loop "resonator" with a spark gap that Heinrich Hertz had used as the detector of electromagnetic waves in his experiments. It also was more convenient to use than was the metal-sphere coherer detector Lodge had previously developed.[15]

Lodge used his improved filings tube coherer, together with a Hertzian wave oscillator, as part of a demonstration for a commemorative lecture entitled "The Work of Hertz" given in London at a meeting of the Royal Institution in June of 1894. A sensitive mirror galvanometer was connected to the coherer so that the detection of the electromagnetic waves was visible to the audience in the form of a moving beam of light.[6,16] Later that same month, Lodge used a small portable receiver based on similar equipment to demonstrate the detection of electromagnetic waves at the annual "Ladies' Conversazione" of the Royal Society in London.[6,17]

He also demonstrated essentially the same apparatus at a meeting of the British Association held at Oxford in August of 1894. In that demonstration, however, he replaced the mirror galvanometer with a more sensitive marine galvanometer of the type normally used for the detection of submarine cable telegraphy signals. Lodge's source of electromagnetic waves, located in another building some 55 meters away, consisted of a Hertzian oscillator energized by an induction coil. A telegraph key connected to the primary winding of the induction coil was used by Lodge's assistant to send both long and short duration trains of waves, corresponding somewhat to Morse code dots and dashes.[6] Those in attendance witnessed Lodge's receiving equipment detecting electromagnetic waves that had traveled the 55 meter distance.

Lodge clearly had all the necessary elements of an elementary wireless telegraphy system. While it could be argued successfully that Lodge did indeed achieve signaling of a sort in all three of these demonstrations, there is no indication that the sending of any true messages was accomplished or even attempted with this apparatus. It was not his intent to do so. Oliver Lodge never considered using his equipment for communicating, although the idea of wireless telegraphy had been suggested two years earlier by William Crookes.[18]

The first two demonstrations were performed simply to show that electromagnetic waves can be generated and detected. The purpose of Lodge's demonstration at Oxford was to propose that perhaps there exists an analogy between the way a coherer responds to electromagnetic waves and the way the eye responds to light.[6]

Oliver Lodge later admitted that, at the time, he had not seen any advantage in using the relatively difficult process of telegraphing across space without wires to replace the well developed and comparatively easy process of telegraphing with the use of connecting wires.

He, like virtually all of his contemporaries, believed at the time that electromagnetic waves travel only in straight lines as does light. (Maxwell, after all, had shown that light is nothing more than electromagnetic waves with very short wavelengths.) Consequently, Lodge assumed that the maximum possible range attainable using wireless signaling would be very limited. These reasons help to explain why, in Lodge's own words, ". . . stupidly enough no attempt was made to apply any but the feeblest power so as to test how far the disturbance could really be detected."[19] As a result, Lodge was one of several electrical experimenters who, had they recognized what they had in their hands, might have earned the principal credit for the development of wireless telegraphy.

In all fairness, however, one should never think that Lodge was lacking in either insight or in astuteness. His exceptional perceptiveness and keenness of mind when conducting experiments had been demonstrated time and time again. But he was first and foremost a scientist and teacher, more concerned with theory than commercial applications.[6]

While Oliver Lodge is remembered for numerous significant scientific achievements, including his contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy, it might be said that he let "the two big ones" slip through his fingers. Had he proceeded with his alternate path experiments a little more rapidly, Lodge might be the one whom we today credit with having experimentally verified Maxwell's predictions. Similarly, if Lodge had realized the potential of wireless communication, Marconi might have had to share with him the unofficial but commonly used title "Father of Radio."

Those wishing to read about other aspects of Oliver Lodge's life are referred to the author's earlier, less specialized article.[20]

References [1] Jolly, W.P.; Sir Oliver Lodge, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Rutherford, NJ, 1974. [2] Lodge, Oliver; Advancing Science, Harcourt Brace, New York, 1932. [3] Lodge, Oliver; Past Years, Hodder and Stoughton Ltd., London, 1931. [4] Lodge, Oliver; Lightning Conductors and Lightning Guards, Whittaker Ltd., London, 1892. [5] Rowlands, Peter; Oliver Lodge and the Liverpool Physical Society, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 1990. [6] Aitken, Hugh G.J.; Syntony and Spark, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1985. [7] Lodge, Oliver; "The History of the Coherer Principle," The Electrician, vol. 40, November12, 1897, pp. 86-91. [8] Lodge, Oliver; "On the Theory of Lightning Conductors" The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, Series 5, vol. 26, August, 1888, pp.217-230. [9] Thomson, William; "On Transient Electric Currents," The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, Series 4, vol. 5, June, 1853, pp. 393-405. [10] Hertz, Heinrich; "On Electromagnetic Waves in Air and their Reflection," Wiedemann's Annalen, vol. 34, July 1888, p. 610. [11] Lodge, Oliver; "Experiments on the Discharge of Leyden Jars," Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. 50, January, 1892, pp. 2-39. [12] Lodge, Oliver; Talks About Radio, Doran Inc., New York, 1925. [13] Lodge, Oliver; "The Work of Hertz," The Electrician, vol. 33, June 8, 15, 22, and July 6, 27, 1894, pp. 153-155, 186-190, 204-205, 271-272, 362. [14] Branly, Edouard; "Variations of Conductivity under Electrical Influence", The Electrician, vol. XXVII, June 26 and August 21, 1891, pp. 221-2 and 448-9. [15] Lodge, Oliver; "The History of the Coherer Principle", The Electrician, vol. XL, November 12, 1897, pp. 86-91. [16] Lodge, Oliver; The Work of Hertz and Some of His Successors, London, 1894, p. 24. [17] Unsigned and untitled article, Nature, vol. L, June 21, 1894, pp. 182-183. [18] Crookes, William; "Some Possibilities of Electricity," The Fortnightly Review, February 1,1892, pp. 173-181. [19] Lodge, Oliver; Signalling through Space Without Wires, (3rd edition), London, 1908, pg. 84. [20] Rybak, James; "Radio's Forgotten Pioneer," Popular Electronics, July 1990, pp. 62-66 and 95.

Scientific American Supplement, April 20, 1895, page 16087:

A SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH STATION.

WHEN a vessel passes in sight of the shores of a civilized country it is customary to communicate with the rest of the world, receiving the latest news, and in turn announcing any dangers to which the vessel has been subjected. The facilities for communication have been greatly increased by the introduction of the semaphore. The utility of the semaphore has been so widely recognized that it is difficult for a vessel to pass unperceived along any of the French coasts. The semaphore is naturally located on a high point from which an unobstructed view of the sea can be obtained, and is placed either on the top of a house or tower. On the pole are several signal arms and the station is connected with the national telegraph system. There are usually two signal poles, one of which is devoted to the display of meteorological signals which announce the probable conditions of the weather, the predictions coming from the observatories. These signals are made of canvas and are shaped liked cones or cylinders, so that they can be seen from whatever direction they are viewed. The cone as shown in the engraving announces the probability of high north winds. The same pole is used for the signals of the international code, which are made with the aid of eighteen flags. This international code which is used to-day by all maritime nations, is made up by grouping flags, four or more of which represent not only words and phonetic signs, but ideas and whole phrases. Unfortunately, the use of flags is not sufficiently rapid for long conversation and signaling becomes difficult at great distances, because the colors blend together, and in the case of calms or very brisk winds it is nearly impossible to distinguish the signals. It is to avoid these inconveniences that the semaphore has been introduced for marine signaling, permanent arms being secured to the semaphore, which give signals analogous to those on the railways or those of the old Chappe telegraph. The actual signals are made by three arms which are articulated to the pole. These arms can be freely moved to various positions with the utmost precision by the mechanism. Eighteen signals can be made by combinations of these arms, which correspond to the eighteen flags of the international code. As shown in our engraving, the arms are manipulated by means of chains which pass around drums which are turned by handles. The whole signalling apparatus is mounted on a platform which can be turned so as to permit of the signals directly facing the vessel which is spoken. Messages from vessels are transmitted to their destination, the charges of course paid by the recepient of the telegram. For our engraving and the foregoing particulars we are indepted to L'Illustration.

Early communications development included a variety of semaphore telegraph lines, where spotters used visual signals to relay messages from one elevated location to the next. By the early 1800s, these mechanically-operated visual telegraph lines were fairly common in Europe, although only a few simple links were ever built in the United States. However, visual telegraphs were slow, covered limited distances, and were usable only during good visibility, so inventors worked to develop a way to send signals by electrical currents along wires, which promised nearly instantaneous transmissions over great distances in all kinds of weather. But progress was slow, in part because the nature of "electrical fluid", as it was then known, was poorly understood.

William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone developed the first electric telegraph to go into commercial service, which began operation in England in 1838. Like the earlier mechanical telegraphs, this pioneer electrical telegraph used visual signaling -- in its initial configuration, two needles at a time, out of a total of five, rotated on the receiving device to point to letters on a display. Meanwhile, other inventors worked on electric telegraphs based on different principles, the most important being Samuel Morse in the United States, who developed a system that imprinted dots and dashes on a moving paper tape. (Later, operators would learn to read the dots and dashes directly, by listening to the clicking of the receiver). In 1844, the first commercial line using Morse's design went into service between Washington, District of Columbia and Baltimore, Maryland. Its success was followed by the rapid construction of telegraph lines throughout the United States, and eventually Morse's dot-and-dash approach became the worldwide standard. Although the electric telegraph made most visual telegraphs obsolete, telegraph wires couldn't be run out to sea, so, until the development of radio, a few semaphore links continued to provide ship-to-shore communication. A Semaphore Telegraph Station, from the April 20, 1895 issue of the Scientific American Supplement, described a French shoreline installation, which displayed meteorological signals, sent messages to passing ships, and also received commercial telegrams sent from the ships by semaphore flags.

Morse used standardized sequences of dots and dashes to represent individual letters and numbers for transmitting messages, and this became known as the American Morse Code. However, Morse's original code specification included a few oddities, so although American Morse was widely adopted throughout the United States, a more consistent version was developed in Europe, known as Continental Morse Code. Telegraphic Codes, from the 1912 edition of the Electro-Importing Company's Wireless Course, compares the American and Continental Morse Codes with a third, short-lived code used by the U.S. Navy. Radio would also adopt dot-and-dash signaling in its early days, and radio operators generally used the same telegraphic codes as landline telegraphy, so at first most U.S. radio stations used American Morse, while a majority of the rest of the world used Continental Morse. However, radio's use in international communication meant that a single standard telegraphic code was needed in order to avoid confusion. Eventually Continental Morse was universally adopted for radio communication, and, reflecting its expanded status, it became known as International Morse. Meanwhile, the original American Morse largely disappeared from radio use.

Although the telegraph was mostly used for sending individual messages, other more general applications were also developed. As lines spread throughout the country, the telegraph was recognized as ideal for rapidly gathering and distributing news items. In George B. Prescott's 1860 History, Theory and Practice of the Electric Telegraph, The Associated Press of the United States section reviewed the first telegraphic press association, which had been formed in 1848. (The Associated Press would later take seriously the threat that radio newscasts posed to newspaper sales. From 1922 to 1939 AP greatly restricted use of its reports by radio stations -- even those owned by newspapers -- in what became known as the "Press-Radio War"). It also became common to run special telegraph lines to major sporting events, so newspapers could receive up-to-the-minute reports. Banks of operators would be set up in the stands, each clattering away at their keys, such as those shown in Electrical Service at Harvard-Yale Football Game from the December 6, 1913 The Electrical World.

An important innovation occurred beginning in the late 1840s, when Great Britain used telegraph lines to establish standardized time throughout the country. The United States was somewhat slower to adopt this practice. The first step was to establish regional "railroad times", based on the solar noon at selected hub cities, which varied by railroad company. On the Allegheny System of Electric Time Signals by Samuel Pierpont Langley, from the 1873 Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, reviewed how an astronomical observatory located near Pittsburgh, Pensylvania had expanded its telegraph time service, originally provided to local jewellers, in order to establish a standard time for use along the Pennsylvania Central Railroad lines. It wouldn't be until 1883 that the various railroad companies agreed on a common standard, using hourly time zones offset from the base time at the Greenwich Royal Observatory in London, England. Eventually the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. began using telegraph lines to transmit daily time signals nationwide, as reported in Distribution of Time Signals by Waldon Fawcett, from the March, 1905 The Technical World.

The information gathered by press associations was generally made available only to member newspapers. However, the introduction of printing telegraphs -- informally known as "tickers" -- which printed letters and numbers on paper tape, made it possible to also distribute news and information directly to paying customers. The original services were set up in major cities, serving mainly clubs and businesses, but also a few private homes. At first subscribers received stock and commodity prices, but later news items were added --in the April, 1914 issue of Technical World Magazine, C. F. Carter's Within a Tick of the News reviewed a New York City based news distribution service which provided "up-to-the minute knowledge of what the outside world is doing" to customers for whom even hourly newspaper editions were not enough. And the 1914 edition of the Our Wonder World encyclopedia included a photograph, Receiving News of the "Titanic" Disaster Over the Electric News Tape System, of persons receiving ticker reports of the 1912 sinking.

The telegraph was also sometimes utilized for group connections, both by businesses and private citizens. In 1860, the A Novel Meeting section of History, Theory and Practice of the Electric Telegraph reported how thirty-three offices of the American Telegraph Company were linked together in order to conduct a business meeting. In the February, 1917 QST magazine, Irving Vermilya's Amateur Number One (telegraph extract) recalled a private line, begun in 1903, which eventually connected forty-two locations, creating a telegraphic party-line for youths in Mount Vernon, New York to exchange messages with each other 24 hours a day. And in Germany commercial enterprises made use of an innovative printing-telegraph system that provided an early form of electronic mail, as the August 21, 1912 issue of Electrical Review and Western Electrician reported in The Teleprinter that "Business offices, large hotels and other establishments in Berlin and Hamburg, are now subscribers to the teleprinter exchange" and "Messages are thus sent and received directly and without any loss of time".

The clicking noise made by telegraph receivers led to audio experimentation, as recounted in Music by Telegraph section of History, Theory and Practice of the Electric Telegraph. Dr. G. P. Hachenburg spent many years promoting the use of telegraph lines to remotely operate distant musical instruments -- Musical Telegraphy, from the November 14, 1891 Electrical Review, was one review of his not-very-practical ideas, although, despite very little progress after more than thirty years of promotion, Hachenburg extolled his system as "An invention that in the near future will assert its importance as one of the great inventions of the age", and one with great financial potential, "For who would not pay an admission fee to hear this electro-music?" A somewhat more practical device, although not a financial success, was Dr. Thaddeus Cahill's electronic synthesizer, the Telharmonium. Marion Melius' Music By Electricity, from the June, 1906 The World's Work, reported that it was now "as easy to create music at the other end of fifty miles [80 kilometers] of wire as to send a telegraph message". A second reviewer, Thomas Commerford Martin, was equally impressed, and in the April, 1906 Review of Reviews, The Telharmonium: Electricity's Alliance With Music reported that "In the new art of telharmony we have the latest gift of electricity to civilization". The Telharmonium consisted of a massive assembly of 145 electrical alternators, whose currents could be combined using a musical keyboard to create a full range of notes. Although Cahill looked forward to day when four concurrent services would provide electronic music 24-hours a day to subscribing commercial establishments and private homes, the invention ultimately proved impractical, in part because the high currents produced interfered with adjoining telephone lines. In the March 8, 1907 New York Times, Music By Wireless to the Times Tower reviewed Lee DeForest's experimental radio broadcast of a Telharmonium concert, but, given the extremely crude nature of De Forest's arc-transmitter at this stage, it could hardly have impressed Cahill, whose Telharmonium was lauded for its "purity of tone".

The earliest experimental telegraphs employed multiple connecting wires -- in some cases a wire for each letter of the alphabet -- but over time simpler setups requiring fewer wires were developed. By 1844, Morse's line between Baltimore and Washington consisted of just two wires, one carrying the electrical current for signaling, and the other acting as a return line, to make a complete circuit. However, it turned out that even that could be simplified, and the return wire eliminated, if the sending line was "grounded", i.e. physically connected to a plate buried in the earth. The ability to eliminate the return wire was something of a mystery at the time, and the phenomenon became known under the misnomer of the "ground return", since it was incorrectly thought that the return electrical current was somehow flowing through the ground all the way back to the sending location. Actually, the earth around the grounding point was acting as a sink, so the "return current" was not traveling any significant distance. However, this mistaken belief that "return" currents were traversing the ground for extended distances suggested the idea of signaling without any connecting wires at all. Investigating this possibility, disappointed experimenters quickly found they were unable to send electrical currents through the ground more than a few meters, which they found perplexing, given their mistaken belief that "ground return" currents were somehow readily traveling hundreds of kilometers. In 1860, the Steinheil's Telegraph section of History, Theory and Practice of the Electric Telegraph reviewed what was known about the seemingly contradictory phenomenon, finally concluding that "It must be left to the future to decide whether we shall ever succeed in telegraphing at great distances without any metallic communication at all." In the end, it turned out that there was in fact no way to send standard electrical currents for long distances through the ground. However, in 1895 Guglielmo Marconi would discover the next best thing -- groundwave radio signals -- which were radio waves that used the earth as a waveguide, traveling across land and sea to the "great distances" envisioned by Steinheil.

ON THE ALLEGHENY SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC TIME SIGNALS.

By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY.

THE necessity of a uniform standard of time for the railways of the United States is one which is growing into importance with the increasing extent of our railway system, and we are, ere long, in this country, to be called on to settle for ourselves a practical problem which has been already solved in England, and which is beginning to make its demand for solution upon the managers of our railroads. Although the introduction of the plan in this country has been comparatively recent, the number of American observatories which thus distribute time is so considerable that the most partial account of their methods, and the extent of their work, would exceed the limits of such an article as the present. In this, the only arrangements described are those in use at the Allegheny Observatory, with which the writer has become familiar from the responsibility of their initiation and superintendence. It is proper to add that, were he writing a history of the progress of electric time signals in the United States, other observatories which have before employed not dissimilar means, would receive earlier mention, and that his own part in introducing these signals at the Allegheny Observatory has been less the contribution of any novel device than an adaptation of what seemed the best features of plans in use abroad, their arrangement in a form adapted to the needs of American railways; and the supervision of their application to the wants of cities and individuals. In doing this a great number of ingenious devices have been examined, and if the system to be described appears to be one of the simplest, it has yet been reached only after much care in setting aside all which would not bear the test of practical trial. The subject was first specially considered at the Allegheny Observatory some three years since, and a plan was arranged for the managers of the Pennsylvania Central Railroad in 1869. Previously to this, however, at the request of some jewellers of Pittsburg, the time had been transmitted to their stores, at a distance of some miles from the observatory. The system now described has been in use for nearly three years, in furnishing the Pennsylvania Central Railroad with its official standard of time, and by it the time is now sent daily to Philadelphia on the east, as far as Lake Erie on the north, and to Chicago on the west--regulating the clocks on a number of minor roads over whose wires it goes, as well as on those of the principal southern lines connecting the Atlantic with the Mississippi. Thus passing, as it does, over several thousand miles daily, it is believed to be at present one of the most extended systems of time distribution in the world. The observatory is on the summit of the ascent, on the northern side of the valley of the Ohio, about two miles in a direct line from the offices of the Western Union Telegraph Company in Pittsburg, and rather more from those of the Pennsylvania Central, and Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago roads. It is connected with these points by three independent lines of telegraph. One of these runs to the Western Union offices, and thence to the stores of a considerable number of jewellers in Pittsburg. This is called the "jewellers' line." The second, connecting the observatory through the offices mentioned with eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey railways, and also with Chicago, is known as the "railroad line." The third, consisting of a double wire or "loop," communicating with the city, is employed occasionally for the observatory's own messages, and when (as, for instance, in longitude determinations) it is wished to send sidereal time, without interrupting the regular transmission of signals from the mean time clock. In the transit room, in the western wing of the observatory, are kept the sidereal clock, by Frodsham, of London, and the principal mean time clock, by Howard, of Boston. On the escape wheel arbour of this, the standard mean time clock, and turning with it once a minute, is a wheel cut with sixty sharp radial teeth, of which those corresponding to the 50th, 51st, 52nd, 53rd, 54th and 59th seconds of the minute have been removed by a file. Near the clock is a "repeater," the circuit through whose coils passes through a local battery, through a second clock in the computing room, and then through the standard clock. Each wire terminates in a delicate spring close by the wheel just mentioned. While the extremities of these springs, which are shod with gold and platinum, rest in contact, the circuit is unbroken; it is opened by the minutest lifting of one from the other, and this is effected automatically by means of a ruby attached to one of them, and placed within reach of the wheel above mentioned. As each of these teeth passes, the ruby, and with it the spring, is lifted through a minute distance. (Not in practice more than one one hundreth of an inch, and usually much less.) Once a second, therefore, the circuit is opened during a period of probably less than a twentieth of a second, and as the wheel advances a tooth with each vibration of the pendulum, the armature of the repeater is raised each second of the minute until the 49th is completed. Since the teeth corresponding to the next five seconds have been filed away, during these seconds the jewel is not touched nor the circuit opened. The consequent silence of the "repeater's" beats draws attention to the fact that the end of the minute is approaching, its completion being indicated by the short pause caused by the absence of a tooth at the 59th second. This action is repeated in every minute of the twenty-four hours without variation. The particular second is thus identified, but one minute is (so far as the action of the standard clock is concerned) not distinguished from another. To do this is the work of the subsidiary clock in the computing room, through which the local wires are led, as has been mentioned. The subsidiary clock (made by Howard, of Boston) may be called for distinction the "journeyman," and its principal office is not to give the time but to interrupt the circuit, which it does on or near the completion of the 58th minute, closing it again about half a minute before the completion of the hour. When the circuit is opened by the journeyman the repeater is silent for a minute and a half; when it is closed, the standard is again heard ticking on the repeater, and the ensuing short pause evidently precedes the first second of the first minute of the hour. The time is thus wholly derived from the standard clock, and is independent of any other; the journeyman having no power to control or in any way re-act upon the primary, and being only able to interrupt the messages it sends, not to falsify them. The mechanism for effecting the transmission of the time is essentially that already described, but more is needed to insure against possible interruption. This may occur from several causes, prominently from oxidation of the platinum or gold contact surfaces, when the current must be interrupted while they are cleaned, if there be no other clock. To meet this contingency a chronometer of peculiar construction was made for the observatory by Frodsham. It resembles the ordinary marine chronometer in external appearance, but contains in miniature the apparatus for breaking circuit already described, the wheels being cut so as to give the same signal of the approaching end of the minute as the standard clock. The peculiarity consists less in this, however, than in a device by means of which it can be caused to gain or lose any fractional part of a second, or any number of seconds, without being stopped, and without any disturbance of its normal rate, except while the change is being effected. This chronometer is to replace the prime clock in the circuit, during any temporary stoppage of the latter for repair or adjustment. The mechanism which has just been described acts in connection with the local circuits of the observatory--one battery being employed for the sidereal clock and chronograph, and another for the mean time standard. Any interruption of the main external circuits is shown at once by the action of a galvanometer in each, which makes an audible and visible signal when the circuit is opened. The accessory apparatus, such as batteries, relays, switchboards, and so forth, which are used in every telegraph office, it will be superfluous to describe here in detail, but before following the operation of the electric current, outside the observatory, it will be well to speak of the method which has been adopted as likely to ensure most accuracy in the time keepers which control it. The transit instrument in the western wing is of four inches aperture, and with it and the chronograph, observations for time are made on every fair night of the year except on Sunday, when, if complete determinations have been made on the preceding night, none are taken. The instrument is of sufficient power to follow the principal nautical almanac stars in the day, and these are used (or more rarely the sun) when the weather permits if the usual night observations have been missed. From three to six stars are customarily taken, the azimuthal error of the instrument being found from the observations of each night, after the other corrections are applied, and the results determined from the chronograph and the sidereal clock. The mean error in the resulting determination of the sidereal clock correction is from three to four hundredths of a second, but it cannot be assumed that that of the mean time standard is known within these limits, except at the time that the observations are freshly made. It may be desirable to point out where the system pursued here differs from that in which a few signals are sent at stated hours, as at Greenwich. In the case of the time ball, for instance, dropped daily by a clock at Greenwich, mean noon, it is customary to compare the mean time clock which drops it with the sidereal time a few minutes before twelve. If it (the operating clock) be slow it is caused to gain, and if fast, caused to lose an amount needed to bring it to coincidence before the automatic action gives the signal. The time of this signal is nominally exact, but in fact involves the variations in rate of the standard clock or clocks which are treated in the comparison as having their errors absolutely known. It is by no means meant to criticise this procedure, but to point out that an error must exist where the rates of the clocks are treated as constant intervals between observation, no less real accuracy is reached in the method employed here, in which (as the signals are being constantly sent) the signaling clock has no less nominal error at noon (for instance) than at any other hour. When the sidereal clock has entered its beats upon the chronograph, during the time of observation, the record is not interrupted until, the mean time standard having been put into the same circuit, both clocks have automatically entered their time on the sheet together, and the break-circuit chronometer has done so also. The sheet being removed, and the breaks of the transit observer measured, the comparison of the various clocks with electric attachments are taken by measurement on the same sheet, and the others compared with the sidereal clock by noting coincidence of beats by ear. The resulting errors of all are then determined, reduced to a common epoch, and entered in a permanent record kept for the purpose in the following form: (ΔT, δt, being the usual symbols for the respective corrections of error and date): Aug. 10, 1872. Time stars { η Herculis, α Camelop, χ Ophinchi, δ Herculis, } A. E. F., observer.

At mean 9h ΔT. δt. Sidereal clock, 7s. 32 +1s. 18 Break-circuit chron. + 2m. 22s. 18 +3s. 30 Cron. 3242, + 50s. 05 +3s. 11 Mean time standard -- 00s. 27 +0· 46

The mean time clock is here 0 27 fast by actual observation, but when the next comparison is made the following morning (at 21 hours) its error can usually be obtained only by comparison with another clock. If it be compared with each of the other clocks in turn, each, owing to the variations of its rate during the night, will probably give a slightly different, result--but supposing all the time keepers equally reliable, the probable error will be less, in taking the mean of the four, than by any single one. The above corrections for error and rate having been applied to the sidereal clock, a comparison is taken with it in the morning, and the resulting time of the mean time clock noted, on the assumption that the sidereal clock is an exact standard. The same comparison is made with each, after the respective corrections and rates have been applied, each being successively treated as an independent standard. The results will then be entered in this form: 1872. August 10d 21h Error of mean time standard,-- 0s. 19 (by sidereal clock). " " " " 0s. 05 " break-cir. chron. " " " " 0s. 11 " chron. 3242. " " " " 0s. 04 " its own rate.

The mean or "adopted" error of the mean time standard is then-- -- 0s. 17 ________ = -- 0s. 04 4

In the absence of anymore absolute criterion the time of the standard in this instance is assumed to be kept four one-hundredths of a second fast, and this value is adopted and treated as though it represented an error determined by direct comparison with the stars. The clock will be compared again at 9 in the evening, and when this "adopted error" exceeds 0·25 such a change is made in the pendulum as will correct the error--not abruptly, but gradually during the ensuing twelve hours. It is of course impracticable to stop the clock and raise or lower the adjusting screw twice daily for such minute corrections, and many ingenious devices have been proposed for effecting the change without stopping the instrument. One of these, as applied to a chronometer, has already been referred to; another (employed at Greenwich) involves the use of a small bar magnet permanently attached to the pendulum, and swinging with it; and still another the changing tension of a long spiral spring, which connects the "bob" with the clock case. After considering many such plans, that adopted was the old one, familiar to most observers, of placing weights on the top of the bob of the pendulum, and then adjusting the bob by the screw till it runs with them approximately, after which a small increment or decrement of the weights will keep the clock under control. This plan has the advantage of employing as an agent gravity, whose effects can be reckoned on with more certainty than electricity or the tension of a spring. In common with the others it has however, as commonly employed, the defect that when changes are made daily or oftener the rate of the clock cannot be ascertained, and that reliance must be placed at the times of comparison only on other clocks whose rates are undisturbed. The writer has, therefore, found it advantageous to use these weights quantitatively, by making them of a size such as to cause a gain of one second a day; 01 an hour, etc. Weights representing three or four seconds are kept on the top of the bob, so that their removal will retard the clock, if desired, to that amount. A record is kept in which the comparisons in the tabular form above given are entered, twice daily, the amount of the weights and the consequent rate which the clock so controlled would have had with an undisturbed pendulum being noted likewise. The barometer and clock case thermometer are also read twice daily, for the purpose of laying down curves representing the separate effects of temperature and pressure. Another curve, whose ordinates represent the algebraic sum of the corresponding ordinates of the first two, shows the combined results of both, for comparison with still another representing the clock rates. These are chiefly useful in the occasionally long intervals of cloudy weather which occur in winter. At such times the clock rates are obtained by interpolation from the curves, and "weighted" according to the degree of dependence on each clock before making up the final or "adopted error" of the standard. When observations are obtained daily, however, such precaution is needless. Those who are aware of the number of patented devices for controlling distant clocks by electricity, may perhaps feel surprised that so little mention has here been made of their use. Some of these are of extreme ingenuity and much promise, and the English patents covering such points are alone to be reckoned by scores. Plans have been submitted to the writer by which the clocks along any number of miles of road could be set right, and brought to uniform time in a few seconds, by the operator at the observatory, and these plans appear feasible. The arrangements adopted here, as the reader will observe, do not greatly differ from these employed in telegraphic determinations of longitude, and in fact a prolonged examination of very many ingenious devices for directly controlling distant clocks led the writer to set them all aside, and to employ methods not differing in principle from those in use already, for purely scientific ends, in most American observatories. Of the very numerous plans for controlling distant clocks that of Jones (now well known) appears to be the best, but even this is not quite reliable where the circuit is a long one. The clocks described have subsidiary apparatus enabling them to send controlling currents on the Jones plan, but thus far its use has been confined to the observatory, has therefore been hitherto done by the sending of signals, through which distant clocks may be regulated, but without employing means for their control, and though this is done over a very extended field, a brief description of it, under the three divisions into which it naturally falls, will suffice 1st. The supply of time to watchmakers and jewelers. The "jewelers wire" passes through the Western Union telegraph offices and the stores of the principal jewelers of Pittsburg. Beside each "regulator" is a telegraphic sounder, on which the observatory time is heard constantly ticking, and by which almost, if not quite all the clocks and watches of the city are thus at second-hand regulated. There is, in this uniform and recognized standard, everywhere accessible, a convenience to watchmakers, of course, but still more to the public, as the discrepancies between clocks, public or private, which cause so many lost minutes in the day to each person in a city, that their aggregate represents a large draft upon the time of the business public, disappear. Applications have been received from watchmakers in neighbouring cities, and at a considerable distance from Pittsburg, for this telegraphic supply of time, which it has not always been possible to accommodate, but which have been welcome, as showing a public appreciation of the utility of the work. 2nd. The supply of time to railroads. The watchmakers and jewelers are in permanent telegraphic connection with the observatory by a wire which is devoted to their use--but distant cities, such as Chicago or Philadelphia, can be reached only by the wires of the telegraph or railroad companies which are too valuable to be exclusively employed for this purpose. The method used on the Pennsylvania Central, and Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago roads, will sufficiently illustrate the system as applied to railways. A special wire connects the observatory with the office in which the wires owned by these roads unite. In this office is a small bell, which is struck lightly every second, in the manner described, and except for the pauses to designate the minute and hour, continues to sound unintermittingly, affording to the conductors and other employés specially concerned in the time a means of ready comparison, even without entering the building. At 9 and at 4, Altoona time (ten minutes fast of Pittsburg), the Pittsburg operator in charge connects the main eastern wire to Philadelphia, 354 miles distant, with the observatory, and for the ensuing five minutes the beats of the Howard mean-time standard are automatically repeated on similar bells, or on the customary "sounders" in Philadelphia, and in every telegraph office through which the road wire passes--all station clocks and conductors' watches being compared with it as the official standard. After five minutes the clock is "switched" by the Pittsburg operator out of the main line wire, which is returned to its ordinary use. A similar set of signals, lasting for five minutes, is sent at 9 and 4 of Columbus time (thirteen minutes slow of Pittsburg time) to all stations as far west as Chicago, inclusive, in the main western line (of 468 miles in length). At Philadelphia the time is repeated to New York, at Harrisburg to Erie (333 miles), etc. As it is thus sent not only over the main lines from New York to Chicago (nearly a thousand miles), but over a number of subsidiary or branch roads too great for enumeration here, and which form in the aggregate a much larger number of miles than the main trunk, it will be observed that a considerable fraction of the railway system of the whole country is prepared for using a single unit of time; as, though the names of "Philadelphia time," "Altoona" or "Columbus time" are not yet abolished over that part of our railway system referred to every railroad clock and watch, and the movement of every train is regulated from a single standard--that of the clock in the observatory. The advantages of this uniform and wide distribution of exact time in facilitating the transportation of the country, and in enhancing the safety of life and of merchandise in transit between the Western and the Atlantic cities, seem to be sufficiently evident. The fact that the system described in this article has obtained the extension it has, within three years from its commencement, will, it may be hoped, justify the belief that its use has proved not only valuable to railways but an added security to the safety of the public. 3rd. Supply of time to cities. At present arrangements are in progress for regulating the principal public clock of Pittsburg (the turret clock of the City Hall about two miles from the observatory), which it is intended shall strike every third hour on the bells of the fire alarm, and probably also in the various police stations. As the mechanism for doing this is still in course of construction, and may yet be modified in trial, it would be premature to speak of it, especially as its success has not yet been proven in practice here. The city clock will automatically report its own time to the observatory by a special wire, and it is probable that in controlling its rate from the observatory the "Jones" system will be used. The necessity of a uniform standard of time over the whole country, which was alluded to in the outset as one of growing importance, has not been further directly touched upon in this article, which is yet as a whole devoted to describing the means of meeting it. The evident tendency, in thus sending the time from one standard over so large an extent of territory, is to diminish the number of local times, and so prepare the way for a future system, in which, at least between the Atlantic and the Mississippi, they shall disappear altogether. A step in this direction has been contemplated by the managers of the roads uniting New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburg and Chicago, who have intended to use the time of the meridian of Pittsburg between the two extreme points mentioned, running all trains from New York to Chicago by this time alone, in place of using successively the local times of Philadelphia, Altoona and Columbus, as at present. Such a change would have already taken place during the last summer, except for an unexpected cause of delay, on whose removal it will be effected. The labors of this and of other American observatories are tending to the same important end--that of the ultimate adoption of some single time for the country east of the Mississippi, by which not only the railroads but cities and the public generally will regulate themselves. What point shall be chosen is of less importance than that some one should be used and universally. The subject is one which has hitherto attracted little public attention, but it does not seem unsafe to make the assertion that the causes which have almost insensibly effected such a revolution in England, will in a few years more bring it about here. Allegheny Observatory, Allegheny, Penn., Sept. 22, 1872,

History, Theory and Practice of the Electric Telegraph, George B. Prescott, 1860, pages 334-336:

MUSIC BY TELEGRAPH.

It is an amusing fact, that music has actually been transmitted by the Morse telegraph, by means of its rhythm; in fact, it is of very frequent occurrence upon all lines. The following is related by Mr. Jones, who was an ear-witness of the experiment in New York : -- "We were in the Hanover Street office when there was a pause in business operations. Mr. Porter, of the Boston office, asked what tune we would have. We replied, 'Yankee Doodle;' and to our surprise he immediately complied with our request. The instrument commenced drumming the notes of the tune as perfectly and distinctly as a skilful drummer could have made them at the head of a regiment; and many will be astonished to hear that Yankee Doodle can travel by lightning. We then asked for 'Hail Columbia!' when the notes of that national air were distinctly beat off. We then asked for 'Auld Lang Sync,' which was given, and 'Old Dan Tucker,' when Mr. Porter also sent that tune, and, if possible, in a more perfect manner than the others. So perfectly and distinctly were the sounds of the tunes transmitted, that good instrumental performers could have had no difficulty in keeping time with the instruments at this end of the wires." That a pianist in Boston should execute a fantasia at New York, Philadelphia, Washington, and New Orleans at the same moment, and with the same spirit, expression, and precision as if the instruments, at these distant places, were under his fingers, is not only within the limits of practicability, but really presents no other difficulty than may arise from the expense of the performances. From what has just been stated, it is clear that the time of music has been already transmitted, and the production of the sounds does not offer any more difficulty than the printing of the letters of a despatch. It is well known that the pitch of any musical note is the consequence of the rate of vibration of the string by which it is produced, and that the more rapid the vibration the higher the note will be in the musical scale, and the slower the vibration the lower it will be. Thus the string of a piano-forte which produces the base note vibrates 132 times in a second; that which produces the note vibrates 66 times in a second; and that which produces the note vibrates 264 times in a second. On a seven-octave piano-forte, the highest note in the treble is three octaves above , and the lowest note in the base is four octaves below it. The number of complete vibrations corresponding to the former must be 3,520 per second; and the number of vibrations corresponding to the latter is 27½. By means of very simple expedients, the current may be interrupted hundreds or even thousands of times in a second, being fully re-established in the intervals. If the pulsations of the current be produced at the rate of a thousand per second, the alternate presence and absence of the magnetic virtue in the soft iron will equally be produced at the rate of a thousand per second. Nor are these effects in any way modified by the distance of the place of interruption of the current from the magnet. Thus, pulsations of the current may be produced by an operator in Boston, and the simultaneous pulsations of the magnetism may take place in New Orleans, provided only that the two places are connected by a continuous series of conducting-wires. When it is stated that the vibrations imparted by the pulsations of the current to levers have produced musical notes nearly two octaves higher than the highest note on a seven-octave piano, tuned to concert pitch, it may be conceived in how rapid a manner the transmission and suspension of the electric current, the acquisition and loss of magnetism in the soft-iron rods, and the consequent oscillation of the lever upon which these rods act, take place. The string which produces the highest note, on such a piano, vibrates 3,520 times per second. A string which would produce a note an octave higher would vibrate 7,040 times per second, and one which would produce a note two octaves higher would vibrate 14,080 times per second. It may, therefore, be stated, that by the marvellously subtile action of the electric current, the motion of a pendulum is produced, by which a single second of time is divided into from twelve to fourteen thousand equal parts. The adaptation of this power to the production of music upon telegraphic piano-fortes at any distance which may be desired, is a matter of the utmost simplicity, capable of being successfully carried into practice by any one who has the money and taste for the experiment.

Electrical Review, November 14, 1891, pages 172-173:

Musical Telegraphy. ______

BY G. P. HACHENBURG, M.D., AUSTIN, TEX. ______

It is a matter of interest to go through an analytical investigation of the first ideas, emotions and circumstances that led the inventor to an important invention. His mental application on the subject of his invention from beginning to end is a process of evolution. His first plan may be crude and even confused, but still it may retain something, the nucleus, that may prove mighty and wonderful in results. No one can fathom this metaphysical question better than the successful inventor himself. But in connection with this question, how many take in the dawn of great ideas that point to great inventions, that cease their prosecution in one or the stages of their progress--sometimes even at the very point of consummation, and, therefore, may run amiss of great renown and even wealth. I would hardly be warranted to open my subject in this style if certain leading electricians of this country had not given me their favorable recognition of my musical telegraphy in a manner that led me to flatter myself that I am the pioneer of an invention that in the near future will assert its importance as one of the great inventions of the age. For years in the progress of my study on the subject, I held in high consideration its importance, and became more fully confirmed in this view after taking counsel with wiser and more experienced men than I claim to be myself. Prior to 1860 I presented the subject to the late Professor Henry, and it will ever be with grateful feelings I will think of that great man for the encouragement he gave me in this invention. So sincerely was he interested in it that he offered me the use of the upper floor of the Smithsonian Institute for experimental purposes, and I am fully convinced, if circumstances had been such that I could have accepted his offer, he would have co-operated with me to bring the invention to a practical issue. Of late years my correspondence with Bell, Edison, Blake and other noted electricians, gave me a further guarantee as to its practicability. Although receiving this encouragement in casual ways, I have my doubts if the full scope of musical telegraphy was taken in by any of these eminent electricians. The main features of my system of musical telegraphy are as follows: 1. The electrical connection of 10 pianos for concert purposes, to be operated upon by one player, either individually or collectively. This plan we recommend for immediate adoption, and in coming up to our expectations all other plans would be of easy execution. 2. The electrical connection of 10 organs for church music operated in like manner. 3. The reproduction of electro-music at a distance. 4. The electro-musical hall for operatic music, etc., where a great number of musical instruments may be electrically connected, or rather incorporated with the entire inside lining of the building. 5. Electro-automatic music, by transferring the music from an ordinary music box (properly prepared) to the 10 pianos. The expression of this class of music is governed by a key-board to be described hereafter. There are other combinations that could be effected, but the limits of this paper will not allow me to take them into consideration now--as of bells, glass and other metallic contrivances. An electro-bell music could be made very attractive. 1. To connect electrically 10 pianos, and to operate on them with the best effect, the combination has two key-boards. One that is adjusted to the instrument occupied by the pianist, and has as many keys as there are keys in the piano. By means of this key-board electrical connection is secured with any number of pianos in the circuit. Not to impose new duties on the pianist in playing on these instruments, there is another key-board of 10 keys that is under the supervision of a musical director, who makes and breaks the electrical connection between the 10 pianos for the purpose of regulating the volume and expression of the music. The 10 pianos can be played upon simultaneously, or the most rapid run of notes can be secured without taking two successive notes out of the same instrument. By placing these 10 pianos in a certain position, the notes reaching the tympanum from different points gives the music a timbre that is both grand and peculiar. But why limit the number to 10 pianos, or 10 organs, and the small key-board to 10 keys? They are to correspond to the 10 digitals of the musical director. The pianist's manipulations in playing may be exceedingly rapid; such effort is not imposed on the musical director. His 10 fingers cover the 10 keys of his key-board, and by the slightest pressure of one or more of them the necessary connection is made. A more perfect arrangement between the cooperation of the two musicians, I believe, cannot be devised. It will be readily seen that the musical director is the head figure of this order of music, for it is he that (aside of all pedal action) gives it expression relatively with the skill he is able to command. When I explained this feature to Rubenstein, the great pianist, he demurred to the arrangement and asked: "Where is the individuality of such music?" I tried to make him understand that it must be sacrificed, if the music itself can be advanced. There may be an impression with some that this combination of pianos is characterized by much noise, like that of an ordinary brass band. Volume is not so much a desideratum as harmony and delicate expression. The ordinary expressions of a single piano are very limited; through the pedals there are but four, and they are very limited through the touch of the player. But, by a mathematical calculation, these 10 pianos have the range of 400 different degrees of expressions for each note. It is simply wonderful how these can be utilized. It is here the mysterious hand of electricity in a new role shows its power to please, where heretofore we only associated it with force and terror. It may be rather strange to state that the highest order of music to be effected by these 10 pianos is in accompaniment with the violin, flute or some other musical instrument, or even a brass band, and, in particular, with vocalization. The sympathetic vibration of sounds are well understood by scientists; but where modified by the laws of harmony, under different acoustic effects, as can be enforced by a system of electro-music, the result must be incalculably enhanced. 2. The main object in resorting to organs for church music is to diffuse the music and to destroy the emanation point where but a single instrument is used. The music would be in harmony with the congregational vocalization. A few concealed organs in the loft would greatly increase the effect. All the organs but one should be of a small size. 3. There are two methods in reproducing music at a distance--the telephonic and the instrumental--the latter being produced by the direct dynamic operation of electro-magnetism on the instrument in the distance. The former has been tested by several eminent electricians, but never with satisfactory results. The difficulty is in the loss of timbre of several notes in the scale of music. The telephone for the transmission of the human voice has the same defect, in particular with the pitch of some voices. In my experiments I have greatly remedied this defect by placing a small feather cushion between the receiver and the ear. I was led to think that there was a peculiar relation existing between feathers and electricity, believing that there was an "Electro-operation in the Flight of Birds" (vide ELECTRICAL REVIEW, April 28, 1888). The instrumental plan is the only feasible plan to reproduce music in the distance. This may be done by connecting the parent instrument with any number of instruments stationed at different places. One practical utility of such an arrangement, aside of its novelty, is for a distinguished music teacher on the piano to instruct simultaneously many pupils at the same time, living in different parts of a city or even in different towns; and another, having the pianos connected much after the fashion of the telephones, for the exchange of instrumental music between musical friends. Of course, this would demand a central station, as in the telephone, and an "electrical attachment" to each piano. 4. The most extensive, as well as the most perfect, development of musical telegraphy would be in an "electro-musical hall" containing every variety of musical instruments that could be manipulated by the aid of electricity. The location of these instruments and the acoustic arrangement of the hall would demand the best attention science could bestow. This concord of instruments is not in general, if ever, utilized in unison, but to have on hand to render the greatest variety of music; or, rather, put in action such instruments that are in keeping with the nature of the music to be played. It is here that the musical director, with his small key-board, will prove the wonder of all. Is it possible that a little instrument in the bands of an expert can call forth such a combination of sounds, or almost like a flash cast warbling many thousand notes in the air? Who can tell where these notes come from? The muffled notes from the deep stone vaults underneath, the soft sweet flying notes from above, and a flood of harmonies from all sides, are often blended with extraordinary effects: sometimes falling on the audience much like rumbling thunder and then die away like the sighing zephyr. In this hall there is a stage, such as we see in the theatres; it may be occupied by the managers of the concert or the participants of the opera, a prima donna, or otherwise serve as a relief to the eye. If we are inclined to give the prima donna a pre-eminence with the ten piano arrangement, here she would be placed in an atmosphere of music, where every strain of her own voice would be carried still in deeper melody by this colossal but tender accompaniment. The poet may dream of the heavenly song from the lips of Israfril, but he may soon find her heavenly gifts a terrestrial reality under the mysteries of electricity. 5. Automatic music has never been popular, and almost invariably has been looked upon with horror by the musicians. There are very good reasons for this from the fact that all appliances producing this kind of music are cheap and miserably constructed. Perhaps the most acceptable of them is the best and most costly kind of the common music box. What merit the best of these instruments have is their action of good time, but their music is deplorably deficient in expression. To make expression in keeping with their time, so mathematically exact, is a matter that can be readily effected by transposing their music under our 10 piano system. The electricians can readily see how a music box can be so reconstructed that it will transfer its music to the 10 pianos, taking the place of a pianist at the large key-board, leaving the task to the musical director to give it expression that would mask every trace of its machine work. But there is one feature in this kind of music that is much in its favor. In complex harmony it would supersede that corning from a pianist. For, as the manipulations of the pianist are limited to 10 fingers, such a limitation would not exist by our electro-automatic music. This advantage would have its characteristic effect. It may be hardly necessary to state that the music box itself may be placed out of sight, and beyond the reach of hearing; or it may be of interest to sit close to it and study its tiny accords with the bolder notes from the pianos. Of course, each note from the two would be strictly simultaneously expressed, which, in itself, would be a source of interest. The expression would be nothing like the stiff awkwardness of a duet. To prepare a music box for this purpose the cylinder is cut into as many rings as there are notes in the scales; each of these rings is insulated. The steel tongues that produce the notes are insulated in like manner. Without going into details it will be readily seen by electricians how the music is reproduced in the pianos from a music box thus modified. I remember in some of my lectures on musical telegraphy I spoke of a "musicometer" in connection with my invention. This instrument was something like a music box, only it was dumb, and the projecting pins in the drum were movable, that is, placed on a slide, and so constructed as to set them to play any piece of music on the 10 pianos. It was nothing else but an electrical test machine of any complex and difficult music; giving very accurately the time in music, but with the expression given by the musical director. As to the practicability and commercial importance of musical telegraphy there cannot be the least doubt. The only one that should now be constructed is the first in series. The pianos used in that combination require no reconstruction whatever, except the removal of the pedals. The cost of the different attachments and other incidental expenses would be less than $5,000; but let the entire cost be $10,000, it would prove a very profitable investment, where many hundred thousand dollars could be realized from concerts alone. For who would not pay an admission fee to hear this electro-music? As to the electro-musical hall, a considerable capital would be required to make it a success. But such a hall stationed in any of our large cities would prove yearly the Mecca of many hundred thousand. These are some of the outlines of my musical telegraphy I first fixed upon when residing in Springfield, Ohio, several years before the war. But what were the premises on electricity in those days to turn such a scheme into a practical shape. Then our knowledge of electricity was limited, at least so to the writer, although he had experimentally taken some interest in the subject before. In 1863, when on a temporary relief from my military service, I wrote out the details of my invention for one of the Cincinnati papers. In the excitement of the war the paper attracted but little attention in this country, but in some foreign land the act was accepted with interest, and its practicability acknowledged by some of the scientists. Godey's Ladies' Book, March number 1864, contains an extract on my musical telegraphy, taken from a London paper that shows that I then based my invention on the telephonic principle, to use a modern expression. I finally came to the conclusion that the telephonic plan would never be of any great service in music. To maintain the purity of musical notes, the plan was changed, by acting on musical instruments direct through electro-magnetic dynamics. On this plan everything now appeared clear, with not a single barrier in the way, to bring it to a ready and successful issue, without resorting to hardly any experimental work. To gain the attention of the public, and the electrical fraternity in particular, I made it the subject of a lecture I delivered in different parts of the United States. This lecture was delivered in the Crosby Opera House, in Chicago, April 9, 1869. It was then proposed, on the part of the audience, to make musical telegraphy a Chicago enterprise, with a view of celebrating the completion of the Pacific Railroad, but it could not be furnished to the Chicagoans in season for their jubilee. In 1871, through the courtesy of the Hon. Mr. Lord, of Rochester, N. Y., application was made to the State legislature for a charter to incorporate the Musical Telegraphy Company. At that time I lived in Rochester and took an active part in musical telegraphy rather preparatory to have it introduced at the Centennial celebration. I then proposed to issue stock, after $20,000 stock were ordered. The list was headed, ordering a liberal amount, by the Hon. Charles W. Briggs, Mayor of the city. As the amount was not guaranteed the stock was not issued. I had free access to the three principal dailies of the city, who from time to time accepted my papers on the subject. The nature of these papers was usually explanatory of the subject, and, as in this communication, nothing was kept secret. It was rather remarkably co-incident (as I was told afterwards) that Professor Bell lived in Rochester at the same time and was working on his telephone; and I was likewise informed that Dr. Gray heard my Chicago lecture in 1869. In 1872 the subject was presented to the United States Centennial Commission, which met their favorable consideration, as can be seen in their published proceedings for 1872, Appendix 3, p. 92-3. February 19, 1873. I treated the subject in its scientific aspect before the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia. About this time I went to Texas on account of my health, and had to abandon business entirely. Soon after I came here I received an offer from the Shoemaker Piano Co. that they would defray the expenses of constructing the "Electrical Attachments" if I would apply them to pianos of their make at the Centennial. I could not accept their offer, owing to certain conditions. In 1890 the manager of the International Electrical Exposition (that was held in St. Louis) asked me to make an exhibition of my invention. He promised material aid to get it ready for the fair. But the time allotted to comply with his request was entirely too short, and I declined to take action in the matter. It will take several months to construct the "Electrical Attachments" on the 10 piano system, and about the same time will be required after they are completed for the musical director to learn to control them with the best effect. When it was decided to have a World's Fair in Chicago I offered my musical telegraphy to the Commission on the terms I did to the Commission of the Centennial, asking them to defray the cost of making the electrical attachments for the 10 pianos. They received the offer apparently with interest and asked for many details as to the cost, space, etc. I am doubtful that they will meet my demands, perhaps under the impression that outside capital will bring it into the Exposition anyway. If we are forced to this alternative, let any State, city or electrical association accept the offer I made the Commission and place it in its own department at the Fair. At the same time it will have the faithful co-operation of its inventor to make musical telegraphy a prominent attraction of the World's Fair.

Radio -- signaling and audio communication using electromagnetic radiation -- was first employed as a "wireless telegraph", for point-to-point links where regular telegraph lines were unreliable or impractical. Next developed was radio's ability to broadcast messages simultaneously to multiple locations, at first using the dots-and-dashes of telegraphic code, and later in full audio.

Although "electromagnetic radiation" is the formal scientific term for what Heinrich Hertz demonstrated with his simple spark transmitter in the 1880s, in addition to "radio" numerous other descriptive phrases were used in the early days, including various permutations of "Hertzian waves", "electric waves", "ether waves", "spark telegraphy", "space telegraphy", "aerography" and "wireless". In the November 30, 1901 Electrical Review, a letter from G. C. Dietz offered "atmography" as the answer to What Shall We Call It?, but the suggestion fell on deaf ears. Spark, Space, Wireless, Etheric, Hertzian Wave or Cableless Telegraphy--Which? by A. Frederick Collins in the August 24, 1901 Western Electrician wondered whether the question might eventually become academic, for "In the distant future when all wire systems, both telegraph and telephone, have been superseded by the so-called wireless, there will be no confusing qualifying adjectives, for there will be no dual systems requiring qualification, and wireless telegraphy and telephony will be spoken of as simply telegraphy and telephony." So, what's the difference between wireless and radio? "There ain't none" -- both refer to the exact same thing -- explains Edward C. Hubert in Radio vs. Wireless, from the January, 1925, Radio News.

In 1917, Donald McNicol wrote about the importance of documenting radio's "historical narrative", noting: "I believe it to be the duty of those acquainted with views and facts of its introduction to set [the most illuminating essentials] down for the inspection of the ultimate historian". McNicol's overview of The Early Days of Radio in America, from the April, 1917 issue of The Electrical Experimenter, covered significant events, articles, books and individuals during the period from 1896 through 1904, beginning with Guglielmo Marconi's groundbreaking demonstrations in Great Britain. (Included in this article are links to nineteen items mentioned in the review.) In the June, 1917 Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Robert H. Marriott comprehensively reviewed technical advances plus the struggles and character flaws encountered during early United States Radio Development.

The transformation of radio, from scientific curiosity to a practical communications technology, was due to incremental improvements in a variety of areas. H. Winfield Secor traced the history of Radio Detector Development in the January, 1917 issue of The Electrical Experimenter, starting with the micrometer spark gap used by Heinrich Hertz, followed by various magnetic, electrolytic, and crystal detectors, and finally the very important improvements in three-element vacuum tubes.

The U.S. Navy quickly recognized radio's potential. Following successful tests by Great Britain and Italy, the Navy Department's 1899 annual report noted that Marconi equipment would soon be evaluated, "in order to determine its usefulness under service conditions". These tests quickly convinced the Navy of the value of radio, and three years later R. B. Bradford, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, reported that "There is no navy, so far as the Bureau is aware, which has not given especial attention to this subject". The U.S. Navy began to equip its entire fleet with transmitters, and also set up an extensive chain of coastal stations. Radio was also employed as an aid to civilian and military navigation, beginning with time signals broadcast beginning in 1905: U. S. Navy Department Annual Report Extracts: 1899-1908. The Navy's impact on U.S. radio communications would continue to expand. In 1913, numerous shore stations started to handle commercial traffic in areas where there were no private stations, meanwhile, naval leaders lobbied for a government monopoly of radio transmitters. Finally, in April, 1917, with the entrance of the U.S. into World War One, the government, led by the Navy, took over control of all radio communications for the duration of the conflict: U. S. Navy Department Annual Report Extracts: 1909-1918. (A book published in 1963, History of Communications-Electronics in the United States Navy by Captain Linwood S. Howeth, USN (Retired), is a comprehensive history of activities in the U.S. Navy through 1945).

The United States Department of Agriculture also rapidly foresaw radio's possibilities. Beginning in 1900, the department financed some of Reginald Fessenden's early research, until the two sides had a falling-out. But the department continued to work, at times haltingly, to develop radio applications, at first for gathering reports, and then for distributing them over a broad area. The Agriculture Department was responsible for some of the earliest radio broadcasts, including weather reports in 1912, although the first transmissions were in telegraphic code: U. S. Agriculture Department Annual Report Extracts: 1898-1927

The Early Days of Radio in America

By DONALD McNICOL, Mem. I. R. E. Assistant Electrical Engineer, Postal Telegraph-Cable Company THE history of an art or a science, like that of individuals, is not of much general interest until the subject has attained permanent prominence. The historical development of a particular branch of science, such as radio telegraphy, in order to be complete and of instructive value should, if possible, be traced thru the personal connection therewith of all of its pioneers. So called official records alone are not sufficiently comprehensive. Many of the most illuminating essentials of historical narrative escape the observation of the official compiler and, in so far as radio is concerned, I believe it to be the duty of those acquainted with views and facts of its introduction to set these down for the inspection of the ultimate historian. To the extent this is done will be lessened the possibility that some item of value may be lost to the written records. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VERY few of our younger radio readers can recall the important events of the early days of radio in the United States most probably. We feel certain that you will be greatly interested in this timely contribution to radio history by Mr. Donald McNicol, who was actively interested in the early-day developments of Marconi, Lodge, Fessenden, de Forest, Stone, and other leading lights in this now distinct branch of applied science. Do you know when the first wireless text-book appeared in this country? When the first U. S. Navy instruction book was publisht? Who sold the first "coherer" sets for experimenters?--Then read Mr. McNicol's article. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In February, 1896, Guglielmo Marconi journeyed from Italy to England for the purpose of showing the British telegraph authorities what he had developed in the way of operative wireless telegraph apparatus. His first British patent application was filed on June second of that year. Thru the cooperation of Mr. W. H. Preece, chief electrical engineer of the British Post-office Telegraphs, signals were sent in July, 1896, over a distance of one and three-fourths miles on Salisbury Plain. In March, 1897, a distance of four miles on Salisbury Plain was covered. On May thirteenth of that year communication was establisht between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, a distance of eight miles. During this latter demonstration Prof. Slaby of Germany, was present as a spectator.* [Adolphus Slaby's review of this demonstation, The New Telegraphy, appeared in the April, 1898 The Century Magazine.] In America, (1890-1896), many students of science were in touch with the discoveries made in Europe during this period; but it was not until 1897 that the utilitarian American mind sensed the commercial possibilities of the advances being made abroad. In its March, 1897, issue McClure's Magazine presented a long illustrated article entitled "Telegraphing Without Wires," by H. J. W. Dam, describing the experiments of Hertz, Dr. Chunder Bose, and the youthful Marconi. Telegraph Age, New York, in its issues of November 1 and November 15, 1897, reprinted a long article from the London Electrician, entitled "Marconi Telegraphy." This article consisted chiefly of the technical description which accompanied Marconi's British patent specification number 12,039 of 1896. In [its issue for June 19,] 1897, Scientific American published an instructive editorial [Wireless Telegraphy] dealing with the status of Wireless Telegraphy. The article discust Nikola Tesla's work, his claims and his prophecies, also the reports of Marconi's experiments with induction coils and coherers. The Journal of the Franklin Institute, in December, 1897, [Telegraphy Without Wires] covered practically the same ground. In the year 1898, Mr. William Maver, of New York, read a paper on wireless telegraphy at the annual convention of the Association of Telegraph Superintendents, at Wilmington, N.C. The information communicated was in the main a review of Dr. Marconi's early work. In the June, 1899, issue of McClure's Magazine there appeared a long illustrated article by Cleveland Moffett, entitled "Marconi's Wireless Telegraphy." In this article the cross channel tests were described in a popular, semi-technical manner. American technical magazines at first were somewhat slow in grasping the significance of the work being done in Europe; their references to the subject consisting mainly of brief reviews of articles appearing in foreign periodicals, with the result that American telegraphers of an experimental bent were supplied with but meager information, and that not of much practical value. In its February 16, 1899, issue Telegraph Age, New York, printed an elementary article by Willis H. Jones, which was the first really lucid description of the system served to American telegraphers. In July, 1899, the American Electrician published a complete semi-technical description [The Apparatus for Wireless Telegraphy] of Prof. Jerome J. Green's demonstrations of wireless telegraphy at Notre Dame University, [South Bend, Indiana]. This article was hailed as a great find by amateurs, and in various parts of the country demonstration sets were made up, operated and exhibited. In September, 1899, during the International Yacht Races off New York harbor, the steamer Ponce was equipt with radio apparatus by Marconi, for the purpose of transmitting reports of the progress of the race. Two receiving stations were equipt; one on the Commercial Cable Company's cable ship Mackay Bennett, stationed near Sandy Hook, and connected with a land line station on shore by means of a regulation cable; the other at Navasink Highlands. This demonstration, altho not highly successful, immediately brought the subject to the fore in this country. In 1900, the erection of the first Marconi station at Cape Cod, Mass., was begun. In the fall of 1900, the author of this paper constructed the first amateur wireless set used in the twin cities, Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn. Later he exhibited the first sets shown in the cities of Butte, Mont., and Salt Lake City, Utah. In later years thriving radio clubs have grown up in these various centers. In 1900, Mr. Thomas E. Clark, of Detroit, Mich., began the manufacture of radio apparatus. Handsome catalogs were issued illustrating coherer and register sets. One of Mr. Clark's assistants was Mr. J. Z. Hayes, chief operator of the Postal Telegraph Company, Detroit. In March, 1901, the Marconi Company installed apparatus at five stations on as many islands of the Hawaiian group. For a long time these installations were of little value due to a scarcity of competent operatives. During this year the Canadian government installed two stations in the Strait of Belle Isle; [also constructed were] the New York Herald stations at Nantucket, Mass., and Nantucket light ship. The crowning radio event of the year was the reception by Dr. Marconi at St. Johns, Newfoundland, of the now famous letter "S," transmitted as a test signal from his English station; this was on December 11, 1901. The most important published article on radio during 1901 was that of Reginald A. Fessenden, [Wireless Telegraphy] which appeared in the Electrical World of June twenty-ninth. Prof. Fessenden was at that time connected with the United States weather bureau, and his communication described the work accomplished by him under the direction of Prof. Moore, beginning in January, 1900. The article contains an interesting exposition of Syntony as at that time understood. In its February 9, 1901 issue, Collier's Weekly contained a long illustrated article by Dr. Nikola Tesla, entitled "Talking With the Planets." The Scientific American of March ninth published a complete account [The Slaby System of Wireless Duplex Telegraphy] of the so-called Slaby-Arco system of wireless telegraphy, and the same magazine in its December twenty-eighth issue, gave further details and illustrations of Slaby-Arco equipment [The Slaby-Arco Portable Field Equipment for Wireless Telegraphy]. These articles were written by A. Frederick Collins. In 1902, the Canadian Marconi Company was formed, as well as the American Marconi Company. On January thirteenth, Dr. Marconi delivered a lecture to the members of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at New York, describing his system, and gave an account of the progress made up to that time. J. H. Bunnell & Company's catalog of 1902 lists a page of wireless goods. A relay, coherer, and tapper receiving outfit was listed at $25.00. On September first Prof. Fessenden's contract with the U. S. Government expired. He then established headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pa., and began a series of careful investigations which led to important results. In 1902, the United States Signal Corps established stations at Sandy Hook, N.J., and at Fort Wadsworth--twenty-two miles apart. The operators in charge were Messrs. L. E. Harper and C. J. Applegate. The instruments at first employed were manufactured under the direction of Dr. Lee de Forest, who had been developing new ideas during the two years previous. The detector consisted of two aluminum rods with a steel needle laid across them, and connected in series with a pair of head 'phones and a potentiometer controlled battery. During the year 1902, the output of radio literature increased in a very helpful degree. In its February, 1902, issue McClure's Magazine published a long article entitled "Marconi's Achievement; Telegraphing Across the Ocean Without Wires"[, by Ray Stannard Baker. In the magazine's April, 1902 issue, Henry Herbert McClure's "Messages to Mid-Ocean" reviewed Marconi's tests on the S.S. Philadelphia]. The Scientific American [Supplement] of February fifteenth, contained an article written by A. F. Collins, entitled "How to Construct An Efficient Wireless Telegraph Apparatus at Small Cost." I think it is safe to say that the appearance of this article did more to introduce the art of amateur radio than anything else that had appeared. On April twelfth, the Western Electrician, of Chicago, published a communication from Dr. Lee de Forest with the heading: "An Interesting Sensitive Flame Experiment," which subsequently I could not help believing started the train of thought which culminated in the development of the marvelous AUDION. The Electrical World of April twelfth contained a long communication signed by Wilfrid Blaydes, [Mr. Marconi and His Critics], which shed considerable light upon the Marconi-Slaby controversy which was then raging in Europe. In 1902, copies of three books on wireless telegraphy reached this country from England; one written by Richard Kerr, one by George de Tunzelman and Sir Oliver Lodge's "Signaling Thru Space Without Wires." The first United States Government pamphlet on wireless appeared in 1903, entitled "Instructions For the Use of Wireless Telegraph Apparatus" by Lieutenant Hodgins, U.S.N. This booklet described only the Slaby-Arco coherer system. In fact none of these works described anything beyond the coherer. Dr. John Stone Stone took out seventy American radio patents between 1901 and 1904, and Harry Shoemaker forty patents between 1901 and 1905. In the year 1903 the International Wireless Telegraph Company was formed in America to exploit Dolbear's claims and to push litigation first begun in March, 1901, against Marconi. The claims were based on Dolbear's patent of October, 1886. In October, 1903, stations were established by the U. S. Signal Corps at Nome and St. Michael's, Alaska. The summer and fall numbers of Popular Science Monthly contained a long article by Prof. J. A. Fleming on "Hertzian Wave Telegraphy." This as one of the best authoritative accounts of Marconi's work up to that time. In 1903, the author wrote the first book length American treatise on the subject of wireless. The matter was published serially in the Western Electrician, Chicago. In 1903, the Marconi Company opened stations at Chicago, and at Milwaukee. The first International Radio Convention was held in Berlin, Germany, during this year. The report [The International Preliminary Conference to Formulate Regulations Governing Wireless Telegraphy] of Mr. John I. Watersbury, one of the American delegates to the convention, appeared in the North American Review of November, 1903. These brief memoranda may well be closed with the advent of the year 1904, as during that year Fessenden's electrolytic detector, de Forest's responder, Dunwoody's carborundum detector, and Marconi's magnetic detector, all made their appearances, furnishing the hungry amateur with a plethora of devices to displace the often blest filings coherer. The year 1904 clearly marks the beginning of RADIO'S climb to the plane of practicability. On February twentieth of that year the Western Union Telegraph Company's tariff periodical, The Journal of the Telegraph, for the first time announced the acceptance of messages for ships at sea [Marconi Wireless Telegraph to Incoming and Outgoing Steamships]. ________ *Dealing only with the Art of wireless telegraphy we can reasonably omit reference to the work of Joseph Henry, in America; Hertz' work; the development of coherers; and Sir Oliver Lodge's famous lecture of 1894.

The Century Magazine, April, 1898, pages 867-874:

THE NEW TELEGRAPHY.

RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN TELEGRAPHY WITH SPARKS.

BY ADOLPHUS SLABY.1 IN the early months of 1897, when the news appeared in the papers that it had been possible to carry out practically the sending of telegraphic messages without a wire for distances of a mile or more, there were many doubters on both sides of the ocean. People thought it nothing more than the sensational imaginings of some able writer for the press, who wished to present to readers hungry for novelties in electrical matters a particularly toothsome dish. On the contrary, those who have followed with attention and understanding the science of electricity, came to quite a different conclusion; for these knew that a German scientist, Heinrich Hertz, had proved ten years ago by convincing experiments that the electrical forces spread themselves through space like the rays of light--so much so, in fact, that there exists between these two phenomena (of electricity and of light) no difference of quality, but merely one of quantity.

To be sure, these electrical forces do not emanate from electrical phenomena of every kind, but only from such as we designate as quick-pulsating or oscillating streams. From this Nikola Tesla first made the most interesting practical deductions, and performed those wonderful experiments in which the electrical rays transform themselves directly into the desired rays of light, without taking the roundabout way over heat, and without the strength-devouring agency of metal wires. Nature, that unapproachable schoolmistress, furnished him a shining example; for she had already solved the great problem thousands of years before. In the body of the glow-worm, which delights us on warm summer evenings with the magic of its greenish glow, she employs her whole strength in the selective radiance of light. Nikola Tesla followed Nature's footsteps and came upon the banks of a new river, into which the springs of Nature pour her energies of light in broad streams. It fell to the lot of the young Italian Guglielmo Marconi to bring to realization the transfer of forces through space with the help of electrical rays, and in a form within reach of practical application. First let us consider the means and apparatus wherewith he produced an efficient working radiation of electrical waves. An electrical phenomenon observed long ago, the springing of sparks from one loaded conductor to another, furnishes the most powerful electrical radiation. Hitherto we saw in such a discharge a simple passage of the electricity from one body to another, and hardly considered that the phenomenon, which is accompanied by brilliant crackling sparks, is more remarkable than any other electrical phenomenon. To-day we know that this discharge is an intermittent one in such wise that unnumbered other discharges follow the first discharge of electricity, and in changing direction and with diminishing strength. The whole phenomenon passes with such enormous swiftness that the movements to and fro of the electrical forces are concealed from sight. On the contrary, the eye is capable of receiving as a completed fact only the impression of one single spark. As an originator of sparks Nature shows to our view bounds that lie very far apart. It is a tremendous jump from the faint crackling that we hear on cold winter days when, in a heated room, we pass a rubber comb through our hair, to the flashing of gigantic lightning-bolts; and yet both consist of the same phenomena; from both the same invisible forces emanate. Marconi uses an artificial producer of sparks, the strength of which occupies a moderate middle place between the extremes that Nature shows. He employs the well-known induction apparatus, that important instrument for the production of Roentgen rays, and connects its binding-clamp with two spheres of brass, which are placed opposite each other at a distance of only a few millimeters (Fig. 1). When the inductorium is set in action we get an uninterrupted sequence of thick, white, shining sparks, the power of radiation of which is strengthened if the place of the sparks is filled with oil. In accordance with a process first used by Righi, he does not bind these brass spheres directly together with the binding-clamp of the induction apparatus, but charges them with the aid of smaller spheres which are placed at proper distance opposite the outer half of each of the larger spheres, which, in order to contain the oil, are surrounded with a shell of vellum. From this apparatus for the production of sparks emanate the rays of electrical force. Heinrich Hertz was the first to make the arrangement whereby it is possible to establish their presence. For this purpose he employed the so-called resonators (Fig. 2), which are open circuits of wire the ends of which are provided with little polished balls of brass. By means of an isolated graduator, the air-space between the balls can be exactly fixed to very small fractions of a millimeter. When such a resonator is placed in the path of electric waves an electrical sympathetic ringing is roused therein, which shows itself in the passage of sparks at the point of non-contact or interruption in somewhat the same way that a tuning-fork is brought to sympathetic sounding by waves of sound. To be sure, the sparks are so minute that they can be seen only in a darkened room. With the simple resource of this resonator Heinrich Hertz examined into the laws which the electric forces follow in their radiation. The most remarkable among his experiments showed that the electric waves were reflected from a metal surface exactly in the same way that light is thrown back from a mirror. Moreover, by means of ingenious arrangements he discovered that the velocity with which the electric forces spread themselves through space is the same as the velocity of light--namely, three hundred thousand kilometers in a second. So far as it has in any case been possible, these and further experiments have brought us the certainty that light and electric rays are phenomena of the same kind, which differ from each other only in relations of size. The retina of the eye is the sensitive instrument which permits us to become aware of the presence of rays of light; in the same way we may hereafter call the apparatus which shows us the electric rays an electrical eye. The resonator of Hertz is an eye which is still incomplete. It is weak and short-sighted. We can perceive with it only the most dazzling effects of the electric rays, and can, if I may so express myself, calculate only approximately the degree of their illuminating power. The electrical eye which Marconi uses is essentially more sensitive; we may call it a clever improvement on the resonator of Hertz. The chief characteristic of the latter was the interruption of a metallic circuit by an air-space of uncommonly short width. The working of an electric ray impact showed itself in the appearance of visible sparks. But we can bring other means of assistance to bear in order to recognize the presence of infinitely small sparks which the human eye fails to see. The most sensitive means are always electrical; therefore we choose a continuous electrical current, the slightest traces of which can be detected by the galvanometer. Let us imagine that the metal knobs of a resonator of Hertz have been so closely brought together that the air-space between them can be no longer detected even with the most delicate optical means; nevertheless, it is not necessary that a complete metallic contact has yet taken place. If we introduce into the wire circuit of the resonator a little galvanic battery (Fig. 3), say, in the nature of a desiccator, and a very sensitive galvanometer, then, as long as the electric stream is obstructed at the knobs, the needle of the galvanometer will remain at rest. But if the impact of an electrical discharge falls upon the circuit, electric effects tremble through it which are not barred by the air-space between the knobs, very much as a wave of water may spurt its way over an obstacle when it is turned into millions of little spray-drops. In this fashion is it that fine sparks spurt across; and though they are hidden from the keenest methods of optical reinforcement, yet for an instant they are there, and every spark of them fills the air-space with metallic steam. These guide the continuous current, and close the circuit. The result is a perceptible movement of the needle of the galvanometer. Either the needle swings back after the impact is finished,--then the isolating air-space has reëstablished itself as it was, and the electrical eye is ready to react to another impact,--or (and this is most commonly the case) fine scattered particles of metal, which have been consolidated again after evaporation, fill the air-space and build a metal bridge, whereupon the movement of the galvanometer's needle is permanent. But the slightest shock is sufficient to bring this bridge to a fall, and thus to break the metallic contact. In the same way, as Branly first discovered, works a tube of glass when filled with iron or copper filings. Such a tube presents an insuperable resistance to the passage of an electrical stream, so that we can clamp it to the pole of a galvanic battery with metal fasteners without receiving a charge. Put if this tube receives the impact of electric rays, then it conducts the main circuit, and the needle of the galvanometer moves. After the electrical radiation upon the tube is finished, a light shock given to the tube reëstablishes once more the complete resistance to the main circuit. Fig. 4 shows an apparatus of this kind, in which the metal filings are replaced with iron nails loosely piled up one upon another. There are countless points of contact present having insulating surfaces. The radiation of electric waves excites among them an electric vibration, and countless invisible sparks at the points of interruption cause metallic contact. Lodge of Liverpool appears to have beer the first to use such tubes as electrical eyes for the study of the Hertz rays. In his absorbing book, « The Work of Hertz and Some of his Successors,» he describes various arrangements of this and of other kinds, which he had been using as early as 1889. From him came the term « coherer,» which he chose because a more intimate connection, as it were a cohesion, of the metal filings was produced by the electrical waves. One may also fairly consider Lodge the father of the idea of telegraphing with electric rays and such tubes; but he fixes as the farthest distance that can be reached one half an English mile (eight hundred meters), without ever having given any practical proof of the theory. Marconi's electrical eye is pictured in Fig. 5. He uses a metallic powder, or, more correctly, a mixture of metallic powders, which consist of ninety-six per cent. nickel and four per cent. silver. This mixture is sealed up in a little glass tube between two knobs of silver, the meeting surfaces of which knobs are amalgamated by a trace of quicksilver. After it is filled, the tube is cleansed and soldered up; wires of platinum effect the passage of electricity, and are soldered on to the silver knobs; the tube is fastened with marine glue to a stick or pillar of glass, which serves as a support. Fig. 6 shows the arrangement of Marconi's receiver. The main circuit, strongly drawn out, contains a desiccator (A), a sensitive relay (B), and the coherer (C). It is well known that a transferrer commonly used in telegraphy is called a relay. It reacts to very slender streams of electricity, and moves at the same time a tongue which conducts a second circuit with stronger batteries. When the coherer is cut off, the circuit is broken, and the tongue of the circuitless relay points to contact of rest. After the impact of the waves, cohesion in C permits the establishment of a current which turns the tongue of the relay on the working contact. Therewith the circuit of the battery (a) is closed, and the Morse indicator (b), which has been inserted therein, as well as the ticker (c), are set to work. At the first stroke of the ticker against the coherer the particles in the latter must fall asunder; thereby the first circuit becomes at rest, and the tongue of the relay lays itself at the point of rest and cuts off the battery (a). At a renewed subjection to the electric waves this action repeats itself. It is evident that by subjection of the coherer to intermittent radiation one can produce the Morse alphabet. In January, 1897, when the news of Marconi's first successes ran through the newspapers, I myself was earnestly occupied with similar problems. I had not been able to telegraph more than one hundred meters through the air. It was at once clear to me that Marconi must have added something else--something new--to what was already known, whereby he had been able to attain to lengths measured by kilometers. Quickly making up my mind, I traveled to England, where the Bureau of Telegraphs was undertaking experiments on a large scale. Mr. Preece, the celebrated engineer-in-chief of the General Post-Office, in the most courteous and hospitable way, permitted me to take part in these; and in truth what I there saw was something quite new. Marconi had made a discovery. He was working with means the entire meaning of which no one before him had recognized. Only in that way can we explain the secret of his success. In the English professional journals an attempt has been made to deny novelty to the method of Marconi. It was urged that the production of Hertz rays, their radiation through space, the construction of his electrical eye--all this was known before. True; all this had been known to me also, and yet I never was able to exceed one hundred meters. In the first place, Marconi has worked out clever arrangement for the apparatus which by the use of the simplest means produces a sure technical result. Then he has shown that such telegraphy (writing from afar) was to be made possible only through, on the one hand, earth connection between the apparatus and, on the other, the use of long extended upright wires. By this simple but extraordinarily effective method he raised the power of radiation in the electric forces a hundredfold. The upright extended wires work like the pierced tube of a watering-cart; the rays of electric force spurt, as it were, in every direction upright to the wire; they cause a great part of space to be drawn into sympathy.2 Now, since these wires are the essence of Marconi's discovery, the term « telegraphy without wires » is really erroneous; more correctly should it be called telegraphy by sparks, in opposition to the term used hitherto, « telegraphy by circuits » (Stromtelegraphie). The experiments in England were carried out in the Bristol Channel. A mast thirty meters high was erected on the cliff near Lavernock Point--a cliff twenty meters high, one hour from the pleasant little bathing village of Penarth. Over the top of the mast was a cylindrical hood of zinc, two meters high and one meter in diameter. An insulated copper wire passed from the zinc cylinder to the foot of the mast to meet one pole of the receiver. The other pole was connected with the ocean by along wire which ran down the face of the cliff. In the midst of Bristol Channel, five kilometers distant from Lavernock Point, lies the little island called Flatholm. There was the place for transmission. The apparatus to engender the sparks was in a little wooden cabin. Its knobs were connected, one with a zinc hood on a mast of the same height as that on Lavernock Point, the other with the sea. After a few preliminary experiments, the sending of messages was perfectly successful. It will always be an unforgettable recollection how, on the morning of May 13, 1897, our party of five, cowering together in a big wooden case, because of the heavy wind, our ears and eyes bent with the most anxious care upon the receiving apparatus, suddenly, after the raising of the signal-flag agreed upon, perceived the first tickings, the first clear Morse letters on the tape! Silently and invisibly the message had been borne across the space from the rocky coast, ferried across by that mysterious medium, the ether. After my departure the experiments were continued. It was possible to make clear telegraphic communications between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, straight across the entire breadth of Bristol Channel, fourteen and a half kilometers. Having returned to my home, I went to work at once to repeat the experiments with my own instruments, with the use of Marconi' s wires. Success was instant. I set up telegraphic communication between my laboratory and a factory about two kilometers away, where a water-tower was placed at my disposal for the placing of the wire of transmission. I resolved, however, to discontinue the connection, because there came a query from the office of the telephone company, whether in that district any local meteorological storm existed, since all the telephone-lines there were out of order. Meantime the attention of the German Emperor had been drawn to the new form of telegraphy. It is known with what a lively interest and with what a depth of technical knowledge the Emperor follows the progress of applied science. Hardly a tract of this great field is foreign to him, and it is not unfrequently the case that the reading of technical reports, foreign and German, is, as it were, a rest for him from the wearisome exertions of state affairs. For carrying out extensive experiments, the waters of the Havel River near Potsdam were put at my disposal, as well as the surrounding royal parks--an actual laboratory of nature under a laughing sky, in surroundings of paradise! The imperial family delight to sail and row on the lakes formed by the Havel; therefore a detachment of sailors is stationed there during the summer, and I was permitted to employ the crews as helpers. I placed the receiving apparatus in the sailors' barracks. The flagstaff there was considerably heightened, so that the highest point of the clear receiving wire was twenty-six meters above the level of the ground. For my first transmitting-station I chose a church lying on the other shore of the Havel, which was built by Frederick William IV, called the Saviour's Church at Sacrow, distant one and six tenth kilometers in an air-line. Fig. 7 shows the edifice. On one side of the basilica stands the clock-tower, which has a platform immediately below its roof. There a mast was placed, and from its highest point, twenty-three meters above the ground, a copper wire was suspended by means of a porcelain insulator. I had chosen the nave of the church as the place for my spark-generator, in order to be protected during rainy weather. The telegrams transmitted from Sacrow reached the sailors' barracks with unimpeachable clearness and exactness. To be sure, I was on one occasion in a state of lively dismay because of the indistinctness of the marks on the tape. It was the very day on which the Emperor desired to inspect the arrangements. It was only a short time before the doors closed that I was able to discover the origin of the interference and to suppress it. I had withdrawn the transmitting or spark-generating apparatus farther than was my wont within the entrance of the church, and thus it had got too near the stone flooring. By pulling the wires tighter the trouble was overcome. The sending of messages was very successful. The Emperor himself sent a telegram, and on his return to the sailors' station could convince himself of its safe arrival there. Further experiments at the Sacrow church gave an important result. When I carried the transmitter wire perpendicularly down the clock-tower to the entrance of the church and to the spark-generator placed there, the signs entirely failed to appear at the receiving-station. After a good deal of experimenting the obstacle was discovered. In the immediate neighborhood of the clock-tower are clumps of trees (see Fig. 7) which almost entirely concealed the vertical wire, so that from the sailors' station with the telescope one could only make out the upper section of the wire. The rays emanating from the wire were swallowed up by the group of trees as rays of light might be, or else led off toward the ground. The chief condition for success with telegraphy by sparks is that all obstacles which are found in front of the transmitter wire must be cleared away. This fact was particularly felt when I wished to open telegraphic communication between the sailors' station and Peacock Island, three kilometers apart. The air-line between the two stations is crossed by a hilly, wooded tongue of land in the Glienicke Park, which is covered with houses. The electrical rays had to pass through these houses. It was successful, truly, but only after I had increased the length of the wire at both stations to sixty-five meters. It is remarkable that connection could also be had with Peacock Island when I substituted for the vertical wire and earth connection wires about one hundred meters in length, which I stretched parallel to each other about two meters above the level of the ground. The experiments in Potsdam had for their object the discovery of the basal conditions on which to predicate success in spark telegraphy in order to overcome greater distances, more auspicious places and methods had been considered. In the meantime Marconi, while conducting experiments at Spezia which he carried out with the support of the Italian navy, had succeeded in telegraphing from a moving battle-ship, the San Martino, sixteen and three tenth kilometers to the arsenal of San Bartolommeo, and at a distance of eighteen kilometers in deciphering a few signals. I resolved to attempt still greater distances. The Emperor had ordered the balloon department of the army to assist in these experiments. The practice-ground of the military balloonists lies in Schöneberg, near Berlin, and a military railway runs thence directly south. At a distance of twenty-one kilometers in an air-line lies the village of Rangsdorf, on the railway itself. The sending apparatus was arranged there, and the necessary guard and balloon material were sent down. After a few experiments, we succeeded on the 7th of October in establishing communication between the two posts. There was a cold, raw northwest wind, so that both the balloons, anchored at the two places, were driven about. At both stations thin copper wire was fastened to the baskets of the balloons, reaching two hundred and fifty meters to the apparatus. Connection with the earth was made by means of swords stuck in the ground. The first telegram received under these conditions is reproduced by the autotype process in Fig. 8. The clearness of the Morse characters seems all the more noticeable because the electrical condition of the atmosphere on that day was as unfavorable as one could imagine. The electricity of the air was so strong that one could not touch the wires hanging down from the balloons without getting the severest electrical shocks. When one of the wires broke loose from the apparatus by reason of the strong wind, a lively jumping about took place among the soldiers standing near, for fear that they might be hit by the wires whipping to and fro. Nevertheless, the effect of those electrical interferences in the air are to be seen on the Morse tape only in a few points which did not mar the legibility of the Morse characters, consisting of short and long lines. I have often been asked in what directions and in what field the use of spark telegraphy might be employed. Our knowledge of the phenomenon in question is, so far, a very modest thing; we are really in the very opening chapters. Who would care to say to-day how far, and whither, the path will lead us? I do not purpose to paint pictures of the future, but I believe I can state with emphasis that for certain purposes the new telegraphy is ripe to-day, and well worthy of consideration. The most important appear to me to lie in the military field. Besieged fortresses, and advancing armies which have the enemy between them, could make use of spark telegraphy to-day as a method of communication. The system works just as surely on a bright day as by night and in fog, though, to be sure, only in cases where balloons can be employed, since the distances reached when towers, masts, and high trees were used would hardly suffice in cases of this kind. Quite as important is the usefulness of the discovery for the navy. Experiments of last summer have made perfectly certain the possibility of using captive balloons on the high sea. In place of balloons, without doubt one might use the modern kites, brought to such a pitch of perfection in America, as those of Hargrave and others. I owe it to the kindness of an acquaintance in New York that I know something of these excellent kites, and a few experiments have already shown me that they are perfectly adapted to the carrying of thin wires. There is a future for the use of spark telegraphy for lighthouses and light-ships. The receiving apparatus can easily be made in a handy form, not bulkier than a chronometer. On the approach to a lighthouse it would not only give signs, but would tick out the name of the lighthouse; it appears even possible to provide the receiving apparatus with a regulator, to be adjusted at will according to whether a greater or smaller sensitiveness is desired, whereby the distance of the lighthouse can be read off. An undeniable weakness of spark telegraphy is this: every telegram is imparted to the whole world; every receiver can take it up. Owing to this reason, for the present its application will have to be confined to particular cases. For practical purposes, if one desires to protect one's self from having despatches read by others, there remains always the use of signs arranged before hand. In war, to be sure, telegraphy would become impossible as soon as a hostile spark generator should cause a permanent disturbance of the characters. A very interesting battle might occur in the waves of ether. Notwithstanding these undeniable shortcomings, let us not allow ourselves to be deprived of joy at the discovery of the new telegraphy. We are face to face with very peculiar phenomena. Nature has opened new door for us. It is the mission of science at present to bring light into the opened room. After that we shall not have to wait long for the necessary technical progress.

1 Privy Councilor Dr. Slaby is a professor in the Technical High School at Charlottenburg, near Berlin. 2 The reader will find in THE CENTURY for April, 1895, in an article on Mr. Tesla's inventions, a quotation from his lecture, delivered at Philadelphia in February, 1893, and at St. Louis in March, 1893, in which he expressed confidence in the practicability of telegraphy without wires. In the same lecture will be found a description of the scheme, the connections, and the arrangement of transmitting. and receiving-instruments used later in Signor Marconi's experiments. (See « Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla,» by Thomas Commerford Martin; New York, « The Electrical Engineer,» 1894, pp. 346-349.) A number of scientific men have already called attention to this fact. This does not detract from the distinct merit of Signor Marconi in having effected the transmission to a five- or sixfold distance by an application of devices which were thought capable only of a transmission of a mile or two--THE EDITOR.

The Electrician, September 17, 1897, pages 683-686:

MARCONI TELEGRAPHY.

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The following is an abstract of Patent Specification No. 12,039 of 1896, which was applied for on June 2, 1896, by Signor Guglielmo Marconi, and accepted on July 2nd of the present year, the complete specification having been left at the Patent Office on March 2nd. The patent is for IMPROVEMENTS IN TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL IMPULSES AND SIGNALS, AND IN APPARATUS THEREFOR. Signor Marconi begins by stating that his invention relates to the transmission of signals by means of electrical oscillations of high frequency, which are set up in space or in conductors, and having briefly described the apparatus he proposes to employ, he remarks that his invention relates in great measure to the manner in which the apparatus is made and connected together. Coming, then, to the description of his improvements applicable to the receiving instruments, the patentee says: "My first improvement consists in automatically tapping or disturbing the powder in the sensitive tube, or in shaking the imperfect contact, so that immediately the electrical stimulus from the transmitter has ceased the tube or imperfect contact regains its ordinary non-conductive state. This part of my invention is illustrated in Fig. 2. . . . In the apparatus I have made I have found that the relay n should be one possessing small self-induction, and wound to a resistance of about 1,000 ohms. It should preferably be able to work regularly with a current of a milliampere or less. The trembler or tapper p on the circuit of the relay n is similar in construction to that of a small electric bell, but having a shorter arm. I have used a trembler wound to 1,000 ohms resistance, having a core of good soft iron hollow and split lengthways, like most electromagnets used in telegraph instruments. The trembler must be carefully adjusted. Preferably the blows should be directed slightly upwards so as to prevent the filings from getting caked. In place of tapping the tube the powder can be disturbed by slightly moving outwards and inwards one or both of the stops of the sensitive tube (see Fig. 5 j1 j2) the trembler p (Fig. 2) being replaced by a small electromagnet or magnets or vibrator whose armature is connected to the stop. I ordinarily work the receiving instrument h, which may be of any description by a derivation as shown, from the circuit which works the trembler p. It can also, however, be worked in series with the trembler. It is desirable that the receiving instrument if on a derivation of the circuit which includes the trembler or tapper should preferably have a resistance equal to the resistance of the trembler p."

A further improvement, it is said, "consists in the mode of construction of the sensitive tube." The patentee has noticed that an ordinary sensitive tube is not perfectly reliable. His tube, as shown in Fig. 5, is if carefully constructed absolutely reliable, and by means of it the relay and trembler, &c., can be worked with regularity like any other ordinary telegraphic instrument. In the sensitive tube the two plugs should preferably be made of silver, or may be two short pieces of thick silver wire of the same diameter as the internal diameter of the tube j so as to fit tightly in it. The tube is closed and sealed on to the platinum wires j3 at both ends. Many metals can be employed for producing the powder or filings, "but, says the inventor, "I prefer to use a mixture of two or more different metals. I find hard nickel to be the best metal, and I prefer to add to the nickel filings about four per cent. of hard silver filings, which increase greatly the sensitiveness of the tube to electric oscillations. By increasing the proportion of silver powder or grains the sensitiveness of the tube also increases, but it is better for ordinary work not to use a tube of too great sensitiveness as it might be influenced by atmospheric or other electricity. The sensitiveness can also be increased by adding a very small amount of mercury to the filings and mixing up until the mercury is absorbed. The mercury must not be in such a quantity as to clot or cake the filings, and almost imperceptible globule is sufficient for a tube. Instead of mixing the mercury with the powder one can obtain the same effects by slightly amalgamating the inner surfaces of the plugs which are to be in contact with the filings. Very little mercury must be used, just sufficient to brighten the surface of the metallic plugs without showing any free mercury or globules. The size of the tube and the distance between the two metallic stops or plugs may vary under certain limits, the greater the space allowed for the powder the larger or coarser ought to be the filings or grains. I prefer to make my sensitive tubes of the following size :--The tube j is 1½in. long and 1/10th or 1/12th of an inch internal diameter. The lengths of the stops j2 is about 1/5th of an inch, and the distance between the stops or plugs j2 j2 is about 1/30th of an inch. I find that the smaller or narrower the space is between the plugs in the tube the more sensitive it proves, but the space cannot under ordinary circumstances be excessively shortened without injuring the fidelity of the transmission. Care must be taken that the plugs j2 j2 fit the tube exactly, as otherwise the filings might escape from the space between the stops which would soon destroy the action of the sensitive tube. The metallic powders ought not to be fine but rather coarse, as can be produced by a large and rough file. The powder should preferably be of uniform grain or thickness. All the very fine powder or the excessively coarse powder ought to be removed from it by blowing or sifting. It is also desirable that the powder or grains should be dry and free from grease or dirt, and the files used in producing the same ought to be frequently washed and dried and used when warm. The powder ought not to be compressed between the plugs but rather loose, and in such a condition that when the tube is tapped the powder may be seen to move freely." The specification then deals with the question of a vacuum which is said to be desirable but not essential :-- "The tube j may be sealed, but a vacuum inside it is not essential except perhaps the slight vacuum which results from having heated it while sealing it. Care should also be taken not to heat the tube too much in the centre when sealing it as it would oxidise the surfaces of the silver stops and also the powder which would diminish its sensitiveness. I have used in sealing the tubes a hydrogen and air flame. A vacuum is however desirable, and I have used one of about 1/1000th of an atmosphere obtained by a mercury pump." Coming next to another practical point Signor Marconi states that "in order to keep the sensitive tube j in good working order it is desirable but not absolutely necessary not to allow more than one milliampere to flow through it when active. If a stronger current is necessary several tubes may be put in parallel provided they all get shaken by the tapper or trembler, but this arrangement is not always quite as satisfactory as the single tube. It is preferable when using sensitive tubes of the type I have described not to insert in the circuit with it more than one cell of the Leclanché type as a higher electromotive force than 1·5 volts is apt to pass a current through the tube even when no oscillations are transmitted. I can, however, construct sensitive tubes capable of working with a higher electromotive force. Fig. 5A shows one of these tubes. In this tube, instead of one space or gap filled with filings, there are several spaces j1 j1 separated by plugs of tight-fitting silver wire. A tube thus constructed, observing also the rules of construction of my tubes in general, will work satisfactorily if the electromotive force of the battery in circuit with the tube is equal to about 1·2 volts multiplied by the number of gaps. With this tube, also, it is well not to allow a current of more than one milliampere to pass through it." Reference is then made to the size of the plates kk (Fig. 5), and to the means adopted for fixing their proper length, and it is further stated that in order to increase the distance at which the receiver can be actuated by the radiation from the transmitter, the receiver is placed in the focal line of a cylindrical parabolic reflector, preferably of copper, and directed towards the transmitting station. It is slightly advantageous for the focal distance of the reflector to be equal to one-fourth or three-fourths of the wave-length of the oscillation transmitted. A further improvement has for its object to prevent the electrical disturbances which are set up by the trembler and other apparatus in proximity or in circuit with the tube from themselves restoring the conductivity of the sensitive tube immediately after the trembler has destroyed it as has been described. "This I effect by introducing into the circuits at the places marked p1 p2 q h1 in Fig. 2, high resistances having as little self-induction as possible." Shunts having four times the resistance of the shunted apparatus are recommended. It is then stated that "in parallel across the terminals of the relay (i.e., corresponding to the circuit worked by the relay) it is well to have a liquid resistance s constituted of a series of tubes . . . partially filled with water acidulated with sulphuric acid. The number of these tubes in series across the said terminals ought to be about ten for a circuit of 15 volts, so as to prevent in consequence of their counter electromotive force, the current of the local battery from passing through them, but allowing the high-tension jerk of current generated at the opening of the circuit in the relay to pass smoothly across them without producing perturbating sparks at the movable contact of the relay. A double-wound platinoid resistance may be used instead of the water resistance, provided its resistance be about 20,000 ohms . . . Condensers of suitable capacity may be submitted to the above-mentioned coils, but I prefer using coils of water resistances." Another improvement has for its object to prevent the high frequency oscillations set up across the plates of the receiver by the transmitting instrument which should pass through the sensitive tube from running round the local battery wires, and thereby weakening their effect on the sensitive tube or contact. "This I effect by connecting the battery wires to the sensitive tube or contact, or to the plates attached to the tube through small coils (see k1 in the figures) possessing self-induction, which may be called choking coils, formed by winding in the ordinary manner a short length (about a yard) of thin and well-insulated wire round a core (preferably containing iron) two or three inches long." Another improvement consists in a modified form of the plates connected to the sensitive tube, in order to make it possible to mount the receiver in an ordinary circular parabolic reflector. Signor Marconi then deals with improvements applicable to the transmitting instruments, and says :--"My first improvement consists in employing four* spheres for producing the electrical oscillations." The dielectric liquid preferred is vaseline oil slightly thickened with vaseline, and it is stated that "the oil or insulating liquid between the spheres e e increases the power of the radiation, and also enables one to obtain constant effects, which are not easily obtained if the oil is omitted. The balls d and e (Fig. 6) are preferably of solid brass or copper, and the distance they should be apart depends on the quantity and electromotive force of the electricity employed, the effect increasing with the distance (especially by increasing the distance between the spheres d and the spheres e) so long as the discharge passes freely. With an induction oil giving an ordinary 8in. spark, the distance between e and e should be from 1/25th to 1/30th of an inch, and the distance between d and e about 1in. . . . Other conditions being equal, the larger the balls the greater is the distance at which it is possible to communicate. I have generally used balls of solid brass of 4in. diameter, giving oscillations of l0in. length of wave. Instead of spheres, cylinders or ellipsoids, &c., maybe employed. Preferably the reflector applied to the transmitter ought to be in length, and opening the double at least of the length of wave emitted from the oscillator. If these conditions are satisfied, and with a suitable receiver, a transmitter furnished with spheres of 4in. diameter connected to an induction coil giving a 10in. spark will transmit signals to two miles or more. If a very powerful source of electricity giving a very long spark be employed it is preferable to divide the spark gap between the central balls of the oscillator into several smaller gaps in series. This may be done by introducing between the big balls smaller ones (of about ½in diameter) held in position by ebonite frames." "A further improvement consists in causing one of the contacts of the vibrating brake applied to the induction coil to revolve rapidly. This improvement has for its object to maintain the platinum contacts of the interrupter in good working order, and to prevent them sticking, &c. This part of my invention is illustrated in Fig. 3 (c2 c3 c4). I obtain this result by having a revolvable central core c2 (Fig. 3 and Fig. 13) in the ordinary screw c3, which is in communication with the platinum contacts. I cause the said central core with one of the platinum contacts attached to it to revolve by coupling it to a small electric motor, c4. This motor can be worked by the same circuit that works the coil, or, if necessary, by a separate circuit--the connections are not shown in the drawing. By this means the regularity and power of the discharge of an ordinary induction coil with a trembler brake is greatly improved." "A further improvement has for its object to facilitate the focussing of the electric rays. The oscillator in this case being different from the one previously described, because, instead of being constituted of two spheres it is made of two hemispheres, separated by a small space filled with oil or other dielectric. The spark between the hemispheres takes place in the dielectric from small projections at the centres of the hemispheres." "Fig. 9 shows another modified form of transmitter, with which one can transmit signals to considerable distances without using reflectors. In Fig. 9 t t are two poles connected by a rope t1 to which are suspended by means of insulating suspenders two metallic plates t2 t2 connected to the spheres e (in oil or other dielectric as before) and to the other balls t3 in proximity to the spheres c1 which are in communication with the coil or transformer c. The ball t3 are not absolutely necessary as the plates t2 may be made to communicate with the coil or transformer by means of thin insulated wires. The receiver I adopt with this transmitter is similar to it, except that the spheres e are replaced by the sensitive tube or imperfect contact j (Fig. 5). whilst the spheres t3 may be replaced by the choking coils k1 in communication with the local circuit. If a circular tuned receiver of large size be employed the plates t2 may be omitted from the receiver. "I have observed that other conditions being equal the larger the plates at the transmitter and receiver, and the higher they are from earth and to a certain extent the further apart they are the greater is the distance at which correspondence is possible. "The permanent installations it is convenient to replace the plates by metallic cylinders closed at one end, and put over the pole like a hat and resting on insulators. By this arrangement no wet can come to the insulators, and the effects obtainable are better in wet weather. A cone or hemisphere may be used in place of a cylinder. The pole employed ought preferably to be dry and tarred. "Where obstacles such as many houses or a hill or mountains intervene between the transmitter and the receiver, I have devised and adopt the arrangement shown in Figs. 10 and 11. In the transmitting instrument (Fig. 10) I connect one of the spheres d to earth E preferably by a thick wire and the other to a plate or conductor u which may be suspended on a pole v and insulated from earth. Or the spheres d may be omitted and one of the spheres e connected to earth and the other to a plate or conductor u. At the receiving station, Fig. 11, I connect one terminal of the sensitive tube or imperfect contact j to earth E, preferably also by a thick wire, and the other to a plate or conductor w preferably similar to u. The plate w may be suspended on a pole, x, and should be insulated from earth. The larger the plates of the receiver and transmitter, and the higher from the earth the plates are suspended, the greater is the distance at which it is possible to communicate at parity of other conditions. . .

"At the receiver it is possible to pickup the oscillations from the earth or water without having the plate w. This may be done by connecting the terminals of the sensitive tube j to two earths preferably at a certain distance from each other and in a line with the direction from which the oscillations are coming. These connections must not be entirely conductive, but must contain a condenser of suitable capacity, say of one square yard surface (paraffined paper as dielectric). Balloons can also be used instead of plates on poles, provided they carry up a plate or are themselves made conductive by being covered with tin foil. As the height to which they may be sent is great, the distance at which communication is possible becomes greatly multiplied. Kites may also be successfully employed if made conductive by means of tin foil. When working the described apparatus it is necessary either that the local transmitter and receiver at each station should be at a considerable distance from each other or that they should be screened from each other by metal plates. It is sufficient to have all the telegraphic apparatus in a metal box (except the reading instrument) and any exposed part of the circuit of the receiver enclosed in metallic tubes which are in electrical communication with the box (of course the part of the apparatus which has to receive the radiation from the distant station must not be enclosed, but possibly screened from the local transmitting instrument by means of metallic sheets). When the apparatus is connected to the earth or water the receiver must be switched out of circuit when the local transmitter is at work, and this may also be done when the apparatus is not earthed." Nineteen claims are then put in. These are set forth verbatim below :-- The method of transmitting signals by means of electrical impulses to a receiver having a sensitive tube or other sensitive form of imperfect contact capable of being restored with certainty and regularity to its normal condition substantially as described. A receiving instrument consisting of a sensitive imperfect contact or contacts, a circuit through the contact or contacts, and means for restoring the contact or contacts with certainty and regularity to its, or their normal condition after the receipt of an impulse substantially as described. A receiving instrument consisting of a sensitive imperfect contact, or contacts, a circuit through the contact, or contacts, and means actuated by the circuit for restoring with certainty and regularity the contact, or contacts, to its or their normal condition after the receipt of an impulse. In a receiving instrument such as is mentioned in Claims 2 and 3, the use of resistances possessing low self-induction, or other appliances for preventing the formation of sparks at contacts or other perturbating effects. The combination with the receivers such as are mentioned in Claims 2 and 3 of resistances or other appliances for preventing the self-induction of the receiver from affecting the sensitive contact, or contacts, substantially as described. The combination, with receivers such as herein above referred to, of choking coils substantially as described. In receiving instruments consisting of an imperfect contact, or contacts sensitive to electrical impulses, the use of automatically working devices for the purpose of restoring the contact or contacts, with certainty and regularity to their normal condition after the receipt of an impulse substantially as herein described. Constructing a sensitive non-conductor capable of being made a conductor by electrical impulses of two metal plugs or their equivalents and confining between them some substance such as described. A sensitive tube containing a mixture of two or more powders, grains or filings substantially as described. The use of mercury in sensitive imperfect electrical contacts substantially as described. A receiving instrument having a local circuit including a sensitive imperfect electrical contact, or contacts, and a relay operating an instrument for producing signal actions or manifestations substantially as described. Sensitive contacts in which a column of powder or filings (or their equivalent) is divided into sections by means of metallic stops or plugs substantially as described. Receivers substantially as described and shown in Figs. 5 and 8. Transmitters substantially as described and shown at Figs. 6 and 7. A receiver consisting of a sensitive tube or other imperfect contact inserted in a circuit, one end of the sensitive tube or other imperfect contact being put to earth whilst the other end is connected to an insulated conductor. The combination of a transmitter having one end of its sparking appliance or poles connected to earth, and the other to an insulated conductor, with a receiver as is mentioned in Claim 15. A receiver consisting of a sensitive tube or other imperfect contact inserted in a circuit, and earth connections to each end of the sensitive contact or tube through condensers or their equivalent. The modifications in the transmitters and receivers in which the suspended plates are replaced by cylinders or the like placed hat-wise on poles, or by balloons or kites substantially as described. An induction coil having a revolving make and break substantially as and for the purposes described. The italics, we should add, are ours throughout. The figure numbers are those of the Specification.

Electrical World and Engineer, June 29, 1901, page 1103-1104:

Wireless Telegraphy.

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BY REGINALD A. FESSENDEN EVEN an experimenter working along similar lines and finding a considerable number of devices which he had considered as peculiarly his own, described in the paper, may be pardoned for feeling a considerable degree of pleasure in reading the admirable communication recently made by Mr. Marconi to the Society of Arts. Mr. Marconi is certainly to be congratulated not only upon the practical results which he has achieved, but also upon the beauty of the methods employed. It is most certainly apparent that his method has now passed from the original crude stage to a practical and commercial one. It may be of interest to compare the results, at least some of them (for it would be inadvisable at present to publish more than a part), obtained on this side of the water by the United States Weather Bureau. These experiments were commenced under the direction of the chief of the Weather Bureau, Professor Moore, in January, 1900. Under his direction and with his approbation the subject was investigated from the beginning, with a view first to finding out definitely the nature of the phenomena, and then devising means for utilizing the forces to best advantage. First will be described a number of cases in which the work of Mr. Marconi and that of the Weather Bureau has gone along parallel lines; secondly, the differences between the methods and results obtained so far as published, and, lastly, an indication of work done by the Weather Bureau which has not been, so far as is known at present, duplicated. Naturally, on account of commercial considerations it will not be possible to go into details so much as might be desired, and for the present this deficiency must be excused. The first point in which parallel results have been obtained is that concerned with the employment of larger capacities, more especially in the form of cylinders. Mr. Marconi describes the use of concentric cylinders, the inner one connected through a self-inductance to ground, and explains very clearly that in the case of wire conductors the electrical oscillations rapidly die away, and that with greater capacity we have a more persistent vibrator. The following quotation from one of the patent applications of the Weather Bureau experimenters will show that in this respect the same result has been reached, "The employment of simple wires having small capacity as sending conductors is objectionable for the reason that the radiation is so rapid that there are very few oscillations in each discharge, and hence the inductive rise in voltage at the receiving station cannot attain sufficient value to permit of the use of inductive devices for arresting the potential at such station. By the employment of conductors having large capacity at the sending station, and by properly proportioning the self-inductance and resistance, the radiation from the conductor can be so controlled that there will be a large number of oscillations; for example, 50 or more at each total discharge. In other words, the discharge is so controlled that only a small fraction of the total energy is radiated at each oscillation. By thus extending the period of radiation opportunity is afforded for the inductive voltage at the receiving end to rise to its full value. By increasing the number of oscillations for each total discharge from the sending conductor, and by adjusting the receiving system so that its natural periodicity corresponds, or approximately so, to the period of the electromagnetic waves, the distance of travel of the waves is not solely dependent upon the heights of the sending and receiving conductors as has heretofore been held." And the corresponding claim: "In a system of wireless telegraphy a conductor adapted to radiate electromagnetic waves having its capacity, inductance and resistance so proportioned that only a relatively small fraction of the energy of the large conductor is radiated during a single oscillation, thereby preventing rapid vibrating in oscillations substantially as set forth." As regards the details by which this is accomplished, Mr. Marconi uses two concentric cylinders, the inner one having an inductance connected with it. The object of the inductance is not fully described, but Mr. Marconi lays great stress upon it. According to the writer's experiments, the object of this inductance is three-fold. In the first place, as Mr. Marconi explains, it gives a difference in phase; secondly, it is only the outer conductor which radiates, and this radiates just as a simple cylinder of the same size would radiate if used as an ordinary vertical conductor, but for the fact that the oscillations are more persistent when the inductance is put in. For the formula for logarithmetic decrement contains the power, R / L, and hence we can decrease the decrement, i. e., render the oscillation more prolonged by increasing L. Also the two concentric cylinders act as a condenser, and this in combination with the inductance means that we really are shunting the spark-gap with a synchronous circuit of larger capacity, as was suggested by Dr. Pupin in his discussion of wireless telegraphy before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. In this respect the work has not been parallel, for while the patent application and the drawings described inductances used in this manner, the same effect has been obtained, not by increasing the denominator, but by decreasing the numerator of the fraction R / L. This has been done in three different ways which will be described at a later date. The advantage of this method is that whilst when we increase the denominator we decrease the period and also decrease the total amount of energy radiated per oscillation, if we decrease the numerator we keep the amount of energy radiated the same and do not change the period, while at the same time we make the logarithmetic decrement just as small as can be obtained with the inductance. This means a greater sending power with a given height. Another line in which parallel results have been obtained is in the tuning of the secondary of the receiving transformer. Mr. Marconi shows clearly the necessity of this, and we may compare this with the following statement from another of the patent applications: "It has heretofore been impossible to make the receivers respond solely to waves of one periodicity, as other periodicities, if above a certain power, will affect the receivers. By constructing the second conductor so that the oscillations for each total discharge are increased, and by employing at the receiving station two or more tuned circuits, a very perfect resonance or tuning between the stations can be obtained. With one tuned circuit at the receiving station and with conductors permitting a rapid radiation at the sending station, electrostatic and hysteresis effects become very prominent, and the great self-inductance desirable for sharp resonance cannot be attained. By employing two tuned circuits, one connected to the receiving conductor and the other secondary to the first, the electrical effect in the secondary will occur only when the resonance is very sharp." And the corresponding claim, "In a system of wireless telegraphy a sending conductor in combination with a prime conductor, including the receiving conductor and one or more secondary circuits controlled by the primary circuit; a transmitting device included in the last circuit of the series, the several circuits being tuned to correspond to the period of the second conductor substantially as set forth." Here, however, there is another difference. Mr. Marconi makes the secondary of his coil equal to the height of the sending conductor. The writer makes it equal to twice the height of the sending conductor. Two explanations of this are possible: First, that Mr. Marconi uses the secondary wound in such a manner that the wire really has a longer natural period than if it were straight; secondly, that he is really working with the first overtone. I have found that the overtones are very pronounced, more especially when the spark length is slightly longer than that generally used. There may be some other cause not at present known, but all the writer's experiments seem to show that the wave length is really four times the length of the vertical conductor and not twice. Another difference consists in the form of the radiating conductor. Mr. Marconi uses concentric cylinders, but in the Weather Bureau experiments simple cylinders were at first used. Later these were replaced by conductors of the form shown in the accompanying sketch, in which A is a tower, BB are cables insulated from the tower at its top, CC are insulated strain insulators, and DD ropes boiled in an insulating compound. The spark or other apparatus is placed at the top of the tower and the waves go out, as shown by the dotted lines. This kind was later superseded by a third form, and this kind by a fourth, which will be referred to later. Another case in which parallel work was done is that in which a Thomson high-frequency coil (commonly called a Tesla coil, but in reality first brought out in its present form by Professor Elihu Thomson) was used. Unfortunately, however, some other modifications are used with it, which, as the patents have not been granted, it will be impossible to describe at present. The writer's experiments show plainly that Mr. Marconi's remarks on Professor Slaby's work are justified, and that much better results can be obtained by the Marconi methods. Lastly, with respect to the general direction in which the work of the Weather Bureau has progressed. In the first place, it has been found possible in several, ways to get over the old difficulty which troubled Hertz, and later experimenters, i. e., that when the spark length was increased beyond a certain length the discharge become no longer oscillatory. An electrical device was invented which, on being applied directly to the sending wire, measured directly the amount of energy radiated. A curve was then plotted, showing the relation between spark length and energy radiated, and it was found that the curve gave a sharp bend with a spark about one inch in length, and no further increase of radiation could be obtained. Different kinds of coils with different primaries and secondaries, different methods of producing the voltage, different kinds of gases and fluid insulators in which the balls were immersed, and different kinds of arrangements of the terminals were tried, but all without success. But finally the solution was found, with the result that with the later apparatus an amount of radiation 16 times as great as that got with the ordinary 12-inch coil and 1-inch spark was obtained. This means, of course, greater sending distance, and it may be mentioned here that transmission without the use of transformers, inductive devices, cylinders or any other apparatus for raising the voltage, has been accomplished over a distance of 50 miles without using more than a fraction of the available energy. The same result was also accomplished in two other ways. The question of high conductors has proved a rather serious one, because, as Mr. Marconi has pointed out, if we use large surface conductors, though they may be short, yet they are objectionable on account of the wind pressure. Means for overcoming this are described in some of the patent applications, but the method was finally abandoned because means have been found by which a conductor only one meter high can be made to radiate as much energy and of the same period as a conductor 100 meters high. Another difference again has been the fact that it has been found necessary to differentiate in form between the receiving and sending conductors, i. e., to have the receiving conductor with more self-inductance and less capacity than the sending conductor. Other work done by the Weather Bureau has been along the line of producing a non-interfering system. The admirable and beautiful work of Mr. Marconi has resulted in a system by which within certain limits messages can be sent without interference. But one great objection has been found in the Weather Bureau experiments to this method, although it is described in some of the earlier patents of the Weather Bureau experimenters. That is, that while it is no doubt possible, under certain conditions, to send and receive individual messages, yet by connecting two brass semi-circles to a motor revolving at several thousand revolutions per minute, it is possible to make what may be called an electrical siren which runs up and down a scale of seven or eight octaves several thousand times a minute, and which, as at some period of the scale it gives a note corresponding to any given syntonized receiver, is consequently able to stop all communication, when used in conjunction with the apparatus for strengthening the radiation, within a radius of 500 miles or so. Consequently this method has been superseded by several other methods which permits of selective signaling, no matter how strong the interfering radiator may be or how close it may be, even approaching the interfering radiator within a few feet producing absolutely no effect. The parallel manner in which a considerable part of this work has been done may possibly be taken as evidence of the fact that the matter has now got down to a sound scientific base. Mr. Marconi and his eminent colaborateur, Dr. Fleming, are certainly to be congratulated on the results they have so far achieved, and no one joins more heartily in wishing them the best of success than the writer. The future of wireless telegraphy in their hands is certainly assured, and it cannot be many years before Mr. Marconi will see the great system which he was the first to see the points of and to put in practical form, in as universal use as our present methods of telegraphy.

Amateur Work, November, 1901, pages 4-5: HERTZIAN WAVES.

IF a stone be thrown into a pool of still water, the motion of the stone causes a disturbance on the surface of the water. Circular waves radiate from the point at which the water was struck, diminishing in height until no longer visible. The movement of these waves is slow; the eye can easily follow them and count the number of waves per minute. Other waves in a more elastic medium than water are found to be much more rapid in movement. The striking of a bell causes it to vibrate, which vibration imparts wave motion to the surrounding air. Our ears are so constructed that this wave motion, if the rate be not less than 16 nor more than 44,000 per second, is transmitted through the tympanum and nerves of the ear, and we become sensible of it as Sound. Certain bodies are responsive to a particular rate of vibration. If a violin be played close to a wine-glass in exactly the same tone as the vibration rate of the wine-glass, the wave motion from the violin will set up a vibration in the glass, sometimes so violent as to cause the glass to break in pieces. Many interesting instances of this harmony of vibrating rate are recorded in the various textbooks on Physics. Sound waves, while much more rapid than the water waves, are still comparatively slow when we consider the rapid vibrating motion of heat waves. The rapidity of these waves is beyond the ability of the mind to comprehend except by comparison. That degree of heat termed "bright red" requires the atoms of the body giving out this heat to vibrate at the rate of 400 billion times per second. It has been discovered that, under certain conditions, electrical waves radiate through space and have the power to influence suitable objects prepared for that purpose. The particular form of electrical wave under consideration is that known as Hertzian waves, so termed from the comprehensive discoveries of Dr. Heinrich Hertz, of Carlsruhe and Bonn. By means of a series of masterly experiments based upon certain phenomena previously discovered by other scientists, Dr. Hertz, between the years 1886 and 1891, added greatly to the knowledge of these electric waves and their effects on adjacent bodies, enabling them to be put to practical use in wireless telegraphy. These Hertz waves do not have the extremely rapid vibratory rate of heat waves, though, as compared with sound waves, they are still very rapid, their vibrations being, as near as has yet been discovered, approximately 230 millions per second. These waves are set up by any sudden electric discharge, such as lightning flash, or in a less degree by a spark from a sparking, or induction coil or Leyden jar. They are made evident to our senses by suitable apparatus that, being adjusted to the same rate of vibration, receives the wave impulses and acts in unison with them. We may soon be able to learn of the approach of electric storms by means of instruments that will receive the electrical waves set up by the distant lightning flash. The apparatus for demonstrating electric-wave action is simple and may easily be constructed at small cost. Procure two sheets of heavy zinc 16" square, and mount them in a light wooden frame. Small picture-frame moulding makes a neat-looking frame. At the center of one edge of each plate ( Z ) solder an L-shaped strip of zinc, the projecting piece being about ½" long, and having a 1/8" hole through it. To one end of two pieces of brass wire 4" long and 1/8" in diameter, fit brass balls ( C ) 1" in diameter. The other ends of the wire are then put through the holes in the zinc angle-piece, and when the plates are placed in line, the two balls will face each other. The plates should also be fitted with ebonite or glass feet, raising them 2½" or 3" from the level. At the outside of one plate and in the lower outside corner of the other, bore small holes, and connect, by soldering, two pieces of insulated copper wire, size 16 or 18, which are to connect with the Leyden jar. This Oscillator, as Dr. Hertz named it, if placed on a stand with the plates in line and the balls from ¼" to 1" apart, according to conditions, will, when connected to the outer and inner coatings of the charged Leyden jar ( L ), set up powerful electrical or Hertz waves in the surrounding medium at the instant the discharge takes place between the balls of the "oscillator" plates. These waves are taken up and made evident by a simple form of receiver known as Hertz's Resonator. This consists of ¼" brass rod 5 feet long bent into the shape of a nearly complete circle 18" in diameter. The unconnected ends are fitted with two 1" brass balls; the distance between them is adjusted by bending the rod. Wings of thin sheet copper 6" wide and 10" long are fastened to each side of the rod by twisting around the rod extension strips that were left on the wings when they were cut out. In place of the brass balls the ends of the rod may be turned into two small circles, and soldered to make a perfect joint. The brass balls are the best, and should be polished with emery-cloth before trying experiments. The circular brass rod ( D ) is held suspended by two round pieces of wood 8" long and 1" thick, the lower ends of which rest in holes bored in the base ( B ). Two round-headed brass screws on each upright hold the brass rod in place, one screw on each side of the rod. It will add materially to the success of the experiment if one wing is connected by a piece of covered copper wire to a "ground." The nearest gas or water pipe will answer. The base is a heavy block of wood with wooden uprights, upon which to fasten the circular rod.

Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, 1876, pages 519-525:

BELL'S ARTICULATING TELEPHONE.

Attempts have been made for many years past to transmit musical or articulate sounds to a distance by means of electrical communication, and some of the early experiments of the late Sir Charles Wheatstone were accompanied with so much success that it was hoped that a time would come when an instrument might be constructed not only to register graphically certain audible sounds but to produce upon a diagram a set of signs by which the sounds of the human voice could be recorded; in other words, that it might become possible to construct an automatic reporter; and in the Loan Collection of scientific apparatus at South Kensington may be seen several instruments bearing upon these researches, and in which the vowel sounds are recorded by a series of distinctive curves. In the year 1860, Philipp Reiss, of Friedrichsdorf, near Homburg, following the researches of Wertheim, Marian, and Henry upon the production of sounds by electricity, invented the telephone which bears his name, and which also may be seen at South Kensington. The telephone of Reiss is of two parts; a transmitting instrument and a receiver. The former consists essentially of a stretched membrane, which, by vibrating in unison with the impulses it receives from musical sounds played near it, transforms those impulses into a series of electrical currents by a simple make-and-break arrangement, and these currents acting on the receiving instrument, which may be hundreds of miles distant, reproduce the corresponding notes, so that a tune played at one station can be distinctly heard at the other. The receiving instrument is founded upon the well-known phenomenon discovered by Page in the year 1837, that a distinct sound accompanies the demagnetisation of an iron bar placed in an electro-magnetic helix. It consists of a soft iron bar about the size of a knitting needle, surrounded by a helix of wire which forms part of a voltaic circuit with the transmitting instrument, and for intensifying the effect both instruments are provided with sounding-boards, or resonators. From the above description it will be seen that if a note which makes (say) one hundred vibrations per second be sounded in the neighbourhood of the transmitting instrument, its membrane will make one hundred corresponding vibrations, making and breaking the voltaic current one hundred times, and producing one hundred demagnetisations in the receiving instrument for every second of time, so that exactly the same note that was sounded in the transmitter will be audible at the distant station. It is obvious that the duration of, and time between, two notes must be identical at both ends of the conducting wire, and thus is reproduced automatically and without a possibility of error the elements which make up melody, viz., correctness of note combined with measure of time. Following Reiss in Germany, Elisha Gray in America constructed in 1874 his far more perfect electric telephone, in which the transmitting instrument consists of a vibrating reed, which is at once a note-producer and a rheotome or contact-breaker. It is tuned like the reed of a harmonium to its proper note, and when adjusted can only transmit to the receiving instrument the number of currents per second corresponding to the vibrations producing its note. Elisha Gray's receiving instrument is electrically similar in principle to that of Reiss, but consists of a horse-shoe electro-magnet, mounted upon a wooden sounding-box or resonator, with a heavy armature attached to its poles. The transmitting instrument is provided with a key-board similar to that of a harmonium, and each note has its corresponding key and vibrating reed. The same inventor has since introduced his splendidly worked out telephonic telegraph, by which four or more distinct messages may be transmitted in the Morse code simultaneously along a single wire. This apparatus depends for its principle upon having a vibrator at the receiving station, tuned so as to be affected only by its corresponding transmitter at the sending station, and thus the receiving instruments along a line of wire have the power of selecting those messages intended for themselves and letting all others pass. This has also been accomplished by a Danish engineer, M. Paul Lacour, who employs vibratory tuning-forks for transmitting the impulses, and a series of corresponding tuning-forks, each arm of which is inclosed in a magnetic helix for the selecting instrument. This selecting instrument can be used either as a receiving telephone, or by being employed as an intermediate relay may transmit the signals to ordinary telegraph instruments. We give herewith illustrations of the transmitting and receiving instruments of Mr. Graham Bell's articulating telephone, by which the sound of the human voice may be transmitted by electricity along a telegraph line, and heard, as a voice, at the other end. The articulating telephone of Mr. Graham Bell, like those of Reiss and Gray, consists of two parts, a transmitting instrument and a receiver, and one cannot but be struck at the extreme simplicity of both instruments, so simple indeed that were it not for the high authority of Sir William Thomson one might be pardoned at entertaining some doubts of their capability of producing such marvellous results. The transmitting instrument, which is represented in fig. 1, consists of a horizontal electro-magnet, attached to a pillar about 2 inches above a horizontal mahogany stand; in front of the poles of this magnet--or, more correctly speaking, magneto electric inductor--is fixed to the stand in a vertical plane a circular brass ring, over which is stretched a membrane, carrying at its centre a small oblong piece of soft iron, which plays in front of the inductor magnet whenever the membrane is in a state of vibration. This membrane can be tightened like a drum by the three mill-headed screws shown in the drawing. The ends of the coil surrounding the magnet terminate in two binding-screws, by which the instrument is put in circuit with the receiving instrument, which is shown in fig. 2. This instrument is nothing more than one of the tubular electro-magnets invented by M. Niclès in the year 1862, but which has been re-invented under various fancy names several times since. It consists of a vertical bar electro-magnet inclosed in a tube of soft iron, by which its magnetic field is condensed and its attractive power within that area increased. Over this is fixed, attached by a screw at a point near its circumference, a thin sheet iron armature of the thickness of a sheet of cartridge paper, and this when under the influence of the transmitted currents acts partly as a vibrator and partly as a resonator. The magnet with its armature is mounted upon a little bridge which is attached to a mahogany stand similar to that of the transmitting instrument. The action of the apparatus is as follows: When a note or a word is sounded into the mouthpiece of the transmitter, its membrane vibrates in unison with the sound, and in doing so carries the soft iron inductor attached to it backwards and forwards in presence of the electro-magnet, inducing a series of magneto-electric currents in its surrounding helix, which are transmitted by the conducting wire to the receiving instrument, and a corresponding vibration is therefore set up in the thin iron armature sufficient to produce sonorous vibrations by which articulated words can be distinctly and clearly recognised. In all previous attempts at producing this result the vibrations were produced by a make-and-break arrangement, so that while the number of vibrations per second as well as the time measures were correctly transmitted there was no variation in the strength of the current, whereby the quality of tone was also recorded. This defect did not prevent the transmission of pure musical notes, nor even the discord produced by a mixture of them, but the complicated variations of tone, of quality, and of modulation, which make up the human voice, required something more than a mere isochronism of vibratory impulses. In Mr. Bell's apparatus not only are the vibrations in the receiving instrument isochronous with those of the transmitting membrane, but they are at the same time similar in quality to the sound producing them, for, the currents being induced by an inductor vibrating with the voice, differences of amplitude of vibrations cause differences in strength of the impulses, and the articulate sound as of a person speaking is produced at the other end. Of the capabilities of this very beautiful invention, we cannot give them better than in the words of an ear witness, and no less an authority than Sir William Thomson, who in his opening address to Section A at the British Association at Glasgow thus referred to it: "In the Canadian Department I heard 'To be or not to be . . . there's the rub,' through an electric telegraph wire; but, scorning monosyllables, the electric articulation rose to higher flights, and gave me passages taken at random from the New York newspapers: 'S. S. Cox has arrived' (I failed to make out the 'S. S. Cox'); 'the City of New York;' 'Senator Morton;' 'the Senate has resolved to print a thousand extra copies;' 'the Americans in London have resolved to celebrate the coming 4th of July.' All this my own ears heard, spoken to me with unmistakable distinctness by the then circular disc armature of just such another little electro-magnet as this which I hold in my hand. The words were shouted with a clear and loud voice by my colleague judge, Professor Watson, at the far end of the telegraph wire, holding his mouth close to a stretched membrane, such as you see before you here, carrying a little piece of soft iron, which was thus made to perform in the neighbourhood of an electro-magnet, in circuit with the line, motions proportional to the sonorific motions of the air. This, the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph, is due to a young countryman of our own, Mr. Graham Bell, of Edinburgh and Montreal and Boston, now becoming a naturalised citizen of the United States. Who can but admire the hardihood of invention which devised such very slight means to realise the mathematical conception, that, if electricity is to convey all the delicacies of quality which distinguish articulate speech, the strength of its current must vary continuously and as nearly as may be in simple proportion to the velocity of a particle of air engaged in constituting the sound." --Engineering.

After Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of radio waves, some were enchanted by the idea that this remarkable scientific advance could be used for personal, mobile communication. But it would take decades before the technology would catch up with the idea. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Both the telegraph and the telephone transformed communications in the 1800s, and at the close of the century radio was poised to start a third revolution. Some of the earliest speculation about radio's future centered on the almost mystical idea of portable individual communication. In the February, 1892 issue of Fortnightly Review, Sir William Crookes' Some Possibilities of Electricity looked forward to the day when two persons could use radio signals to privately communicate with each other. Crookes' review included one particularly arresting sentence: "...some years ago I assisted at experiments where messages were transmitted from one part of a house to another without an intervening wire by almost the identical means here described". J. J. Fahie contacted Crookes about this intriguing statement, and was told that the unidentified experimenter was David Hughes, who beginning in 1879 apparently had transmitted and received radio signals, although he was discouraged from further research by reviewers who thought he had not done anything unusual. In 1899, Fahie convinced Hughes to write a short memoir of what he had accomplished twenty years previously, which was included in the Researches of Prof. D. E. Hughes appendix of A History of Wireless Telegraphy. A few months later Hughes was dead -- his obituary appeared in the January 26, 1900 issue of The Electrician. Two decades after that, the March 31, 1922 issue of The Electrician carried an announcement in Wireless Notes (Hughes Equipment) that the inventor's original instruments had been found in a storage area, and put on display at the Science Museum in South Kensington. A photograph of some of this equipment appeared in World's First Wireless Outfit Found in London Tenement, from the August, 1922 issue of Popular Science Monthly. It is interesting to speculate how history might have been changed had Hughes been encouraged to continue his original research.

Guglielmo Marconi soon experimented with mobile communication, as reviewed in Military Automobile for Wireless Telegraphy from the July 27, 1901 Western Electrician, and in a speech to a New York City meeting of the Automobile Club of America, reprinted in the May, 1902, The Cosmopolitan, suggested that in the future Wireless Telegraphy from an Automobile would be a "handy thing for automobiles in general". Charles Mulford Robinson, in the June, 1902 The Cosmopolitan, speculated about the effect unchaperoned Wireless Telegraphy communication would have on romance, and, more practically, suggested the new technology would ensure up-to-the-minute shopping lists. (Twenty years later, romance was still on people's minds, as a song published in 1922, Kiss Me By Wireless proclaimed "There's a wireless station down in my heart... operating just for you and me".)

Five years after Crookes' article, Professor William Ayrton predicted that widespread personal communication using radio would eventually be developed -- a review of his thoughts, Syntonic Wireless Telegraphy from the June 29, 1901 Electrical Review, foresaw that someday "the calling which went on every day from room to room of a house" would be expanded into worldwide communication "extending from pole to pole", although "On seeing the young faces of so many present he was filled with green envy that they, and not he, might very likely live to see the fulfillment of his prophecy." (Ayrton died in November, 1908) Wireless Telephony, from the August 1, 1902 issue of The Electrician (London), reported that "a number of scientists scattered all over the civilised world are eagerly seeking the solution to the problem of wireless telephony", and although so far there had been only limited success, "A future generation may conceivably accomplish as much in wireless telephony as is dreamed of to-day by visionaries." (This review also gently chided Prof. Ayrton for his earlier assertion that being unable to contact someone by wireless telephone would mean that person was dead -- perhaps it was just a case of being temporarily unavailable for less dramatic reasons).

The development of compact radio receivers, especially the crystal detector, increased public speculation about personal telephones, although some foresaw disadvantages to being in constant contact with the outside world, as an editorial comment in the December 17, 1906 New York Times, A Triumph, but Still a Terror, asked "How will it be when we're told, not that somebody's 'on the wire,' but that somebody's 'on the air,' and we are exposed to answer calls from any part of the atmosphere?" In a section of Recent Developments in Wireless Telegraphy, from the June, 1907 Journal of the Franklin Institute, Lee DeForest made light of the idea of wireless telephone as premature. However, following the introduction of Poulsen arc-transmitters for audio transmissions, speculation increased in the period from 1907 to 1911, as promoters claimed that important advances were at hand -- for example, in the August, 1908 Modern Electrics, The Collins Wireless Telephone by William Dubilier suggested that in the near future "every auto will be provided with a portable wireless telephone" in order to call for help if the car broke down. Two years later, A. Frederick Collins was again featured, this time in Wireless Telephone Wizardry from the May, 1910 Technical World Magazine, as author Winston R. Farwell enthusiastically reported "It is now possible to talk without the use of wires with persons in distant parts of a building or in adjacent buildings regardless of the number and thickness of walls and floors intervening. One may take a wireless telephone on an automobile, a motor boat, a yacht, an airship or a submarine, into a caisson, a tunnel or a mine and be able to converse with others at any given point or points on the surface as freely and as plainly as one can now talk over a local telephone with nearby points." Actually the article was a little too enthusiastic, for during the next year Collins and some of his associates at Continental Wireless would be arrested for stock fraud, as the company's actual accomplishments did not match its broad claims. (In its February 12, 1910 issue, Telephony magazine had warned its readers about Collins' dubious reputation in Another Wireless Installation in the Stock Selling Campaign). And not too be left behind in the race to sell worthless stock, United Wireless, in R. Burt's The Wireless Telephone from the November, 1908 issue of that company's The Aerogram, foresaw broad advances in both personal communication and broadcasting, which would actually come years after the company had disappeared into bankruptcy.

By 1911, the lack of progress had triggered widespread skepticism, and when Modern Electrics reviewed Another Wireless Telephone in its October, 1911 issue, it noted dubiously that "the inventor displays the characteristic assurance of success". There were, however, continuing small advances, as Electric Auto as Wireless Station reviewed a successful radiotelegraph transmission, by W. B. Kerrick, from a car located outside Los Angeles, California, as reported in the July, 1911 Technical World Magazine. Also appearing in the same magazine was William T. Prosser's Wireless Telephone for Everybody, from the April, 1912 issue, which reviewed William Dubilier's high-frequency spark system, while the September, 1913 issue featured Edward J. McCormack's favorable report on Victor Laughter's work, also using high-frequency spark, in The Voice From the Air. But commercial success would continue to be elusive.

After a lull of a few years, the introduction of vacuum-tube transmitters reinvigorated the development of audio radio transmissions, and in January, 1916, The Electrical Experimenter looked ahead humorously to the day when people would find it impossible to escape being contacted, in The Wireless 'Phone Will Get You. (Eighty-three years later, Peter Laufer's Wireless Etiquette reviewed this same phenomenon, now a reality, in The wireless as leash). In the U.S. Navy Department's 1916 annual report, Secretary Josephus Daniels reported in Communication by Wireless Telephony that a May, 1916 test had successfully "brought to reality the prediction made to the Secretary some time previously that the time would come when he could sit at his desk and converse with the captain of a ship at sea". In the March, 1917 The Electrical Experimenter,Wireless 'Phone for Hotel Plan reported on investigations by Pacific Coast hotels into the possiblility of installing wireless telephones for guests to communicate with ocean liners. Alfred N. Goldsmith, in Future Development of Radio Telephony section of the 1918 Radio Telephony, predicted "a very rapid development", with the result that "it should become ultimately possible to keep in immediate touch with the traveling individual regardless of his motion or temporary location". In the 1919 U.S. War Department Annual Report, Signal Corps head Major General George O. Squier talked of "the day which I believe is not far distant, when we can reach the ultimate goal so that any individual anywhere on earth will be able to communicate directly by the spoken word to any other individual wherever he may be". In the August, 1919 Radio Amateur News, The Auto Radiophone by A. H. Grebe reported on the author's test installation of a wireless telephone in an automobile. Anticipation was also increasing in Britain, as Pocket Wireless Soon, Predicts Marconi Official, which appeared in the August, 1919 Electrical Experimenter, reported that managing director Godfrey Issacs "foresees the day, not far distant, when pocket wireless telephones will be in wide use". And the November 7, 1920 issue of the Boston Sunday Post featured John T. Brady's Talking by Wireless as You Travel by Train or Motor, which noted "It is now possible for a business man to talk with his office from a moving vehicle", as it reviewed a test two-way radio conversation the author had with Harold J. Power, head of the American Radio and Research Corporation, while Power was in a moving automobile.

In Margaret Penrose's 1922 The Radio Girls of Roselawn (communication extracts), two characters discussed whether they might, pretty soon,"carry receiving and sending sets in our pockets" which would allow them to "send or receive any news we wanted". Jessie is optimistic at first, declaring "It is going to be wonderful before long", and they might even be able to not only hear, but also see persons being talked to. However, later in the book she becomes more conservative, eventually dismissing the idea with "Oh! But that is a dream." And individual communication by radio was, in fact, still largely "a dream" at this time. In Radiotelephony and Wire Systems, from the January 7, 1922 Telephony, Henry Shafer calmed nervous telephone company executives by reviewing the "very substantial reasons why the radiophone cannot supplant the wire telephone systems". It wouldn't be until the 1980s that the technology needed for such things as pagers and wireless telephones would be perfected to the point that they became widely available consumer products. So, although the telephone's use for individual communication largely overshadowed its applications for distributing entertainment and news, the reverse would be true for radio, with broadcasting dominating for decades, before radio transmissions would be significantly developed for personal, mobile communication.

The first major use of radio was for navigation, where it greatly reduced the isolation of ships, saving thousands of lives, even though for the first couple of decades radio was generally limited to Morse Code transmissions. In particular, the 1912 sinking of the Titanic highlighted the value of radio to ocean vessels. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Prior to the introduction of radio, maritime communication was generally limited to line-of-sight visual signalling during clear weather, plus noise-makers such as bells and foghorns with only limited ranges. Beginning in the mid-1800s, an international convention was developed using special semaphore flags to exchange messages between merchant ships, as reviewed by the The International Code of Signals section of the 1916 edition of Brown's Signalling. In the same book, Examination Paper on the use of the International Code of 1901 provided an overview of signalling proficiency that a candidate needed to master in order to qualify for a Certificate of Competency issued by the British Board of Trade Examinations. Over time a huge vocabulary of signals was created, even as the expansion of radio was beginning to make visual signalling obsolete. The Urgent and Important Signals: Two Flag Signals section of Brown's Signalling reviewed over 600 basic signals, grouped by category, with meanings as diverse as "Where are you bound?" (SH), "In distress; want immediate assistance" (NC), "Keep a good look-out, as it is reported that the enemy's war vessels are going about disguised as merchantmen" (OJ), and "Heave to or I will fire into you" (ID). And in addition to the two-flag signals, there were thousands of three- and four- flag groupings, for communicating a huge variety of messages, including ship identifiers, geographical names, temperature and barometer readings, compass points, and units of measurement. The thousands of signals in part resulted from an apparent attempt to include every possible variation of a phrase, e.g. BUP stood for "He, She, It (or person-s or thing-s indicated) had (has, or, have) not done (or, is, or, are not doing)", which is included in a small selection of these additional signals from the U.S. Navy's 1909 edition of The International Code of Signals. The development of radio resulted, by 1911, in the addition of two more visual signals -- ZMX for "Wireless telegraph apparatus" and ZMY for "Report me by wireless telegraphy" -- which heralded the beginning of a major decline in the use of seaboard visual signals. However, to this day NC continues to be an international distress signal when using flag signalling.

In the 1872 edition of the annual Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, Captain P. Columb's Visual Telegraphy. Signals of Distress, &c., in the Mercantile Marine reviewed the confusion and limitations often encountered, prior to the invention of radio, by ships trying communicate during emergencies, while suggesting that the "immediate object for the Telegraph Engineer... should be devising means for communicating at night, and in fog". Just a few years after Heinrich Hertz's historic proof of the existence of electromagnetic radiation, the Notes section of the April 10, 1891 The Electrician (London) included a strikingly advanced suggestion, that someday lightships might use microwave beams to overcome the problem of fog interfering with shore communication. In a December, 1891 lecture given at Inverness, Scotland, Frederick T. Trouton returned to this topic, noting that "There is little doubt that a powerful beam of this sort would, unlike light, be unabsorbed by fog; so, looking into the future, one sees along our coasts the light-houses giving way to the electric house, where electric rays are generated and sent out, to be received by suitable apparatus on the passing ships, with the incomparable advantage that at the most critical time--in foggy weather--the ship would continue to receive the guiding rays." A similar prediction appeared in the July, 1892 issue of The New England Magazine, as an extract from Elihu Thompson's Future Electrical Development stated "electricians are not without some hope that signalling or telegraphing for moderate distances without wires, and even through dense fog may be an accomplished fact soon", making possible a sort of radio-wave lighthouse. Although it turned out it would take decades before practical microwave transmissions were developed, a few years later Marconi would introduce a successful system using longwave signals, and soon many of the larger passenger liners began carrying radio equipment. The addition of shipboard operators quickly captured the public imagination -- The Work of a Wireless Telegraph Man, by Winthrop Packard, from the February, 1904 The World's Work, recounted the activities of a Marconi operator on the passenger liner St. Paul, at a time when shipboard radio transmitters were so rare that operators had to wait for other similarly-equipped vessels to come into range. In the December 23, 1911 issue of Chamber's Journal, an unnamed Marconi Wireless operator reminisced about a decade of Life as a Wireless Telegraphist, including a time when mysterious printing by a tape-coherer receiver turned out to be due to the fact that "a big beetle was crawling about the relay of the receiver". Wireless Telegraphy on Mail Steamers, from the November 19, 1904 Electrical Review, featured Emile Guarini's overview of radiotelegraphic operations by mail packets running between Ostend, Belgium and Dover, England. Wireless Tracking of Fish, from the December 1, 1906, Electrical World, reported that six Atlantic Coast vessels of The Fisheries Company had been outfitted with DeForest equipment, so they would be able to "notify each other and all assemble without delay to the location where the fish are being caught".

By 1912, when Francis A. Collins' The Wireless Man was published, all the major passenger liners were equipped with radio transmitters. In the opening chapter of this book, Across the Atlantic, Collins reviewed how radio now kept vessels on transatlantic voyages in nearly constant communication with shore stations and each other. Initially large passenger liners were the primary commercial ocean-going vessels to install radio transmitters. But in the 1913 edition of Marconi's annual The Yearbook of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, Wireless Telegraphy and the Mercantile Marine promoted the money-saving benefits of radio for smaller ships, proclaiming that "Wireless telegraphy is now recognised as an essential part of the equipment of ocean-going passenger vessels, and, to a rapidly increasing extent, of cargo vessels and smaller craft." The 1916 edition of Brown's Signalling noted that "Any book dealing with signalling in general is incomplete without a reference to wireless telegraphy which, for mercantile signalling, offers so many advantages over other methods of signalling" in its The Quenched Spark System section, which featured a shipboard installation offered by Siemens. The General Information chapter of Percy S. Harris' 1917 book, The Maintenance of Wireless Telegraph Apparatus, covered the basics for operating a Marconi shipboard radio installation, in part noting that "Nothing is more irritating than to find, when the point of a pencil suddenly breaks, that there are no sharpened pencils in reserve."

In 1905, the distinctive Morse code character string ...---... (SOS) was adopted by Germany for signifying distress, as reported in German Regulations for the Control of Spark Telegraphy, from the May 5, 1905 issue of The Electrician. (A German-language account of the adoption of the April 1, 1905 regulations appeared in the April 27, 1905 issue of Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift: Regelung der Funkentelegraphie im Deutschen Reich). In 1906, SOS was adopted at the Berlin Radiotelegraphic Convention as the official international standard for distress calls, although Marconi operators in particular were slow to conform -- G. E. Turnbull's Distress Signalling, from the 1913 edition of the annual The Yearbook of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, noted that the Marconi companies had adopted "C.Q.D." as a distress signal in 1904, only to have it supplanted by the international ratification of "SOS" two years later. Turnbull reports that even after this some of the old-time Marconi operators continued to use C.Q.D. for a time, although "The change of the call letter is, however, a sentimental regret, and 'C.Q.D.' is being gradually forgotten." However, in 1909 not all the Marconi operators had made the switch, reflected by the title of Alfred M. Caddell's article about sinking of the Republic, C Q D, which appeared in the April, 1924 issue of Radio Broadcast magazine. The February, 1909 issue of Modern Electrics printed a transcript of radio communication related to this event in Operator Binns' Wireless Log. And a review by Baltic Captain J. B. Ranson of the twelve long hours it took to find the Republic, The Triumph of Wireless from the February 6, 1909 issue of The Outlook, included Ranson's opinion that, due to recent scientific advances -- especially radio communication -- "the passenger on a well-equipped transatlantic liner is safer than he can be anywhere else in the world."

Radio greatly reduced the terrible isolation of ships during emergencies, and was quickly responsible for saving thousands of lives. Notable Achievements of Wireless, from the September, 1910 Modern Electrics, reviewed early cases where radio had provided maritime assistance, beginning with the January, 1909 sinking of the Republic. Radio Broadcast later ran two articles about SOS emergencies which had occurred in the 1910s, written by George F. Worts under the heading "Adventures of a Wireless Free-Lance". My First SOS--A Farce Comedy was humorous, while A Thrill that Came Thrice in a Night-time reviewed a series of events which saw both rescue and tragedy. Some Stirring Wireless Rescues, a chapter from Francis A. Collins' 1912 The Wireless Man, reviewed a number of incidents which had occurred over the previous three years, while noting that radio had changed things so much that an "up-to-date Robinson Crusoe", instead of facing years of isolation after a shipwreck, would now be able to radio for help, then listen to the latest stock market quotations while awaiting rescue. However, radio did not eliminate all the fatalities, as American Marconi's J. Andrew White, in the July, 1915 The World's Advance, reported the dedication of A Memorial Fountain to Wireless Operators, which commemorated ten operators who had lost their lives at sea. A February 1, 1916 pamphlet issued by the Department of Commerce, Important Events in Radiotelegraphy, included an extensive section, Wireless as a Safeguard to Life at Sea, reviewing radio's use in seagoing emergencies and rescues.

One of most dramatic sea disasters was the sinking of the Titanic in the North Atlantic on the morning of April 15, 1912. The Titanic -- along with the Carpathia, which picked up the survivors -- was staffed by Marconi Wireless operators, and Marconi shore stations along the Canadian, Newfoundland, and U.S. coasts handled most of the communication as the Carpathia slowly made its way to New York City. In addition, many inland stations tried to get information about the disaster, which in this unregulated era resulted in extensive interference and confusion. Included in all this was the American Marconi equipped facility, MHI, located atop the New York Wanamaker department store, where David Sarnoff was station manager. Sarnoff would later vastly exaggerate his importance, in progressively embellished retellings, including completely false claims that he was first in the United States to hear of the disaster, and that President Taft silenced other stations so that Sarnoff could become the sole link for gathering information. However, the operators at the New York Wanamaker station did spend long hours listening for reports and survivor lists. A collection of extracts about the Titanic comes from the Boston American and recountings by David Sarnoff: The Titanic and the New York Wanamaker Station. Marconi management also sent messages to the operators aboard the Carpathia, telling them to limit what they were publicly reporting, until their accounts could be sold to the newspapers. These activities, plus a complaint that the operators aboard the Carpathia were unresponsive to Navy vessels sent by U.S. President Taft, were covered by the New York Herald: Marconi Company and Titanic Disaster Communication. Amateur radio operators were blamed for much of the chaos experienced immediately after the Titanic sank, but it has never really been clear how many of the problems were actually their fault. In 1922, in The Book of Radio (Titanic extract), Charles William Taussig wrote about the next evening after the Titanic sank, as amateur operators, voluntarily responding to the emergency, scrupulously maintained complete radio silence in the New York City area, in order to avoid interfering with the survivor lists being transmitted by the Salem.

One area where radio's revolutionary effect on ocean-going communication was readily apparent was when shipboard newspapers started to include daily news summaries. As early as 1899 Guglielmo Marconi used onboard reception in order to prepare a shipboard newspaper, as reported in A Wireless Telegraphy Newspaper, from the November 22, 1899 Electrical Review. Regular nightly summary news transmissions by Marconi shore stations followed, beginning in June, 1904 -- their introduction was reported in Mid-Sea Wireless Telegraph News, from the May, 1904 The Electrical Age. Thanks to radio, the late 1906 issues of the S. S. Hamburg's onboard newspaper, The Atlantic Daily News, featured news reports "received by Special Marconigrams", and passengers were also notified that they could send telegrams to nearby ships and shore stations.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- As with most innovations, radio began with a series of incremental scientific discoveries and technical refinements, which eventually led to the development of commercial applications. But profits were slow in coming, and for many years the largest U.S. radio firms were better known for their fraudulent stock selling practices than for their financial viability. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi became the first person to successfully demonstrate the controlled transmission and reception of longrange radio signals. But once the details of his advances became widely known, a large number of competitors sprang up on both sides of the Atlantic, many of whom developed important refinements of their own.

Scientists in the United States were particularly intrigued by reports of Marconi's advances. A short notice in the January 23, 1897 Scientific American, Telegraphy Without Wires, stated that "a young Italian, a Mr. Marconi" had recently demonstrated to the London Post Office the ability to transmit radio signals across three-quarters of a mile (one kilometer), and that "if the invention was what he believed it to be, our mariners would have been given a new sense and a new friend which would make navigation infinitely easier and safer than it now was". (The May 14, 1898 issue of the same magazine, in a short note titled Wireless Telegraphy, repeated a completely unfounded rumor that Marconi had lost his financial backers, because "the syndicate which kept it going for over a year has arrived at the conclusion that there is no money in it".) A few months later, the May 26, 1897 New York Times' Topics of the Times--Marconi Extract reported that "English electricians, particularly those connected with the army and navy, are much interested in the Marconi system of telegraphy without wires" as the inventor had now increased the signalling range to two or three miles (five kilometers), with expectations of developing even greater ranges. At a December 15, 1897 meeting in New York City, W. J. Clarke gave "an exhibition of the Marconi apparatus" consisting of a spark-gap transmitter and a coherer receiver, reported in the Wireless Telegraphy section of the 1897 edition of Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Two years later the Institute returned to the topic at a November 22, 1899 gathering, as reported in Possibilities of Wireless Telegraphy (New York Meeting) from the 1899 edition of organization's Transactions. However, by now Marconi's work was better understood, and this time the participants, with much stronger electrical engineering backgrounds than the self-taught Marconi, identified certain inefficiencies and errors in Marconi's approach. Although the coherer receiver had sometimes been referred to as a "marvelously sensitive electric eye", Reginald Fessenden, a professor at the Western University of Pennsylvania, reviewed his experiments using detectors that were far more sensitive and reliable, and reported measurements which disputed Marconi's assertion that the range of radio signals was proportional to the product of the heights of the sending and receiving antennas. And although the Marconi companies would long promote the supposed superiority of the "whip-crack" effect of spark transmitters, Michael Pupin, a Columbia University professor, expressed his belief that spark transmitters were inherently inefficient, and suggested that an ideal transmitter would create undamped "oscillations in a wire without a spark-gap", outlining basic ideas which would eventually be incorporated in far more efficient continuous-wave transmitters.

An expansive review in the May 7, 1899 New York Times, Future of Wireless Telegraphy, looked optimistically at the prospects for radio technology, predicting that, once a few technical obstacles were overcome, "no prudent man will try to set limits to the development of wireless telegraphy", including the possibility that "All the nations of the earth would be put upon terms of intimacy and men would be stunned by the tremendous volume of news and information that would ceaselessly pour in upon them". An article in the February 21, 1903 issue of Harper's Weekly Magazine, American Wireless Telegraphy, profiled Lee DeForest and Reginald Fessenden, who would be the two most prominent researchers in the United States during the first decade of the 1900s. (It was, however, a bit of a misnomer for this article to describe Fessenden's work as a "system of wholly American origin", because he was actually born in Canada.) A more technical overview of the industry, by William Maver, Jr., appeared in the August, 1904 The American Monthly Review of Reviews: Wireless Telegraphy To-day. Eugene P. Lyle, Jr.'s The Advance of "Wireless", from the January, 1905 issue of World's Work, gave readers a comprehensive look at the still developing industry, including various participants, government activities, outstanding technical issues, and radio's applications in such things as commercial shipboard use and military adaptations. The author also speculated about future developments, including the possibility that someday "a lone ranchman in Arizona might set up a pocket-receiver and learn the latest news", and that "millions of such little receivers" might eventually come into use.

Unlike the telephone, which was quickly adopted for business and home use, it took many years before radio's financial returns would match its great potential. In the United States, this resulted in a series of companies which sold stock at vastly inflated prices, backed mostly by vastly inflated visions of the companies' profits. Industry Comments appearing in 1901 issues of Western Electrician warned that the radio "field is still so uncertain that investors, remembering the liquid-air fiasco, should relinquish their money only after assuring themselves that display advertisements and glowing prospectuses are based on sound common sense". Wireless Telegraphy Stock, in the November 30, 1901 Electrical Review, noted the high prices already being paid for stock in companies with minimal assets and limited prospects, and opined that "The American public is to-day very much the same as it was when the late illustrious P. T. Barnum made his discovery that it liked to be fooled." In the November, 1904 issue of The Electrical Age, Wireless Telegraph Earnings warned that, even though "alluring" advertisements promoting stock sales continued to appear in the daily newspapers, there still was no reason to believe that the operations of any of the U.S. radio companies were even remotely profitable.

After it absorbed the successor to the American Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company, reported by Wireless Companies Merge in the January 10, 1904 New York Times, the American DeForest Wireless Telegraph Company was the largest radio company in the United States. Although the company would prove more adept at promotion than actual achievements, in early 1904, London Times war correspondent Captain Lionel James arranged to rush two American DeForest transmitters to China, in order to report on a developing conflict between Japan and Russia. A land station was established at Wei-hai-Wei on the Chinese coast, with the second transmitter placed aboard a ship, which allowed James to transmit daily updates directly from the war zone. In the August 31, 1904 New York Times, Wireless Workers Back From the Scene of War, provided a first-hand report from the two DeForest engineers, "Pop" Athearn and Harry Brown, who had operated the stations. At the 1904 World's Fair in Saint Louis, Missouri DeForest's Wireless Telegraphy was one of the latest inventions featured in the Exhibit of the Department of Interior Patent Office pamphlet. Meanwhile, the company pursued its hard-sell stock promotion, setting up a prominently located display tower, and putting on numerous demonstrations for the crowds, with the company's exaggerated exploits and potential profits "boomed" by publications such as The DeForest Wireless Telegraph Tower: Bulletin No. 1. Following successful tests at the Fair, the U.S. Navy awarded American DeForest a contract to build five stations in Panama, Pensacola, Key West, Guantanamo, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. And in the ongoing stock promotion, articles like Spanning the Seas With De Forest Wireless Telegraphy from the July 10, 1904 New York Times vastly exaggerated the company's achievements and future. In November, 1906, American DeForest president Abraham White announced the formation of a new company, United Wireless, which took over the American DeForest assets. United was also falsely said by White to be taking over American Marconi, as reported in Wireless Telegraph Consolidation, from the November 24, 1906 Electrical World, and strongly denied by Marconi officials in No Consolidation of Wireless Companies, from the April 4, 1908 Electrical Review. A short time after the formation of United Wireless, White was replaced by Christopher Columbus Wilson as company president. But the company continued to be run as a huge stock promotion fraud, and over the next few years absorbed a number of smaller, legitimate, companies which found they could not compete--Wireless Telegraph Companies Unite, from the July 11, 1908 Electrical Review reported United's takeover of the International Telegraph Construction Company, which had the side-effect of its obtaining the services of a very talented engineer, Harry Shoemaker.

Meanwhile, reporter Frank Fayant was in the middle of writing a multi-part series about stock fraud -- Fools and Their Money -- when he stumbled across the shenanigans going on in radio stocks. The result was a two-part exposé, The Wireless Telegraph Bubble, which details the sorry state of much of the U.S. radio industry during its first decade -- Fools and Their Money/The Wireless Telegraph Bubble, Success Magazine, January, 1907 through July, 1907. Fayant's article included one hopeful note -- "A Westerner, with western ideas of common honesty, some months ago acquired a very large interest in American De Forest, and he has been trying to bring order out of chaos." However, if this was a reference to Christopher Columbus Wilson, the assessment would prove to be wildly optimistic. To Holders of United Wireless Telegraph Company Stock , from the November, 1908 issue of United Wireless' The Aerogram, reviewed the company's new officers and directors, and stockholders would take little solace that the company treasurer -- Wilson's nephew -- was described as a "clean, clear-cut, able and conscientious young man". How About Wireless?, from the August 31, 1907 Electrical World, featured an impatient reviewer noting that "behind all the dubious experiments and more dubious financiering lies something that the world really needs" and although, as "one of the biggest things of the new century... some day wireless telegraphy will come into its own", until then "the period of exploitation seems indefinitely prolonged, and the procrastination grows tiresome". And in the December, 1907 issue of The World's Work, Transatlantic Marconigrams Now and Hereafter (Stock fraud extract), cataloged the ongoing excesses, noting that "The time may come when the wireless will become suitable for consideration by investors. It will not come until some strong, clean, honest financial interests take charge and utterly eliminate the miserable, fraudulent, unwholesome methods that have marked the whole market history of these issues." But a year later, the inflated claims in promotional articles, such as Robert Matthews' assertion that the "The wireless telegraph is here, real, virile, expanding." in American Development of the Wireless Telegraph from the November, 1908 issue of United Wireless' The Aerogram, showed that the stock promotion schemes were continuing unabated. In the 1909 edition of Operator's Wireless Telegraph and Telephone Hand-book, Victor H. Laughter lamented the current state of the industry, but felt that radio's bright future was assured, and predicted "It will only be a matter of time before all the 'get rich quick' wireless concerns will be forced out of existence".

In its July 10, 1909 issue, Telephony reported on a brewing revolt by United Wireless investors, in Wireless Stockholders Protest Against Management. Finally, on June 15, 1910, the federal government moved to shut down what it called "one of the most gigantic schemes to defraud investors that has ever been unearthed in this country", and arrested the principal United Wireless officers, as reported in Government Raids United Wireless, Modern Electrics, July, 1910. C. M. Keys' The Get-Rich-Quick Game, which appeared in March, 1911 issue of The World's Work, reviewed assorted financial schemes, and included in its "Arrested by Government on Charges of Fraud" list were the "Officers of the United Wireless Company". (This action, while welcome, seemed overdue, as the author noted "this [United Wireless] fraud was so patent that it has been a four-years' marvel to me how it could be carried on so long without someone stopping it.") Commenting on the seemingly endless list of victims, Keys closed pessimistically with "It seems quite hopeless, this article. When a patent and above-board swindle like the United Wireless sells stocks to 28,000 people... how may one hope to stop the pillage?" But progress was being made against the United Wireless frauds, and a story on the front page of the May 30, 1911 New York Times reported Five Wireless Men Are Found Guilty, as the prosecuting attorney celebrated that "For once a lot of crooks are going to jail after being convicted at their own expense." In addition to stock fraud, United Wireless was also guilty of extensive patent infringement. It was sued by the Marconi company, and had no defense. The receivers who had been appointed to oversee United Wireless' affairs entered into negotiations with Marconi for the company to be taken over, and a short time later an announcement appeared in the April, 1912, Modern Electrics with the result -- Marconi Absorbs United Wireless.

Federal prosecutors continued to investigate dubious stock promotion practices, and in its December, 1911 issue, Modern Electrics reported in Twelfth Anniversary of Wireless that although some within the industry had used radio "as a tool for extorting money from thousands of victims", a "purification" was now taking place. In the November 25, 1911 Telephony, the unfolding troubles of James Dunlop Smith, former president of the Radio Telephone Company, and a number of his business associates, including Lee DeForest, were reported in Wireless Telephone Promoter Arrested. DeForest was eventually acquitted on all the counts except one, which the divided jury couldn't agree upon, and was never retried on this final count. However, three others were convicted, and the Radio Telephone Company and its subsidiaries effectively shut down.

A third major company to face Federal prosecution for stock fraud was the Continental Wireless Telegraph & Telephone Company, which most prominently included A. Frederick Collins -- the company's formation had been announced in Wireless Companies Consolidate in the May 21, 1910 Electrical Review and Western Electrician. Shortly thereafter, a front page article in the November 22, 1910 New York Times, Postal Raids Show Vast Stock Frauds, announced that "Officers of Burr Bros. and Continental Wireless Co. Arrested in War on Swindling Concerns" as part of a major sweep against financial fraud. The trial start for four company associates was covered by Say Wireless Had a Wire in the November 16, 1912 New York Times -- all four would be found guilty.

With the elimination of three major fraudulent U.S. radio firms, the field was cleared for legitimate companies. And with its takeover of the United Wireless assets, the American branch of Marconi Wireless was now by far the largest radio company in the United States, a status it would hold until after World War One. For some, however, the prospects for the radio industry were still in doubt. A somber analysis appeared in the March, 1914 Technical World Magazine, as George H. Cushing reviewed the still shaky finances of the various companies, and in Wireless' Fate speculated about the next fifteen years. Cushing's predictions were profoundly pessimistic, suggesting that the private radio companies would find that "a new method of carrying messages does not, of itself, create messages to be sent", and they would prove incapable of competing with the established land telegraph lines and international cables. Finding themselves unable to "find a new use for a new tool", the radio companies were seemingly doomed to eventual failure, which would lead to a government takeover of the industry.

DOCUMENTING EARLY RADIO A Review of Existing Pre-1932 Radio Recordings By Elizabeth McLeod

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BACKGROUND

For most people the term "early radio" is used pretty loosely...anything before the introduction of format radio in the fifties would qualify, and certainly anything involving drama, comedy or variety programming. But for those of us involved in the collecting and documenting of radio history, it is hardly appropriate to refer to, say , a reel of "Johnny Dollar" episodes from 1960 as being representative of "early radio." It would be more accurate to confine the use of this term to radio up to 1935.

The date 1935 was chosen for a specific reason. It was in that year that NBC, spurred by the introduction of the so-called "acetate" recording disc, established its radio recording division. For the first time, a radio network took it upon itself to record and archive its programming for the use of artists, advertisers, and network staff. CBS began making recordings on a more limited basis three years later.

But many radio recordings prior to 1935 do exist. Experimental recordings were made by various phonograph companies and research laboratories almost from the beginning of broadcasting in the early twenties, using the newly-developed electrical recording process and producing phonograph-record pressings from wax masters. Some of these recordings were commercially released, others were made for experimental purposes and remain largely unknown. The Victor Talking Machine Company, The Compo Company of Canada, the Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, and Western Electric were among the companies producing such recordings. Later, some recording companies branched into the radio-syndication business, and part of that work involved recording certain network programs by line check for later broadcast on stations not connected to network lines.

From the late twenties, private recording studios in major cities were recording radio broadcasts off the air on behalf of advertising agencies or performers, using a primitive instantaneous recording system. The process usually used bare aluminum discs of from six to twelve inches in diameter, a special blunt-tipped recording stylus, and a heavily weighted recording head. The modulation would be indented into the surface of the disc creating a recording of the broadcast. By 1932, several companies were providing this service in New York, among them the Speak-O-Phone Recording Studio at 201 West 49th Street in Manhattan. This company maintained branches in other major cities as well, including Chicago, Boston, and Los Angeles. Another large New York based company was Broadcast Producers, Incorporated, which maintained a studio at 220 West 42nd Street. And, in Chicago, the Universal Recording Laboratories began in 1931 to provide a regular airchecking service. Los Angeles was served by 1932 by Bert Gottschalk's Electro-Vox Recording Studio in Hollywood --a company finally closed in early 2000, after nearly seven decades in business. By 1932, dozens of these studios were in existence, and it is companies such as these that are responsible for most of the existing radio programs before 1935.

A home recording system was marketed by RCA beginning in late 1930. Instead of aluminum discs, the system used recording blanks made of a plastic material, either solid or bonded to a cardboard core, and unlike the smooth, ungrooved surface of the aluminum disc, the Victor blanks guided the tone arm along the surface of the disc by means of a narrow pre-groove. The wide, blunt tip of the special home recording needle spread this groove as it travelled along the disc, and embossed the modulations into the very top of that new, widened groove. The records had to be played back with the same wide needle, and playing them back today is very difficult -- a standard 78rpm stylus travels below the modulation, giving the impression of a weak recording. To play these discs properly, a stylus of at least 5 mils width is required. Home Recording was featured on several high-end radio consoles marketed by RCA from 1930 to 1932 under the Radiola, Victor Radio, and RCA Victor nameplates. Home Recording was also featured by General Electric and Westinghouse as a result of their crosslicensing agreements with RCA.

So, the technology was in place by 1930 for widespread recording of radio broadcasts. And, contrary to the mythology which has arisen over the years, recordings were commonly made. Many ad agencies insisted on full recordings of the programs they sponsored, for post-air critiques. Fred Allen, in his book Treadmill to Oblivion notes that the agency producing his first series, "The Linit Bath Club Revue" of 1932-33, would listen to recordings of each of his programs the day after they aired and offer blistering criticism of the performance. Doubtless this practice was the rule for many agencies and advertisers determined to get the best value for their entertainment dollar.

Artists also recorded and collected their own programs. In a 1933 column, New York Daily News radio columnist Ben Gross mentions that orchestra leader Al Goodman was the proud owner of a complete run of recordings from the "Ziegfeld Follies Of The Air" series broadcast from April to June of 1932 over CBS for Chrysler...and that Goodman was negotiating with the sponsor to possibly syndicate these recordings for local rebroadcasts. (At least two of these programs still exist.) Although nothing appears to have come of this deal, it does indicate that recordings were not at all rare in the early years of network radio.

So, where are they? If thousands of programs were recorded off the air before 1935, why do so few exist today? There are several possible explanations.

One is the inherent fragility of the aluminum recordings themselves. The soft metal grooves were easily gouged into an unplayable condition. The discs were intended to be played only with fibre or bamboo needles. A single pass with a common steel needle was enough to permanently destroy the recording. Many discs no doubt suffered this fate.

Another factor is the purpose for which the recordings were made. In most cases, artists and agencies didn¹t have the foresight of Al Goodman, or of Rudy Vallee, who began to keep a meticulously catalogued archive of his programs in mid-1932. Independently made broadcast recordings, for the most part, were made for purposes of immediate evaluation...and once they had been examined, they might be put aside and forgotten or even thrown away.

A third factor cropped up years later: the scrap drives of World War II. With aluminum a crucial war material, citizens were urged to turn in as much of it as they could for recycling. Many patriotic performers could see no reason to hold onto ten year old broadcasts when there was a war to be won, and no doubt hundreds of early programs were thus lost.

And a fourth factor is simply the fact that many OTR collectors today are unaware that the aluminum-disc system ever existed, let alone even more obscure formats such as celluloid or gelatin discs. Most books and articles written on the subject of radio-show collecting gloss over the technical aspects of the recordings, leaving the novice collector with the impression that the 16 inch lacquer-coated transcription was the only method of preserving shows until the introduction of tape in the late forties. Even some advanced collectors may share this belief. Thus, when they run across an old uncoated aluminum platter, they don't recognize it for what it is. Labeling information is often sparse on the discs, often no more than pencil scrawling on the bare metal...and if you don't know what they are, it's easy to pass them by. And, even if a collector does recognize the discs when they are found, they are easily damaged by incorrect playback equipment. Home recording discs made using the RCA system are even more challenging, since if played back with an incorrect stylus, they reveal no recording at all!

So, despite the fact that the recordings were made in significant numbers, few have survived, and even fewer are in circulation. Exactly how many? That's a difficult question to answer. What follows is a listing of authentic radio recordings made thru the end of 1931 that I either have in my personal collection, or that I know to exist. By "authentic" I mean a recording made either by linecheck or aircheck of an actual radio broadcast, and which can be confirmed to be authentic. Syndicated programs are not included in this list -- although they may be mentioned where historically noteworthy -- nor are commercially or privately released phonograph records not made directly from actual broadcasts.

KNOWN RADIO RECORDINGS THRU 1931

(The following section draws heavily on the research of Dr. Michael Biel, professor of Radio/TV at Moorehead State University in Kentucky, and the pre-eminent authority on early broadcast transcriptions in the US. His 1977 doctoral dissertation "The Making and Use Of Recordings in Broadcasting Before 1936" remains the definitive work on the subject, and is highly recommended to anyone with a serious interest in the story behind the recordings we all enjoy. My thanks to Dr. Biel for his help in preparing this material.)

The earliest surviving recordings of a radio signal are segments of Morse code transmissions recorded off the air in late 1913 or 1914 by Charles Apgar, a New Jersey radio amateur who fitted the electrical element of a headphone to a home-made electrical recording head attatched to an ordinary Edison cylinder phonograph. This contrivance enabled Apgar to electrically record radio signals picked up by his receiver on wax cylinders. and he made several such transcriptions during 1913-1915 -- some of which led to the discovery of high-speed coded messages being transmitted by German spies thru the Telefunken wireless station at Sayville, Long Island.

Other recordings made by Apgar were more prosaic -- including examples of Morse code news bulletins transmitted by the New York Herald's wireless station WHB in Manhattan.

Apgar's original wax cylinders are lost -- but samples of his recordings survive, courtesy of an uncoated aluminum aircheck of Apgar's appearance on station WJZ in New York on December 27, 1934. Apgar was interviewed by NBC announcer George Hicks, and highlighted his description of his experiments by playing two of his cylinders into the microphone -- one containing a sample of a New York Herald news transmission and the other an example of one of the "spy" transmissions. Twelve-inch aluminum copy discs of this program are owned by the Antique Wireless Association, and a tape copy is owned by the Library of Congress.

*1920-22

No authenticated radio recordings are currently known to exist from this time period.

The Museum of Radio and Television in New York has listed a 1920 vice-presidential campaign speech on "Americanism" by Franklin D. Roosevelt as the supposedly-oldest broadcast in its collection, but this is incorrect. The recording cited by the museum is actually a commercial phonograph record released on the "Nation's Forum" label (N. F. #20, matrix number 49871) This recording was made in the New York studios of the Columbia Graphophone Company, and was not derived from a radio broadcast, nor was the record intended for broadcast use.

Also not authentic are the various recreations of KDKA's 1920 Election Night coverage. Several recreations were made over the years by KDKA or by Westinghouse to celebrate various anniversaries, as well as one supervised by Edward R. Murrow and Fred Friendly for Volume 3 of the "I Can Hear It Now" record series released by Columbia Records in 1950. The latter recording may actually be voiced by the man who announced the KDKA broadcast, but it nonetheless cannot be considered an authentic representation of what was actually heard that evening. The third volume of "I Can Hear It Now" has long been a source of confusion for unknowing collectors as well as documentary producers, who have often sampled its contents for the soundtracks of various film and television projects -- unaware of the fact that most of the material on the album was actually recorded in 1950.

Documentation exists of numerous recordings of broadcasts made by technicians working for the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company and the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1921-23, but none are known to survive. Periodic mentions of other experimental recordings in the US and abroad are found in the radio magazines of the day, but none of these examples have survived.

*1923.

11/10/23--Armistice Day Speech by former President Woodrow Wilson. WEAF, New York-WCAP, Washington-WJAR, Providence. Recorded by Frank L. Capps, a prominent recording technician and experimenter. The specific techniques used to make this recording are shrouded in mystery, but the recording is believed to be electrical. The existing vinyl pressing of the recording was made by the Compo Company of Lachine, Quebec around 1940, and is in the possession of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. Both sides of the disc contain the same material, but the dubs differ slightly. Audio quality of the recording leaves a great deal to be desired -- in part due to the technology used, and in part due to Wilson's ill health. His voice is weak and distant as he discusses the significance of Armistice Day, and stresses the need for international cooperation in the future. The recording runs just over three and a half minutes, and includes no announcements.

Several excerpts from 1923-24 New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra broadcasts over station WEAF were recorded as experiments by Bell Laboratories, and numerous examples survive. These are brief segments, and not complete programs. Some have recently been released on CD by the Philharmonic in a collection entitled "Historic Broadcasts: 1923-1987" with a five minute segment from a December 1923 broadcast being the earliest. There are no announcements on any of these music recordings.

*1924.

4/23/24 -- Speech by King George V, delivered at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Stadium. This British Broadcasting Company broadcast was recorded by the acoustic method -- a loudspeaker was placed before an old-fashioned recording horn -- by the Gramophone Company of London, and rush-processed into finished shellac records for a repeat broadcast in the evening. A substantial portion of the broadcast was recorded for possible commercial release on the HMV label, but only the King¹s speech is currently confirmed to exist.

June, 1924--Speech by F. D. Roosevelt at the Democratic National Convention, Madison Square Garden, New York. Broadcast over a twelve station Bell System network headed by WEAF and WCAP. Recorded by "Advertising Record Company" This unusual celluloid disc recording is cut at the non-standard speed of 60 rpm -- and appears to have been a giveaway or promotional item. It is probable that this recording was made from the broadcast, but this cannot be positively confirmed. Another Advertising Record Company disc containing a 1924-vintage political speech by President Coolidge is known to exist, and this may be from a broadcast as well. It is unclear if the recordings are electrical or acoustic. In his remarks, Roosevelt announces the withdrawal of Alfred E. Smith from the race for the Presidential nomination. The second side of the recording includes announcements from the platform about the recovery of a missing diamond pin, and a short sequence of band music. No announcers are heard.

9/12/24--National Defense Test Day Broadcast. WEAF-WCAP network of eighteen stations. Linecheck recorded by Western Electric. A ninety-minute program aired to demonstrate how radio could respond to national emergencies thru the interconnection of stations in various cities. Speeches by Secretary of War Weeks, General Pershing, General Saltzman of the Signal Corps, and General J. F. Carty of AT&T. This broadcast marked the first major demonstration of multiple remote cut-ins on a single program, with engineers in fourteen cities responding on cue, followed by two-way conversations between General Pershing and generals representing each of the Army Corps areas. Most of the program was recorded and pressings of the discs were presented to General Pershing. Sets of the discs are also held by the Library Of Congress and the National Archives. Audio quality of the recording is excellent, but two of the sides recorded were damaged during processing and do not survive.

*1925

Recordings exist of several selections and a speech by Walter Damrosch from a performance by the Associated Glee Clubs Of America on 3/31/25 at the Metropolitan Opera House. Four selections were commercially released on the Columbia label (50013-D and 384-D). This concert was broadcast by WEAF, but it has never been positively determined if the recordings were made from that broadcast by air or by line, or if the recording was made from a seperate microphone in the Opera House itself. While these recordings were made from an event that was broadcast, there is no way to know for sure if they are actual recordings of the broadcast.

1/15/25--"Victor Hour" excerpts. WEAF network. Recorded by Victor Talking Machine Company. Musical sequences only. Not in my collection but known to exist.

3/4/25--Inauguration Speech by President Coolidge. Broadcast over WEAF-WCAP network. Line check recorded by Western Electric. The recording includes the Oath Of Office, administered by Chief Justice William Howard Taft and the inaugual address itself. Preceding the Oath, the voice of announcer Graham McNamee can be recognized proclaiming "We are ready." This is the earliest known recording of McNamee's voice. The speech is incomplete, since only one 78rpm disc recording machine was used, and parts of the speech are missed between the sides recorded. A total of twenty-four minutes of the speech have been preserved. The audio quality of the recording is excellent, certainly on a par with other early electrical recordings, and disc noise is slight. Since this is a line check and not a recording made "off the air" it¹s difficult to say how well the audio represents what a typical radio listener would have picked up at home. Part of this recording -- omitting the Oath -- is included on a boxed collection of Presidential speeches released by Rhino Records in 1997.

3/14/25-- International Rebroadcast from London. WJZ aircheck, recorder unknown. The first relay of an overseas signal survives in a series of test pressings of undocumented origin, formerly owned by Dr. Albert Goldsmith of RCA., and now held by the University of Maryland's Library of American Broadcasting. Ten sides were recorded, most likely by placing a radio horn speaker next to a microphone. This hypothesis would explain the hollow, metallic tone of the recording. Much of the thirty-seven minute recording is unintelligible, due partly to the poor recording quality, but also due to the poor quality of the shortwave reception. There are frequent crashes of static punctuating a fairly constant roar of atmospheric noise. However, there are short passages of recognizable dance music from London, with "Alabamy Bound" one of the selections heard most distinctly, along with brief phrases from the BBC announcer. Much more clearly, announcer Milton Cross of WJZ can be recognized toward the end of the sequence, breaking in to explain what is happening, and to deliver a station identification. Interestingly, newspaper accounts from the broadcast¹s relay point in Belfast, Maine indicate that the BBC material was heard very clearly by listeners there, who picked up the signal directly from the RCA relay station. This would indicate that perhaps much of the interference was encountered on WJZ's end of the relay circuit. Although this is a very difficult recording to understand, it is nonetheless an invaluable window into the past. It preserves, as perhaps no other early recording does, the sound of a broadcast as it actually sounded to a listener in 1925. For that reason it stands as a true historical treasure.

7/31/25-- WEAF Broadcast Excerpts. Experimental airchecks recorded by Western Electric. Selections by Billy Jones and Ernie Hare and by blind pianist Edwin Searle. A female announcer -- possibly Rosaline Greene -- is heard on the Searle recording. The Searle recording is cut at 33 1/3 rpm -- the earliest surviving recording at this speed. Metal parts exist in the Lucent Technologies corporate archives -- which holds the Western Electric files -- and vinyl test pressings exist in the A. F. R. Lawrence Collection at the Library Of Congress.

8/9/25--Hymns from the American Presbyterian Church of Montreal church service, as broadcast by a Montreal station, likely CKAC. Recorded by Herbert Berliner for commercial release on the Apex Radia-Tone label, #25000. Musical selections only, no announcements. Not in my collection but known to exist.

10/19/25 -- Speech by Hon. W. L. MacKenzie-King. A short campaign talk by King from the Montreal Forum. Another Canadian broadcast recorded by Berliner for Apex Radia-Tone, probably airchecked from station CKAC, Montreal. King's rather tedious election speech is suddenly disrupted when an opposition political operative switches out the lights, and confusion reigns. Live radio at its best! Only one turntable was available for the recording, and the two sides contain non-continuous sections of the speech. Recording quality is rather thin, with the sound limited by the quality of the microphone used.

*1926

A number of "Sam and Henry" recordings are in collector¹s circulation with 1926 dates. These are not recordings of the WGN broadcasts, but commercial discs released on the Victor label and widely distributed. They are not radio recordings, and are not representative of the actual nature of the Sam and Henry series. The Victor discs featured vaudeville style comedy routines, whereas the series itself was a continuing serial which did not emphasize such comic patter.

Also, no authentic recordings exist of the inaugural NBC broadcast of 11/15/26. Some sequences were recreated for a tenth anniversary special in 1936, including a speech by NBC president Merlin Ayelsworth, and these excerpts have been muddying the waters ever since. It might seem odd that no recording was made, given the early WEAF recordings noted above...but keep in mind that AT&T was no longer involved with the station and saw no need to document its activities any further. RCA, the new owner, had yet to purchase Victor Talking Machine, and thus did not possess recording facilities of its own.

1/1/26--New Years' International Broadcast excerpts. WJZ linecheck recorded by Victor Talking Machine Company. Musical sequences and some announcements, including a lengthy sequence relayed by shortwave from London. Performers include John McCormack and Lucrezia Bori. Portions of this program were originally recorded on twelve 12 inch 78rpm sides, but several are lost. In addition, it is evident from listening to the recording that the recording apparatus was stopped occasionally within the broadcast itself. The full broadcast, according to newspaper schedules, ran for several hours. The quality of this thirty-three minute recording is far superior to the 1925 international broadcast, with the stateside material being on a par with any electrical recording of the day, and the shortwave material, originating at station 5XX, Daventry, while still affected by the reception quality, is distinct and enjoyable. There are cut-ins by WRC, Washington, where the Marine Band performs a number, as well as spoken passages by Calvin Childs of the Victor Company, by WJZ announcer Milton Cross, and by an unidentified announcer with a New York accent who delivers the station ID about halfway thru the program.. The discs are now owned by the Library of American Broadcasting.

*1927

Again, the waters are muddied by many recreations purporting to be of broadcasts from 1927. The oft-heard Lowell Thomas and George Hicks sequence reporting on the Lindbergh flight is from the "I Can Hear It Now" record released in 1950. The commonly -circulated sequence of Graham MacNamee describing the Dempsey-Tunney "long count" fight appears to be from the 1936 NBC Tenth Anniversary Broadcast, but a small Wisconsin recording company did release a set of 78rpm records containing an authentic aircheck of this broadcast. This extremely rare series of recordings is described below. Recordings claiming to be of Babe Ruth¹s 60th home run in September of 1927 are entirely spurious. That game was not broadcast. Regular-season broadcasts of Yankee games did not begin until 1939.

6/20/27--Lindbergh Return Ceremonies. NBC Red and Blue Networks. Recorded by Victor Talking Machine Company. These recordings are undoubtedly the most common pre-1930 radio sequences, having been commercially released by Victor as three twelve inch and one ten inch 78 rpm records. The twelve inch discs include the speech by President Coolidge presenting Lindbergh with the Congressional Air Medal, and brief remarks in response by Lindbergh, and Lindbergh's speech to the National Press Club. The ten inch disc is a compendium of other material aired that day, including Graham McNamee's breathless description as the aviator comes down the gangplank from his voyage home. Many thousands of copies of these discs were sold, and many survive. However, Victor recorded considerably more material than was released, about ninety minutes all together, a total of twenty one matrices. The unreleased material includes a lenghty description of the Lindbergh procession by John B. Daniel and Milton Cross, as well as additional commentary by McNamee and Phillips Carlin. Vinyl pressings of the complete matricies are held by the National Archives and the Library of Congress.

7/1/27 -- Sequences from the Canadian Confederation Diamond Jubilee Broadcast. CNR aircheck recorded by the Compo Corporation for commercial release on the Apex Records label. Ten excerpts from this lengthy broadcast inaugurating coast-to-coast network service for the CNR Radio Division. Announcements are included in both French and English, including another speech by King. This time, the lights stay on. The Canadian arm of Victor also recorded portions of this program, but brought recording apparatus directly to the site rather than making a recording of the broadcast. The Victor sides are reportedly of better quality than the Apex recordings, but technically, they are not radio recordings.

8/12/27 -- Fiftieth Anniversary of the Phonograph. WOR, Newark NJ aircheck recorded by the Edison Laboratories. Probably the earliest example of an experimental 30rpm "Rayediphonic" recording, this ninety-minute recording preserves luncheon ceremonies saluting Thomas A. Edison's invention of the phonograph. Charles Edison represents his father during the ceremonies. The luncheon is followed by a musical program from the Essex County Country Club featuring Dave Kaplan's Melodists playing approximately fifty minutes of dance music. Louis A. Witten announces from the luncheon, and John B. Gambling announces the musical program. Numerous station IDs are heard. The recording is notably crude, and appears to have been made by the simple process of placing a microphone in front of a horn speaker.

9/22/27 -- Dempsey/Tunney Fight. NBC Red/Blue aircheck recorded by "New York Recording Laboratories" of Port Washington, Wisconsin. The most memorable sports broadcast of the Twenties survives on a series of 10-inch 78rpm pressings released on the obscure Paramount label. No relation to the film company of the same name, Paramount was a small, Wisconsin-based operation notorious among collectors today for the indifferent quality of its recording work, even as it recorded material by artists who are now very much in demand. Despite its pretentious name, the company did not own its own recording studio until 1929, and up to that date depended on facilities rented from other companies, mostly in the Chicago area. The recordings of the NBC broadcast by Graham MacNamee of the Dempsey-Tunney fight are among the rarest to be released by this company. Ten sides were cut, with each round taking up a single matrix. The sound quality is hollow and distant, leading to the conclusion that the recording was made by simply placing a microphone before a radio tuned to a station carrying the broadcast, most likely one of NBC¹s Chicago outlets. The recording is not continuous, since the between-rounds commentary by MacNamee and co-announcer Phillips Carlin were not included. The recordings of each round begin and end abruptly, suggesting that only one recording machine was used to cut the masters. A tape dub of rounds 7 and 8 is in my collection, but only one complete set of these discs is currently known to exist. It is held by a private collector who has thus far not released a full tape.

*1928

A series of phonograph records released on the Sears-Roebuck "Silvertone" label purports to feature a broadcast of the "WLS Showboat" program, but it is a studio recording intended to give the feel of the show, and is not an actual broadcast.

The widely-distributed "Amos 'n' Andy" sequence in which the two discuss the upcoming election is from a Victor record ( Victor 21608), one of several to be released by the team over the next two years, and is not a radio broadcast. Ironically, it is this phonograph record most often used by NBC to represent this series in various retrospective programs, since only a handful of actual broadcasts survive from the program's serial era. Syndication discs of "Amos 'n' Andy" began to be recorded and distributed by WMAQ, Chicago in the spring of 1928, but these were not off-air recordings of a live broadcast. Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll would record the shows ahead of the scheduled air date, allowing time for pressing and distribution. The shows were approximately nine minutes long, with each episode recorded on a single twelve inch 78rpm record. Each episode included a bit of redundant dialogue at the end of the first side to ease the transition between sides. Those stations with dual turntables would most likely have been sent two copies of each disc, allowing a smooth blending of the sides. Opening and closing announcements were done live by each subscribing station, and no commercials were included. Each set of discs was to be returned to WMAQ after being broadcast, and the discs were presumably destroyed on their return. So it is that only a very few of these episodes seem to survive. Most of those that do date from mid-1929. This was the first series to be distributed in such a manner, and the project was extremely successful. "Amos 'n' Andy" achieved national renown long before they began their network run, and the success of their "chainless chain" would have significant influence on the industry the following year. For a detailed discussion of this historically-essential series see "Amos 'n' Andy in Person."

??/??/28--"Roxy's Gang" NBC Blue Network. WJZ aircheck recorded by the Edison Company. An experimental recording made using the 30-rpm vertical-cut "Rayediphonic" system -- a special long-playing adaptation of the Edison Diamond Disc that held thirty minutes per side. This program was discovered by Dr. Biel in the archives of the Edison Historic Site in New Jersey. Edison , Henry Ford, and Harvey Firestone appear on this special broadcast commemorating the 1928 Chicago Radio Show, a popular trade exposition.

10/20/28 -- Edison Special Congressional Medal Presentation. NBC Red Network. WJZ aircheck recorded by the Edison Company. A speech by President Coolidge is followed by a ceremony in which Edison's original phonograph is returned to him after many years in England. Excerpts of this program were dubbed to a special cylinder recording, intended as a premium for Edison dealers.

*1929

Following on the success of the syndicated "Amos 'n' Andy" other companies began prerecording shows for distribution to individual stations, and most programs dated 1929 currently in collectors' circulation that I have encountered are syndications and not authentic broadcast recordings.

Chicago was the center of syndication activity, with the National Radio Advertising Company being one of the largest operations, producing shows for such clients as the Meadows Manufacturing Company, Maytag, and Brunswick-Balke-Collender. N-R-A-C shows were usually recorded at the Brunswick Record studios and released on specially-pressed Brunswick 78rpm discs. Columbia Records had a similar relationship with some of the other syndicated program producers. By late 1929 or very early 1930, Columbia also began releasing syndicated radio product on 16 inch pressings at 331/3 rpm, taking advantage of technology developed for the Vitaphone talking-picture process.

One 1929 disc that has caused a lot of confusion among collectors is the "Don Lee New Year¹s Party" recording. This recording was a specially-prepared Brunswick disc featuring various KHJ performers distributed by Don Lee to his employees as a holiday gift in December 1929. It is not an actual broadcast.

There are however at least five authentic broadcast recordings extant from 1929. They include:

1/12/29-- Cascade Tunnel Dedicatory Program. NBC Blue network linecheck, recorded by the Victor Talking Machine Company. The Great Northern Railroad sponsored this hour long program, celebrating the opening of its tunnel in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State. Graham McNamee reports from Berne, Washington as the first train goes thru, and there are speeches by President-Elect Hoover and assorted other dignitaries. Back in New York, Phillips Carlin is studio announcer for musical entertainment by George Olsen and his Music, along with cut-ins from San Francisco by Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink. The broadcast was recorded in two formats -- 16 inch masters at 33 1/3 rpm, and 12 inch 78rpm masters. The 16-inch masters preserved the entire program, but it is possible that portions were edited from the 12 inch recordings. Pressings of the discs for this program may have been distributed by Great Northern as a keepsake of this historic event to employees and clients, and very few sets are known to exist.

2/11/29--Thomas Edison Birthday Tribute. NBC Blue Network. WJZ aircheck recorded by the Edison Company. Another recording unearthed by Dr. Biel at the Edison Site. According to radio listings of the day, this was an hour-long tribute to Edison on his 88th birthday intended as the first in a series of Edison-sponsored programs. The climax of the program was a short talk by the inventor himself. Approximately forty minutes of the program were recorded on two "Rayediphonic" discs, but an electronic failure in the recording amplifier made it impossible to record the entire program.

10/11/29 -- Foreign Relations Club Dinner. NBC Red and Blue networks. The earliest radio recording in the Brander Matthews Dramatic Library Collection at Columbia University is a half hour collection of uncoated-aluminum-disc excerpts from this broadcast, including speeches by John W. Davies, Elihu Root, and Ramsey MacDonald.

10/21/29--Light¹s Golden Jubilee Celebration. NBC Blue network. WJZ aircheck recorded by the Edison Company on "Rayediphonic" discs. The fiftieth anniversary of the invention of the light bulb is observed in this special program from Dearborn. Michigan. An array of luminaries including President Hoover pay tribute to Edison and his invention. Edison himself also speaks, and participates in a re-enactment of the first lighting of the electric lamp. Albert Einstien speaks by shortwave from Berlin, but reception is extremely poor. The recording includes the earliest surviving version of the NBC chimes -- a five note progression very much unlike the standard G-E-C. The complete one-hour program was recorded, but a tape copy is in circulation via the National Archives which has been edited to approximately 32 minutes.

11/13/29 -- Remarks by Eleanor Roosevelt at the annual Seven Colleges Dinner in New York. WOR, Newark aircheck, recorded at Coumbia University. Excerpts from this broadcast include a speech by Mrs. Roosevelt --then First Lady of New York State-- on the importance of education for girls. I have not examined the recording, but it is most likely an instantaneous aluminum disc, one of the earliest surviving examples of this format. The disc is held by Columbia as part of its Brander Matthews Dramatic Library collection, and a tape reference copy is held by the Library of Congress.

*1930

Syndicated shows become even more popular, with many companies now in the field, many with names designed to simulate those of the real networks. They include Continental Broadcasting, World Broadcasting, Radio Digest Bureau Of Broadcasting and others. Again, virtually all circulating programs dated 1930 are from syndication discs. Several circulating "Amos 'n' Andy" sequences dated 1930 are, again, from commercially-released Victor records, and are not broadcasts.

RCA Victor's Home Recording system was introduced in October 1930 -- and broadcast recordings made on this system have been found dating very close to that introduction. These first home recordings were made on 6-inch diameter blanks with a maximum running time at 78rpm of about ninety seconds. Larger size Victor blanks were introduced by 1932, as were machines capable of recording at 33 1/3 rm as well as 78.

1/21/30 -- Speech by King George V at the opening of the Five Power Naval Conference in London. BBC linecheck recorded by the Gramophone Company of London for commercial release on the HMV label. This is a fairly common disc, one of a series issued by HMV of important speeches by the King. Many of these are broadcast recordings. In addition to this recording, there is a lengthy series of discs from this Conference in the Brander Matthews Library collection at Columbia.

3/18/30 -- "Der Lindbergflug" ("Lindbergh's Flight) -- Berlin Radio, recorded by Berlin Radio. This program is a musical drama by Berthold Brecht and Kurt Weill, based on the trans-Atlantic flight of Col. Charles Lindbergh. The broadcast was recorded on wax masters by the RRG for later relay to Radio Paris and the BBC, where translations were overlaid in French and English. The original 18-minute German language broadcast is the surviving version, and is believed to be the earliest surviving broadcast from Continental Europe.

3/19/30 and 3/26/30 -- Coca Cola Program. NBC Red network airchecks. These two complete half-hour broadcasts feature announcer Graham McNamee, Leonard Joy and his Coca Cola Top Notchers Orchestra, and sportswriter Grantland Rice with interviews of leading athletes of the day. The 3/19 program -- the series premiere -- is an aircheck of WEAF in New York, and the 3/26 program an aircheck of WEEI, Boston. The 3/19/30 recording was made by the Radio-victor Corporation of America on 12" 78rpm wax masters, and survives as special shellac pressings. The 3/26/30 program was recorded on Speak-O-Phone uncoated aluminum blanks, possibly by the Speak-O-Phone studio in Boston. It is evident that only one recording machine was used to record this latter broadcast, as there are gaps between sides. The 3/26 program includes the only known recording of the seven-note Red Network version of the NBC chimes.

8/4/30--Talk By Colonel Lindbergh. CBS and NBC networks. CBS aircheck recorded by "Electro Broadcasters Corportation and distributed on 2 10" 78rpm records. This is the earliest CBS recording in my collection, a ten minute speech by Lindbergh on the future of aviation. It was the aviator¹s first formal radio address, and he sounds decidedly nervous. Plans called for this program to be relayed to a worldwide audience by short wave, and Lindbergh actually gave the speech twice--the first time was shortwaved to the BBC in London, but weather conditions over the Atlantic prevented it from getting through. The second broadcast, the one recorded, was intended for stateside listeners.

11/1/30 -- Chicago Civic Opera Company Broadcast Excerpts. WLS, Chicago airchecks recorded on Victor Home Recording Discs. Two double-sided discs running about six minutes total, containing fragments from Act II: Prelude of "Tannhauser." Lotte Lehman, Hans Hermann Nissen, and Paul Althouse are heard in this poor-quality earliest surviving aircheck of a U.S. opera broadcast. No announcers are heard.

11/30/30, 12/22/30, 12/29/30 -- Empire Builders. NBC Blue network, airchecks of KYW Chicago. Recorder unknown, but probably Universal Recording Laboratories. Part of a series of recordings of programs from this pioneering dramatic series discovered in the mid-1980s in the corporate archives of the Great Northern Railroad. This program, sponsored by the Great Northern, was a dramatic anthology focusing on the tales of passengers on the Empire Builder, Great Northern's crack train on the Chicago-to-Seattle run. It was one of the first straight dramatic programs on the NBC schedule, and these programs provide an important window into the birth of network radio drama. The casts include such well-known performers as Don Ameche and Bernadine Flynn, and the production values are excellent, putting the lie to the assumption that all early drama was primitive. Additional shows survive from 1/5/31, 1/12/31, 1/19/31, 1/26/31, 2/2/31, and 2/16/31.

12/7/30 -- Atwater Kent Hour Excerpts. NBC Red network, WEAF New York airchecks recorded on a Victor Home Recording Disc. One 6-inch double-sided disc containing ninety-second fragments of Rosa Ponselle's performance of selections from "Schwanensang" and "Carmen." No announcers are heard.

*1931

A major addition to the syndication roster is the Transcription Company of America, or "Transco" which begins a series of simulated "band remote" broadcasts featuring leading west coast orchestras like Gus Arnheim, Tom Coakley, Anson Weeks, and Phil Harris. These shows were extremely popular, and were some of the best-recorded syndicated material on the market. They make for very enjoyable listening, and do capture what an actual live remote of the period sounded like, even to the point of using announcer Tom Jeffries, a popular West Coast personality, to narrate many of the broadcasts,which purport to come from such night spots as the Peacock Court of the Mark Hopkins Hotel, or the Cocoanut Grove of the Ambassador Hotel. However, despite all that, these programs were actually recorded in the Transco studio, and are not live broadcasts. Also extant from this era is a live recording of Gus Arnheim's orchestra and vocalist Bing Crosby -- which appears to have been made at the Grove by syndication entrepreneur C. P. MacGregor for use as a demonstration disc. It is probably not a broadcast recording.

Also popular in syndication are an assortment of canned comedy-serial programs trying to ride the coattails of the "Amos 'n' Andy" craze. Samples of many such series survive.

1/7/31 --On With The Show! Don Lee Network, KHJ Los Angeles aircheck. Recorded by Speak-O-Phone Studios. Approximately 43 minutes of a full-hour broadcast, with two discs missing. Recorded on 12" blanks with a single recording machine, this program represents a rare but historicially important local series, heard on the west coast during 1930-31 featuring adaptations of popular stage and film presentations. Represented here is the series' adapation of an operetta, "Ermanee," with commercials for Fidelity Savings and Loan. The recording is missing sides 1, 2, 5, and 6 of 12 sides total. Also extant is a single ten-inch disc representing approximately five minutes of the "On With The Show!" adaptation of the 1929 film "Sunny Side Up," an excerpt which includes a KHJ station identification.

2/4 and 6/31-Wendell Hall, The Pineapple Picador. NBC Blue network, WTMJ Milwaukee aircheck, recorded by Universal Recording Laboratories of Chicago. One of radio¹s most beloved early personalities sings for Libby's Pineapple. Jean Paul King announces. The original discs were from Hall's personal collection, and turned up in an antique store in the 1970s. The original tape dub was poorly done, and some circulating copies cut off the WTMJ station ID at the start of the 2/4 program. A more professional transfer has since been made, and reveals the comparatively high quality of the original recording.

??/??/31---Mary Hale Martin Household Program--NBC Blue network. WBZ-WBZA aircheck recorded by Speak-O-Phone Studios. Sponsored by Libby's. A program of household hints. Not in my collection but known to exist.

3/6/31--The March Of Time. CBS network. Recorder unknown. The first broadcast of this popular series, which grew out of a syndicated 1930 program, "NewsActing."

3/15/31 -- Excerpt of "Sunkist Musical Cocktail" program. CBS network. Recorded by Hollywood Film Laboratories.This brief recording features an interview of film star Norma Shearer by columnist Louella Parsons, and was offered by Sunkist Growers, the sponsor, as a giveaway premium. The disc is a 6-inch 78rpm "Flexo" pressing -- a flexible plastic disc which enjoyed a brief vogue in the early thirties. The disc is a violent pink color, with a photo of Shearer on the reverse. Not in my collection but known to exist

5/13/31 -- WENR "Weiner Derby" NBC aircheck recorded by Universal Laboratories of Chicago. A fifteen minute program originating at NBC¹s Blue network affiliate in Chicago. The program has nothing to do with frankfurters -- it's a program about horse racing. "Weiner" was the common nickname for the radio station, a phonetic reading of its call letters. Not in my collection but known to exist.

June, 1931--Various WMAQ excerpts. Recorder unknown, possibly home recordings. This is a fascinating collection of excerpts from the collection of Jim "Fibber McGee" Jordan, which first appeared in circulation a few years ago. Most of the material comes from Jim and Marian Jordan¹s "Smack Outs" program, and includes some very pleasant vocal harmonies from the couple, as well as short bits of dialogue featuring Jim as "Uncle Luke" and Marian as herself and as "Teeny," a character who would return on "Fibber McGee and Molly" a few years later. Even more interesting than these rare clips, however, is what follows: random snatches of other WMAQ programming of the day. There's a short bit of a tenor solo, a local commercial for the California Fur Company, a bit of news with the announcer reading directly from the paper, and identifying the page on which each item appears, and finally the earliest "DJ" sequence I¹ve ever found, with an announcer introducing "Clarinet Marmalade" by Phil Napoleon¹s Orchestra "from a phono-graph rec-ord," in exactly the manner specified by Federal Radio Commission rules of the era.

6/29/31 -- Packard Hour excerpts. NBC Blue network, WJZ, New York aircheck recorded on a Victor Home Recording disc. One six inch double-faced disc containing ninety-second fragments of Geraldine Farrar's performance of selections from "Carmen." An announcer is heard introducing the second selection on the disc.

9/2/31--Fifteen Minutes With Bing Crosby. CBS network. KHJ aircheck, recorded by the RCA Victor Company, Hollywood. This show was recorded in two formats -- two disconnected selections on 12 inch 78rpm matrices. as well as the full 15 minute program on a 16 inch 33 1/3 matrix. The recordings were made at the instance of NBC -- which apparently wanted to monitor this rising young Crosby fellow. Only the partial version is known to exist, and the sound is such that it's reasonable to conclude that the recording was made by placing an open microphone before a high-quality radio.It includes a KHJ station ID and Leroy Jewelers timecheck, followed by Harry Von Zell's opening announcement and Bing's performance of "Just One More Chance. Bing concludes the show with "I'm Through With Love."

10/18/31--Address by President Hoover on the Unemployment Crisis. NBC linecheck recorded by RCA Victor Company on 12-inch 33 1/3 rpm "program transcription" disc as well as 12-inch 78pm masters. Hoover speaks for ten minutes in an attempt to spur confidence in the Depression-ridden economy. The 33 1/3 rpm version of this recording takes advantage of Victor¹s new proto-LP system, released to the public earlier in the year, but the recording itself was not commercially released until 1996, when it was included in the Library Of Congress Presidential Speeches collection mentioned earlier. The recording has a hollow sound, but benefits from the absence of disc "joins" and surface noise is nearly nonexistant. There is no opening announcement, but the 33 1/3 rpm version includes a brief tag at the end, with an announcer intoning portentiously "The President Of The United States Has Spoken!" The speech itself reveals Hoover as a speaker trying his best to adjust to the new intimacy of the radio-talk format...but still quite mannered in his delivery and pompous in his style. The Presidential speech was a segment of a longer program featuring various guest artists.

10/18/31-- Talk by Will Rogers on the Unemployment Crisis. NBC linecheck recorded by RCA Victor Company in 12-inch 78rpm masters. Rogers discusses the economic situation and the need for unemployment relief. Another segment of the program which included the Hoover speech listed above. This recording has appeared on numerous tape and LP collections of Rogers' broadcasts -- and comes across as a particularly trenchant critique of the dark side of capitalism -- it's undoubtedly the most bitter of Rogers' surviving broadcasts.

11/7/31--The Cremo Singer. CBS network, WABC aircheck. Recorder unknown. The earliest complete Bing Crosby broadcast known to exist, featuring Bing and Carl Fenton's Orchestra. There are other Cremo Singer excerpts in circulation from this period, some with WABC station ID, including two segments of the 12/5/31 broadcast.

12/14/31--Friendly Five Footnotes. This is a recording likely to raise questions for the novice collector. First of all, copies now in circulation come from Columbia syndication pressings, made for the Judson Radio Program Corporation, which at first glance would place this series outside the scope of this article. But, there was such a series aired over the CBS network during the 1931-32 season, and this recording and others which survive from the series match the description of the program as given in published schedules, even though the dates on the shows now in circulation do not match the actual airdates for the CBS series. CBS stalwart David Ross is the announcer, and CBS house conductor Freddie Rich leads the orchestra . The question is, was this recording made off the air or by line or was this a studio recording made for concurrent syndication with the network run? Matrix numbers for the pressings point to the latter conclusion -- with the most likely explanation being that the programs were recorded in two marathon sessions in September 1931. Thus, we have recordings which were not made from an actual broadcast -- but which probably do duplicate a live network broadcast, and which were actually used for broadcasting

Such an arrangement, known as "extension spotting" allowed a sponsor to "extend" the network over which their program aired by placing transcriptions on stations not linked to the network by line. This practice appears to have begun early in 1931, with the "Tastyeast Jesters" series being the first known to have been distributed in this manner, and a number of other network programs from the period have been preserved in this form. One is the "Our Daily Food" series for A & P done in 1930-31 for NBC, and from which at least four shows are known to survive from pressings. A 1931 "Natural Bridge Revue" show in my collection featuring the vocal team of "Nat" and "Bridget" also seems to be from such an "extension" pressing, as the content jibes with a series by this name which ran on the Blue network during the 1930-31 season. There are probably other such shows extant that have yet to have had their source correctly identified, and this is a major reason why those who hold the discs of such programs need to accurately document label and matrix information.

POSTSCRIPT--1932-35

1932 is the first year for which a significant number of shows seem to exist. The most widely circulated would have to be Jack Benny's first show for Canada Dry, a WJZ aircheck from Jack's personal collection. It¹s very representative of early-30s variety programming, and the disc transfer was very well done, giving the show a pleasing audio quality, even accounting for the typical aluminum disc surface noise. Unfortunately, no other 1932 shows from this series seem to have survived.

Jack's great rival Fred Allen is also represented by a surviving show that is widely known, the 12/25/32 Linit Bath Club Revue. As mentioned earlier in this article, the entire Linit series is known to have been recorded..and interestingly, the NBC Biography In Sound profiling Allen in 1956 uses a clip from a Linit show which is not now known to exist.

An important run of shows from later in the year is a series of Ed Wynn's Fire Chief programs, which survive on aluminum disc airchecks of WEAF, recordings made for Wynn and which are now owned by Pacific Pioneer Broadcasters. Most catalogues incorrectly date the first show in this run as 1/18/32, but my research has proven that the correct date has to be 11/8/32, a case of a misplaced slash mark generating a longstanding error. For the record, the Fire Chief broadcasts began on April 26th. In addition, the 11/22/32 show from this series was transferred to tape with the discs badly out of sequence. I have recut the dub in my collection to the correct order.

Rudy Vallee began his archive of radio recordings around the middle of this year, using the services of the E. H. Strong Recording Studio in Jackson Heights, New York. The only 1932 program to have made it into circulation so far is the 7/14/32 program featuring Olsen and Johnson. This is an interesting show, as it is representative of the program¹s format just before Vallee began a whole-hearted commitment to the variety format for which he is best remembered. Commercials were not recorded, evidence of Vallee¹s legendary parsimoniousness. Why waste money on recording blanks for commercials? We thus miss out on the delightful "Eat Yeast Or Die" health talks of the estimable Dr. R. E. Lee. This archive has since passed to the Thousand Oaks Public Library in California.

There are numerous other programs known to survive from 1932, and a very great deal of material is known to survive from 1933 and 1934. During 1934, the Pyral Company of France and the Presto Corporation in the US, working independently, introduced an improved instantaneous disc which coated an aluminum base plate with a lacquer composed primarily of cellulose nitrate (usually misidentified as "acetate." ) Though highly flammable in its raw state and chemically unstable, this coating proved much more durable and easy to use than the uncoated discs, and was an instant success when introduced in the US late in the year. The two technologies existed side by side for several years, and uncoated aluminum recordings can be found dating as late as the early forties...but it was the lacquer disc that was adopted by the networks as their preservation medium of choice.

CONCLUSION

This article should not be taken as a final, conclusive list of what survives from radio's earliest days. New material is being found all the time, and any such list must be subject to frequent correction. But I do hope that this article will spur interest in finding and preserving -- and most importantly -- documenting these rarest of rare radio recordings. If you have verifiable airchecks of such early programs in your collection, or if you can provide more specific information on the original discs of any pre-1935 broadcasts in circulation, please let me know. I'm interested in trading for any pre-1935 material that I don¹t have, and in further documenting whatever else may be out there.

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REFERENCES

Allen, Fred: Treadmill To Oblivion. Little, Brown & Co. 1954

Banning, William Peck: Commercial Broadcasting Pioneer--The WEAF Experiment. Harvard University Press, 1946

Biel, Dr. Michael: " The Making and Use of Recordings in Broadcasting before 1936." 1977 Northwestern University doctoral dissertation. Available thru University Microfilms Incorporated Dissertation Service.

Biel, Dr. Michael : "What Is The Oldest Aircheck" Posting to online discussion group old.time.radio@airwaves.com

Biel, Dr. Michael: E-mail exchange with the author, 10/30/97

Ely, Melvin Patrick: The Adventures Of Amos Œn¹ Andy. Free Press, 1991

McCroskey, Don: Audio Recording in Broadcasting. SPERDVAC Radiogram, May 1987.

Sloat, Warren: 1929--America Before The Crash. Macmillan, 1979

Vallee, Rudy: My Time Is Your Time. Ivan Obelensky, Inc. 1962

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to all those people and institutions who have provided recordings and documentation of recordings, including the National Archives, The Library Of American Broadcasting, the Library of Congress, Michael Biel, Karl Pearson, J. David Goldin, Michael Dolan, William Shaman, Thomas Hood, David Siegel, David Lewis, Donna Halper, Mike Csontos, Ron Hutchinson and the Vitaphone Project, and David Dixon

THE DAY THE MARTIANS LANDED or stories they never tell on HCJB By Don Moore A slightly edited version of this article was originally published in the October, 1992 issue of Monitoring Times magazine.

Remember when the Martians invaded? Of course! - It was back in Grandpa's time. We hear about it every Halloween. On October 30, 1938, Orson Wells presented a dramatization of War of the Worlds on the CBS network. Wells' Martians landed near Princeton, NJ and proceeded to wreck havoc on the surrounding countryside. Well, maybe there weren't really any Martians, but the broadcast certainly created havoc across the country. Millions of Americans tuned in after the opening credits and thought the invasion was for real. As police stations were swamped with phonecalls, many city-dwelling Americans jumped in the family car and took off for the safety of the country. Others went off in search of a priest to give a final confession. At New York City's naval base, shore leaves were canceled and sailors were called back to their ships. In short, panic seized the entire nation.

How could Grandpa have been so dense as to actually believe that Martians really had landed? And now every year we wave it about for the world to see - Look, everyone at how we got fooled in 1938! It's sort of a blemish on the national IQ. Well, fortunately we're not the only ones to get bowled over by imaginary Martians. Just eleven years later it happened again, south of the equator, in Quito, Ecuador. The Ecuadorians got taken in just as bad as grandpa did, but their reaction was, well, a little bit stronger.

The Martians Land Nestled at the foot of Mount Pichincha, in a fertile Andean valley, Quito has always been as peaceful as a city could be. When the 1940s came along, Quito may have lagged behind the rest of the world in some things, but communications was not one of them. In downtown Quito, next door to the Ministry of Communication, was the three-story Comercio building. This was headquarters for Quito's premier newspaper, El Comercio, which was respected throughout Latin America. Also in the same building was Radio Quito, owned by the newspaper, and the most popular radio station in the city. In February, 1949, Leonardo Paez, the art (program) director of Radio Quito and Eduardo Alcaraz, the station's dramatic director, were looking for something new and exciting to do on the air. Something that would really draw attention to Radio Quito. They had heard of Orson Wells' famous War of the Worlds program, and that seemed to have just the level of excitement they needed. A script was drawn up and actors and sound effects were arranged for. Paez and Alcaraz saw no need to tell station management about their plans. It was just another drama production. Finally, on Saturday, February 12, 1949, everything was ready to go.

As usual, listeners in Quito and surrounding towns tuned in to Radio Quito's evening newscast, which was followed by the nightly music program. Suddenly, an announcer broke in mid-song, "Here is an urgent piece of late news!" He then gave a long and frightening description of how Martians had landed twenty miles south of the city, near Latacunga. Latacunga had already been destroyed and the aliens were approaching Quito in the shape of a cloud. A few minutes later came another announcement, "The air base of Mariscal Sucre has been taken by the enemy and it is being destroyed. There are many dead and wounded. It's being wiped out!"

The broadcast now took on an eery reality, as different actors stepped up to the microphone, some chosen for their ability to sound like well-known public officials. First, the 'Minister of the Interior' arrived, and urged citizens to stay calm to help "organize the defense and evacuation of the city". Next, it was the 'mayor' of Quito's turn: "People of Quito, let us defend our city. Our women and children must go out into the surrounding heights to leave the men free for action and combat." Then a priest begged for mercy from God as a recording of Quito church bells ringing in alarm was played in the background. The prayer was interrupted for a telephoned report from an announcer at the top of Quito's tallest building. He described a monster surrounded by fire and smoke coming towards the city. More reports were telephoned in from residents of the nearby village of Cotocallao, which was now under attack.

Panic in the Streets By this point, the population of Quito was in panic. The city's streets filled as thousands fled their homes, many wearing their pajamas. The noise in the streets was the first inkling Radio Quito had of what they had done. An announcer came on and revealed that the broadcast was entirely fictional. Station staff members, many trusted voices, "frantically" pleaded for calm in the city. Radio Quito's appeals did nothing to calm the mobs in the street. In fact, hearing that the whole thing was a hoax angered people even more. From all directions, thousands converged on the El Comercio building and began stoning it. About 100 people were in the building when the riot began. Most were able to escape the mob through a back door, but some were forced to flee to the third floor. The police and army were called to come put down the riot, but they were already busy. They were on their way to Cotocallao to battle the Martians.

More rioters arrived. Some brought gasoline, others had crumpled copies of the El Comercio newspaper. Gasoline was used to fuel the fire as dozens of burning El Comercio's were thrown at the building. Soon, the building was engulfed in a mass of flames which began spreading to nearby buildings. Several dozen people were still trapped on the third floor. Some leapt from windows to escape the flames. Others tried forming a human chain to climb down, but the chain broke and most crashed to the pavement.

Finally, the police and army arrived, but it was only with tanks and massive doses of tear gas that the crowds cleared, making room for the fire trucks. The fire was put out before it caused extensive damage to nearby buildings, but it was too late for the El Comercio building. Only the front was left standing. The presses, radio equipment, and the newspaper and radio station files were destroyed, leaving $350,000 in damage, an astronomical sum in 1949. More tragic, was the human cost. Twenty people died in the fire, or trying to escape it. Fifteen more were injured.

Radio Quito Rebuilds The next day, the staffs of El Comercio and Radio Quito began picking up the pieces, except for Paez and Alcaraz, who were indicted. Other Quito and Guayaquil newspapers offered their presses so that the newspaper could continue printing. Gradually, the paper and the radio station were rebuilt, and they regained their positions as the most respected media in Quito. Apparently neither wants to remember the most memorable event in their past, however. In a 1980 article on the 40th anniversary of Radio Quito, El Comercio didn't include a single sentence about the Martian broadcast.

Today, Radio Quito is a not-to-difficult catch on 4920 kHz in the sixty meter band. It can be heard most evenings until 0400 sign- off, and mornings after 1000 sign-on. Programming is mainly news and sports, with occasional radio dramas. But, don't expect to hear any science fiction. Radio Quito stopped doing that sort of thing a long time ago.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Lichty, Lawrence. 1970. World and International Broadcasting: A Bibliography. Martians & Wild Animals. Time. February 14, 1949; p46.

The New York Times. February 14, 15, and 16, 1949.

The Times of London. February 14 and 15, 1949.

When You Say That, Smile. The Commonweal. February 25, 1949; p483-484.

paper by Robert Rowen presented to the New York Military Affairs Symposium April 18, 2003 The CUNY Graduate Center

Introduction

I have often thought that one of the obstacles to creating truly objective military history is our inclination to write with a subtext that, like in sports reporting, roots for one side or the other.

In this study of Radio Propaganda against Germany in WW II, we may not avoid that pitfall, but I would advise the reader and listener that you must be especially nimble: in this story, our good guys may do some very wicked things. And the bad guys, the Nazis in this case, may be on the receiving end of some especially nasty lies, disinformation, rumors and tricks. All concocted by OUR side, often in the interest of turning the inherent weaknesses of the Nazi state against itself.

A major challenge in researching these, mostly British, operations, was simply that almost all the related records and documents were destroyed at the very end of the war in Europe, undoubtedly to avoid the embarrassment that a history of purposeful government lying might be revealed.

The sources for this paper are many bits and pieces plus two biographies: The Black Game and Black Boomerang by two of the principals who ran the operations. Proving the effectiveness of their efforts will not be easy. Most of the evidence is anecdotal. But I found tantalizing indeed the speculation that British radio stations, pretending to be German, may have influenced the German mindset.

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Anecdotal Evidence on the existence & effect of gray and black radio

For example, from Goebbels’ Diaries:

November 28, 1943

In the evening the so-called “Calais Soldiers Broadcast” which evidently originates in England and uses the same wavelength as Radio Station Deutschland when the latter is cut out during air raids, gave us something to worry about. The station does a very clever job of propaganda and from what is put on the air one can gather that the English know exactly what they have destroyed and what not. Joseph Goebbels, The Goebbels Diaries: 1942-1943. trans. Louis P. Lochner (Garden City: Doubleday, 1948)

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Definition of Terms

White propaganda (clearly identified) BBC, Voice of America, Radio Berlin “This is London calling” VOA plays “Yankee Doodle” "Germany Calling"

Gray propaganda (unidentified - who do you think it is?) Not (clearly) identified “Keep listening to “Der Chef” ”This is GS1” (gray/black)

Black propaganda (It says it's one thing. It's not.) Radio Concordia (France, 1940) (It’s a Goebbels operation)

Official German Radio (It’s not. It’s British pretending to be Official German Radio.)

“This is Radio Concordia”

“Hier ist der Reichsender”

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The meaning of propaganda and the limitations of this inquiry

I'd like to emphasize that this paper will confine itself to Gray and Black propaganda. This is NOT about white radio, that is, it is NOT about the BBC, or Lord HawHaw, or Axis Sally, Tokyo Rose, or Nazi jazz from Hamburg, on radio stations which clearly identified themselves, and about which much has been written. Note that the problem with these WHITE sources evidences the very reason GRAY & BLACK radio stations were created: that is, “London Calling”, “Yankee Doodle” and Radio Berlin were labeled in the mind of the listener on the other side: ENEMY PROPAGANDA. Think of the way that the very word, propaganda, is intoned in American English: “Why that’s just propaganda!” meaning untrue, slanted, and in the interest of the enemy and not in your own country’s interest. Even if a white radio station, like the BBC, were to have listeners, say in Germany, chances are they'd be anti-Nazi Germans to begin with and broadcasting to them would be preaching to the converted. Gray and black propaganda evolved precisely to get around this limitation of white propaganda

Keep in mind that white propaganda, from Berlin or London, can distort or lie too. In fact, a case can be made that much of the information on black and gray radio was more truthful than white. Remember that white propaganda says "I" and "you" while gray and black propaganda says "we". The head of British gray and black propaganda said, "we must never lie by accident." (Cover with "The Truth" on its head from the Calvin website at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/).

German weekly humor magazine Lustige Blätter (Merry Pages) shows statue of "The Truth" on its head.

Nazi Minister of Propaganda Josef Goebbels considered his own propaganda vital and, remembering the upheavals in Germany in the wake of WW I, strongly felt that the enemy's propaganda might well be deadly. In this paper, we will see how Goebbels was able – with a straight-face – to ban listening to foreign broadcasts and to make it a patriotic cause to turn in your regular radio set for a radio with limited receiving power. We will see how a little -known, Berlin-born British subject, Sefton Delmer, was able to concoct myriad schemes to circumvent Goebbels’ effort; he even created a situation where Germans, listening to gray and black radio and aware they were probably from enemy stations, were able, in Plato’s phrase, to willingly suspend disbelief.

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The History & Evolution of Gray And Black Radio Propaganda

The origins of gray and black propaganda extend back to Sun Tzu around 500 BC postulating rumor as a weapon of war. But just before the age of radio, there’s one possibly significant series of events worth noting: by 1918, Lord Northcliff’s Crewe House in London had become a factory for all kinds of propaganda aimed at Germans on the Western Front. In October, 1918 alone, over 5 million leaflets were dropped on German trenches, including a troop information newspaper of undeclared origin, Heer und Heimat (Army and Homeland), and subversive pamphlets bound with covers that looked like popular German books. (Jolly) Imagine how this might have contributed to the post-World War I “stab-in-the-back” theory or to the mindset of one German soldier, Adolph Hitler, until he was gassed on October 16th.

In the 1920s and 30s, the public everywhere was entranced with radio. It may be hard, in our media-bombed age, to appreciate just how magical it was. Voices in the ether. Folks spent hours twiddling the radio dial, catching words from the nearest big city or from across the ocean. You might read one or two newspapers but here, on your radio, were dozens. In real-time, we’d say now. Hitler loved radio and Goebbels delivered a paper in 1933 entitled The Radio as the Eighth Great Power”(Calvin website at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/goeb56.htm).

Interestingly, most authorities (Howe, et al) agree that the first recorded use of gray or black radio propaganda was Nazi against Nazi. Between September 1934 and January, 1935, adherents of Nazi renegade Otto Strasser set up a short wave transmitter in Czechoslovakia which claimed it was broadcasting from inside Germany. The short-lived venture ended in a hail of gunfire when the Gestapo tracked it down, sent a team over the border, and killed the chief engineer and destroyed the transmitter.

During the Spanish Civil War, Goebbels supplied a mobile transmitter that worked in the guise of a Republican station.

And it seems that the Nazis really did start big-time gray and black propaganda radio.

One month after the attack on Poland, Goebbels’ Ministry for the Enlightenment of the People and Propaganda added to its domestic and international services a third section: Bureau Concordia. As the Phoney War evolved into the conquest of France, the French heard unidentified radio stations which seemed to be Communist urging pacifism and peace and messages that “France was weak, Germany was strong, and Britain was using France for its own imperialist purposes (Bergmeier & Lotz) The station would "reveal" deficiencies in the French armament industry and express concern for the country's future if the army lost their spirit.(Photo from the Why We Fight Series, The Nazis Strike, OWI/US Signal Corps, 1943)

The station would report that the French government fled the country, leaving the people to fend for themselves and that they "knew" of cholera in Paris , and "advised" listeners to withdraw their savings from bank accounts and stock-pile food. This type of broadcasting continued till France was in a chaotic and frenzied state. In Goebbels diary he writes, "The minister reported that an analysis made by our diplomatic services confirms the effectiveness of our broadcasts, that their success is one hundred per cent, and that the collapse in the enemy camp can be attributed to a major degree to these broadcasts" ..... On June 24, a couple of days after the surrender of France, the German secret stations closed down because they had achieved what they had been created to do. (From the German Radio and Fascism in the 1930's website at http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~pnpoltzer/index.htm)

Shortly after the Fall of France, Goebbels launched the New British Broadcasting Station, an early project of William Joyce, before he became Lord Haw Haw. The Germans also ran stations intended for North American listeners, such as Radio Debunk operating from Bremen tho claiming to be "the Voice of All Free America" transmitting from the Midwestern United States. " Sound clip of Radio Debunk. (From the On the Short Waves website at http://www.earthstation1.com/Station_D.E.B.U.N.K..html)

When the Nazis’ preparations for the invasion of the British Isles was at its peak, Goebbels gloated in his diary, on May 29, 1940, "We are stoking up panic...Have pushed secret stations into top gear...Churchill keeps up the bluster, fear sweats from every pore of his body...We haven't yet turned up the steam full blast in our broadcasts. Waiting for that until just before the catastrophe." As it turned out, it was Goebbels who’d be on the receiving end.

The man who’d give it to him was a man he knew quite well:

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Sefton Delmer

During Hitler’s 1932 election campaign, the Nazi entourage included a British journalist.

Photos by Sefton Delmer, provided by his son Felix Delmer, appeared in "Black Propaganda" by Mark Kenyon in issue No. 75 of "After the Battle" Used with permission.

He’s not in these photos. He’s the photographer who took these photos.

Sefton Delmer was born in Berlin in 1904. His father was an Australian on the English faculty of The University of Berlin and Sefton grew up to speak German like a native. He became the German correspondent for Lord Beaverbrook’s Daily Express and personally knew Hitler, Hess, Goering, Goebbels and Roehm. I recommend to you his account of his meetings with some of these Nazis at the scene of the Reichstag Fire as a notable work of journalism of the era (See http://www.heretical.com/miscella/reichstg.html).

At the beginning of the war, Delmer, by then in Britain, had to clear up some doubts about his loyalties. The British thought he might be a German agent or Nazi sympathizer because he was German-born and had spent most of his life in Germany. At the same time, the Germans put him on the Gestapo’s people of interest list that they planned to use if England was conquered.

(Sefton Delmer's son has began to publish his father's work on the web. This fulltext undertaking adds previously unpublished photos and other material to this indispensable work. See http://www.seftondelmer.co.uk/contents.htm)

Most British intelligence and deception operations were run by committee. The Twenty Committee, the operations surrounding Enigma and even the BBC were committee operations. But Delmer was a controlling personality who had got the backing from on high to somehow get to the Germans through the ether, get into German ears, and somehow, get into their minds. That wasn’t going to be easy.

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The People's Radio

Photos in this section from the Antique Radios - Germany site at antike-radios.com Used with permission.

Perhaps remembering how, in 1918, Allied propaganda had shattered German morale and the cohesiveness of their armed forces, Hitler had Goebbels make a determined effort that Germans would hear the Nazi voice and not others.

A radio receiver for the people, Volksempfanger VE 301 — whose model number represents the day on which the Nazis seized power, January 30 — was quickly developed and introduced in 1933. All German manufacturers were subsequently required to produce models of the People's Radio set for the standard price of 76 Reichsmarks

Compare this receiver with the kind most Europeans had in the ‘30s and ‘40s

The ordinary radio on the left is marked for stations all over Europe and had a shortwave band. The People’s Radio on the right had a simple dial, no shortwave and is only marked for German frequencies.

In case there’s any doubt, a bright orange tag was hooked to the tuning knob.

It reads: “Think about this: Listening to foreign broadcasts is a crime against the national security of our people. It is a Fuehrer Order punishable by prison at hard labor."

Later in the war, listening to foreign radio was punishable by death…but at the same time, late in the war, the hunger and need for better war information may have made more Germans take a chance.

But in the ‘30s in Germany, in a campaign meant to define if you were a good German or not, people turned in their regular receivers with which they could receive broadcasts from all over Europe and the world - while no hype was spared on the People’s radio with limited reception.

Poster from The German Propaganda Archive at Calvin College at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ A Poster from the 1930s - All of Germany listens to the Fuehrer on the People's Radio

This was "a whispered joke" of the time:

Dear God Make me mute and dumb, > that to Dachau, I don't come. > Dear God stuff up both my ears, > So neither one a clear word hears. > Dear God Make me deaf and blind > stop up my nose, befog my mind > In every way just let me show > Our world is wonderful, I know > Unseeing, deaf and mute and mild, > I am my Adolf’s dearest child. English adaptation and verse by Philip S. Goodman

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Gustav Siegfried Eins

Not many Germans heard the first broadcast of GS1 on May 23rd 1941 . But for those who did, they heard the program open, as did so many international broadcasts in WW II, with a series of coded message like “This is GS1 calling GS18” “This is GS1 calling GS47 ” followed by a coded message. Then “Der Chef”, the Chief, introduced himself:

He appeared to be a typical diehard loyal old Prussian Army Officer whose colorful and outspoken views showed him as deeply loyal to the Fatherland, and indeed the Fuehrer, but severely critical of many of the Nazi policies and conduct of the war. Above all, he was scathingly contemptuous of the Nazi party rabble that had seized the Fatherland in the Fuehrer's name. Listeners tuning in would naturally gain the impression that they were listening to a clandestine German military transmitter broadcasting coded strategic messages and diatribes from a senior officer who could not contain his opinions any longer. (Michael R Burden, "The Biggest Aspidistra in the World" http://members.aol.com/skywave48/aspidistra.htm)

This was pure Sefton Delmer where he drew upon his years in Germany and his insights into the German personality of the era. Now head of the British Political Warfare Executive's gray and black propaganda effort, he had no end of tricks up his sleeve.

Here’s an analysis of just a few elements of a GS1 broadcast:

Broadcast Appearance / Speculation The truth

GS1

(meaning left to the imagination of the German listener) GS = Gregor Strasser (a “red-brown” Nazi shot in the Roehm putsch”)

GS = Geprüfte Sicherheit German certification mark controlled by the German Ministry of Labor….

GS = General Staff – is this the real voice of the Wehrmacht?

Nothing

Delmer’s people joked, GS = Gurkensalat (Cucumber Salad)

“This is GS1 calling GS18” “This is GS1 calling GS47 ” Many members in this underground There was just GS1

Coded message A conspiracy Not hard to break

Decoded message = “Hans meet Johan at the Odeon at 1400 on Tuesday” Conspirators will meet There are 100s of Odeon Cinemas around Germany …make security services spin their wheels

“As we said in our last broadcast…” There have been previous broadcasts… It’s the first broadcast. Undermines the Nazi’s monitoring-reporting service

Indeed, American State Department officials in Berlin soon reported back to Washington about strange clandestine radio broadcasts from a German army officer called "Der Chef" Apparently, the US was not officially let in on the closely guarded secret of British gray or black radio until June, 1942. (Learner)

"Gustav Siegfried Eins" continued on the air until November 1944, by which time some 700 broadcasts had been made by "Der Chef", who was in fact a Berliner named Peter Seckelmann who had left Germany for Britain before the war. There was a dramatic sendoff for "Gustav Siegfried Eins" and "Der Chef". In the midst of his last broadcast there were sounds of a sudden commotion, cries of “schweinhund” and a burst of machinegun fire. So seemingly the Gestapo had finally tracked down this voice of German integrity or so it was all dramatized in the British studios at Milton Bryan, a few miles from another top-secret operation, the code-breaking center at Bletchley Park.

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Atlantiksender

In 1943 Sefton Delmer started another radio station to be broadcast in German called Deutsche Kurzwellensender Atlantik.(German Short-Wave Radio Atlantic). The name of the radio show was shortened to Atlantiksender.

Winston Churchill was very keen that the U-boats (German submarines) should receive a radio service like this. He felt that because the submarines were cut off from Germany the men on board were more likely to believe what was broadcast, if it sounded genuine. To help the show sound really German the band of the British Royal Marines recorded real German military music. They even invented a sailor's sweetheart called Vicky. The show spread rumours that German prisoners of war were earning large wages working in America . This was to make the Germans feel that there might be advantages to being captured or surrendering. The German Authorities soon realised this station was British propaganda but could do nothing to stop it or to stop their sailors from listening to it. {PWE Web Site http://clutch.open.ac.uk/schools/emerson00/pwe_page6.html}

Apparently, unlike in Germany proper, U-Boats commanders and radiomen had great latitude in choosing what broadcasts would be piped thru their submarines.

On the 22nd of March 1943 between 8 and 11 in the evening, Atlantiksender began regular broadcasts.

The star announcer of 'Atlantiksender' was Vicky, the 'sailor's sweetheart' who sent birthday greetings to her 'dear boys in blue', congratulated them on the birth of a son or daughter, and discussed the problems of their wives and families. From the sweetness of her voice, nobody could suspect that Vicky had in fact lost half of her family in the gas chambers of Auschwitz .

Atlantiksender had several things going for it:

· A former U-Boat radio operator who wrote many of his own scripts and gave his former comrades at sea inside dope including tips on how to delay sailings or operations.

· Music – the best. Not inhibited by Nazi cultural dictates. Including the banned Marlene Dietrich and jazz. One historian said that Delmer had invented “infotainment” – that slick and fast-moving combination that keeps your ears glued to a station.

· A working German News Service teletype, left behind in London in 1939, so that tuning into this not-hard-to-find station got you the most up-to-date news & information right from Berlin – so no one could object.

· Multiple short-wave transmitters, including a mobile one so that the Germans would continually get different fixes on the source.

Short-wave was just the right medium for Atlantiksender.

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Reception - a crucial issue in gray and black radio propaganda.

You may remember that generally,

· TV and FM bands are essentially line-of-sight. Perhaps with a range of 30 miles.

· The AM or Medium/Longwave band can reach hundreds or even a thousands of miles plus, especially after dark. In the WW II era, this was the prime radio source…but the receivers of Goebbels’ People's Radio were limited to AM (plus the Lower frequency European Longwave) and not very good at receiving the more distant stations.

· Atlantiksender, GS 1, and most of the 40 plus radio projects run by Sefton Delmer used the shortwave band thru 1942. Fairly low-powered transmitters could bounce their signals off the ionosphere and be picked by receivers thousands of miles away.

Reception was a crucial issue in gray and black radio propaganda. In some spots in the Atlantic, the only way to get broadcasts of Hitler speeches was courtesy of the British Atlantiksender and its multiple shortwave transmitters. Keep in mind that 90% of the airtime was straight German news and events. Again, Delmer often told his staff, “we must never lie by accident.”

But the enemy’s heart was in Germany and the vast majority of Germans had neither shortwave radios nor even good AM radios able to pickup distant signals after dark. But I found two exceptions to this:

If you were a trusted Nazi party member, you might get issued a simple attenuator embossed with the Party symbol that would pull in more distant stations on your People's Radio. As the war progressed, fewer and fewer of these were allowed while penalties for listening to foreign radio were increased to death.

And as the tide began to turn against Germany, and German news began to dissemble more, the need to listen to some other voice increased.

Even with an ordinary People’s Radio, a little cleverness and a short length of wire inserted at exactly the right points thru the back panel might satisfy an increasingly urgent quest for news on which your whole future might rest.

This story is told by a Croat enlistee in the Wehrmacht stationed in Austria in August of 1944:

…… we were attending a lecture on military strategies. A German senior officer held it in a large room with maps on the wall. The officer’s face was badly disfigured and his eyes looked at us sternly but with a certain sorrowful air. He had been explaining the Allies' strategies on the Normandy peninsula and the possible options the Allies might have for cutting Normandy off from the rest of France . Suddenly, one of my comrades said from the back of the room: "It’s already happened!" Dead silence followed. After a few seconds, the officer asked: "HOW DO YOU KNOW THIS? – THE SUPREME ARMY COMMAND (OKW) HAS NOT ANNOUNCED THIS!" No explanation was necessary - we sat there like wet, sodden dogs.

Later, back in our barracks room, the People’s Radio's wire-bridge had been carefully and quickly removed and stowed away. Fortunately, there wasn't any inspection afterwards. (Lifestory - http://www.cosy.sbg.ac.at/~zzspri/lifestories/vemp.html)

Was this a soldier likely to desert or surrender?

So Sefton Delmer was reaching into ordinary radios, even as far away as Austria . He would get a transmitter which would make his grey and black radio propaganda projects some of the biggest, brightest voices on German radio – even on the limited People’s Radio.

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The Biggest Aspidistra in the World!

If you ever listen to radio these days, you’ve probably heard “50,000 watts clear channel”. Today, as in the 1940s, it is still the maximum power allowed a US radio station. But in 1941, the RCA Corporation in New Jersey built for WJZ a transmitter 10 times more powerful. When the Federal Communication Commission refused to lift its ceiling of 50,000 watts, the WJZ 500,000 watt transmitter was briefly orphaned. Until the British heard about it.

The transmitter was crated up, shipped to the UK and installed in bombproof headquarters in Sussex. They named it after a song sung by the English music hall entertainer, Gracie Fields: The Biggest Aspidistra in the World!

On the 8th November 1942 , this radio transmitter briefly took part in the invasion of North Africa – but then it became largely the property of the BBC and white propaganda. (Photo by Felix Delmer appeared in "Black Propaganda" by Mark Kenyon in issue No. 75 of "After the Battle" Used with permission)

Since Sefton Delmer and PSE had been a major force in obtaining it from the United States, they, of course, wanted to use it. By October, 1943, Delmer had a transmitter and a new station ready for prime time.

Its purpose was to broadcast propaganda to Europe, the majority of which was under German occupation.

Above all, Aspidistra allowed Delmer to broadcast loud and clear to ordinary radio sets all over Germany and German occupied Europe, including to Goebbels’ People’s Radios.

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Soldatensender Calais (Later Soldatensender West)

On shortwave at this time "Atlantiksender" had expanded its output and was broadcasting from 6:30 pm until 7 am the following morning.

Meanwhile, "Soldatensender Calais" using the all-powerful Aspidistra on medium-wave, began reaching an enormous audience in France, operating on a frequency close to the German national "Deutschlandsender" home service.

The super-powered signals sometimes drowned out all other nearby signals on the small insensitive radio receivers issued to the German servicemen in France . The broadcasting hours of the station were gradually increased throughout late 1943 and 1944. By D-Day ( 6th June 1944 ), "Soldatensender Calais" was on the air from 8 pm through 5 am.

German veterans of occupied France recall that the PWE programmes had a seductive gloss. They were convincingly couched in the slang of ordinary soldiers, and thanks to British agents in the field, senior commanders and politicians were invariably referred to by their German nicknames, not all of them complimentary…. All kinds of rumour, subtle innuendo, and disquieting inside information could be included in supposedly patriotic talks and harangues in favour of the Fatherland. A favorite theme was that German divisions stationed in France that were too combat-ready were prime candidates for the Eastern Front. (Lerner)

As the Allied invasion progressed, the breakdown in the Germans' field communications became so grave that many of their commanders began tuning in to Soldatensender Calais for situation reports, and using them to constantly update the changing order of battle on their staff maps. The reports, obtained directly from SHAEF headquarters, were accurate 99 times out of 100. The hundredth time came when some false information was inserted at the request of tactical deception experts, to send the enemy headlong into a trap.

One incident at this time might show that the detail in the broadcasts was indeed listened to and resulted in a specific capitulation. Soldatensender Calais had been dropping references to new American ultra-modern "superweapons" including talk of a new phosphorous shell that could penetrate anything. The German General commanding the fort that blocked the advance onto the Cherbourg peninsula insisted he was under orders to fight to the last man. Then, in negotiating a way out the commander proposed that if the Americans could fire one of those new phosphorous shells, it would prove his position was hopeless. The Americans fired an ordinary anti-tank shell into the wall of the fort. Good enough. The general trooped out with his men. (Delmer, Black Boomerang)

In late 1944, with the fall of Calais to the Canadians, "Soldatensender Calais" simply renamed itself "Soldatensender West" and continued as before. It still had a lot more to say on the progress of the war, and in its role as "spokesman for the decent fighting front line soldier" was now demanding an end to the war, in order to save Germany. The target of the Soldatensender's attack was now Hitler, who previously had never been criticized directly. The station reported how he had been reduced to a shambling, nervous wreck, kept alive only by repeated injections of drugs. Proclaimed a speaker on the station, "The enemy can wish for nothing better than to have us led by a man who, in his conceit and ignorance, interferes in everything and everywhere....A fellow like that is - for the Allies, an ally." (The Biggest Aspidistra in the World! http://members.aol.com/skywave48/aspidistra.htm)

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Deniability

You remember the "whispered wit" of the radio listener's prayer. Another piece of whispered wartime wit in Germany, which may well have been disseminated further by Delmer's gray and black radio, goes something like this:

It's Berlin, 1944, after a heavy bombing. A man, tired of rationing and disaster, goes to a restaurant to get a good meal. "A bottle of Riesling," he says.

The waiter shakes his head, "We don't have any."

"Gewürztraminer?"

"Nein," the waiter says, "No wine."

"All right," says the disappointed man, "Forget the wine. I'll have an artichoke with butter, then a pork roast with string beans."

"No more artichokes," says the waiter, "And no pork at all."

On and on it goes. Whatever he wants, they don't have it.

Disgusted, watched with annoyance by other diners, he finally asks for just a cigar and a brandy.

The waiter is shaking his head before he even finishes asking. "No cigars. No more brandy."

The man is furious. "Damn him!" he shouts, slamming his fist on the table, "That blowhard bastard has destroyed this country!"

Two stony-faced men at the next table get up, identify themselves as Gestapo, and place him under arrest. He asks loudly, "What did I do? Just got a little angry, that's all!"

"You were complaining, slandering, we all heard you attack The Führer!"

"I complained, yes, but -- attack The Führer–?"

"You said that blowhard bastard has destroyed this country!"

Glancing at his gawking fellow diners, he says, "Of course! That blowhard bastard, Churchill, has destroyed our country!" Then to the Gestapo men, " Who did YOU mean?" English adaptation from a German original by Philip S. Goodman

In other words, in a dictatorship, understanding or perhaps misunderstanding is crucial.

So if you were listening to Black Radio and the fiercest Nazi walked in on a dubious story, chances are that one minute later the radio would be giving straight news from Goebbels' Ministry or a Hitler Speech. And chances are it was the clearest, loudest station on the dial. Delmer stated his formula as "dirt, cover, cover, dirt, cover, cover...."

An email correspondent wrote me about his German school in wartime, " To this day I remember some of us youngsters laughing behind our Greek language instructor's back when he heard the loudspeaker blaring forth Calais stories in the school hallway and he thought it was straight news."

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Content

What else was in these broadcasts? Unfortunately, the destruction of the scripts and recordings at the end of the war prevents me from giving you live examples.

However, the production of gray and black leaflets was also headed by Sefton Delmer and there are indications that there was some coordination between the many millions of leaflets dropped and the radio broadcasts of GS1, Atlantiksender and Soldatensender. Here are some examples:

This booklet was called "Sickness saves" ... or can save your life. Full of tips which radio could have used piecemeal, about how to get off duty when sick call comes around. First principle: that the physician be convinced you're a patriotic citizen who has the misfortune to feel bad. Second principle: Don't tell the doctor what you think is wrong...he must discover it for himself as he drags the symptoms out of the patient.

This became THE underground work for the common soldier...and on both sides. Goebbels had it translated into English and dropped by plane and artillery over Allied lines.

It's well known that millions of perfect counterfeit ration books were dropped over Germany. They were so perfect that Goebbels purposely made crude copies of these ration books, had them dropped on his own population so he could find people to arrest and hold up as examples and warnings.

In the last year of the war, Nachrichten fuer die Truppe - News for the Troops - was Delmer's most widely known publication. It was gray in the sense that it never admitted it's origin - providing a slim margin of "willing suspension of disbelief" and of deniability. On one hand, it fell from Allied planes. On the other hand, it's news reporting, like other gray and black products, was almost always impeccable.

I'm also showing here Goebbels' counter publication to Nachrichten. The Lowdown, even in the last days of the Reich, kept up a fierce offensive against the Allies.

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Intrusion Operations

This is a somewhat different use of Black Radio. You might call in a tactical use. Or you might call it pure black radio. It doesn't just pretend to be a legitimate, official station. It becomes the legitimate, official station. And it can be quite unnerving to the listener.

My research turned up only two examples of intrusion operations, one the only example of Soviet black radio operations I’ve come across and it's from an East German film based on the autobiography of a German family in the east, presumably recounting true events:

A middle class Prussian family is seated on their terrace and the very distant sound of Russian artillery is heard. They are listening to a German news broadcast. Evacuations have briefly brought together a lot of the family members. Several are in uniform. On the radio, the German announcer is giving a news item, something to the effect, "…a further announcement from the Headquarters of the Fuehrer." Followed seamlessly, apparently by the same announcer, "He's crazy, you know." And then the announcer, without dropping a beat, continues the factual news item.

The family members don't even look at one another. But one switches off the radio. Silence. Certainly no one will repeat what they all heard; the Gestapo would misunderstand.

The pressures of war and evacuation, the loss of physical security, are clear in the closeups of the faces --now reflecting on whether they've been brought to this point by a leader who's crazy.

The business about "Nothing focuses the mind like facing the hangman's noose" might characterize the dawning state of mind of many ordinary German civilians and soldiers in 1944 and 45.

While it's been clearly shown that in 1940, '41 and '42 the vast majority of Germans became enthusiastic about Hitler. Even those who had not supported him at the beginning, became adherents, especially with the victories in France and Russia.

With the beginning of the collapse in 1944 and 45, the Allies faced the problem of how to avoid an endless series of Nazi redoubts. In '40 and '41, they had seen the fanatical determination on the faces of the cheering German crowds.

The power of the Aspidistra, now boosted from 500,000 watts to 600,000 watts, was used for a somewhat different purpose in 1945, you might say tactically, for a series of Intrusion Operations. This was black radio in the extreme, where it literally took over Nazi broadcasts on the same frequency.

On the evening of 30th March "Aspidistra" intruded into the Berlin and Hamburg frequencies warning that the Allies were trying to spread confusion by sending false telephone messages from occupied towns to unoccupied towns. The message advised that, from now on, any instructions or reports received by telephone should not be believed or acted upon immediately, but should be confirmed by telephoning the supposed source of the call. This instruction, if fully followed, would seriously delay the carrying out of orders and place extra strain on the already half-crippled German telephone network.

On the evening of 8th April, "Aspidistra" intruded into the Hamburg and Leipzig channels to warn of forged banknotes in circulation. Then, on the following evening, there were announcements encouraging people to evacuate to seven bomb-free zones in central and southern Germany , where it was claimed that they would be safe from further enemy air attacks.

Maps produced by the author from maps at the United States Military Academy Digital Library digital-library.usma.edu/collections/maps/wpmaps/

The Germans tried to mount a defense into these intrusions. The following announcements were continuously broadcast by the German radio stations: "The enemy is broadcasting counterfeit instructions on our frequencies. Do not be misled by them. Here is an official announcement of the Reich authority." But, of course, exactly the same announcement began to precede all bogus messages broadcast by "Aspidistra" too! "The enemy is broadcasting counterfeit instructions on our frequencies.....Here is the official....."

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Epilogue

One might argue, at least about earlier gray and black ops, that because there was so little real German resistance to the Nazis, the British had to invent some.

German flyer Enemy broadcast Rumors come out of the airwaves like complainers come out of the woodwork.

Delmer knew the German mind of the time well. The star of GS1, Der Chef, was a conformist, a Prussian aristocrat, with a title Der Volk would look up to. But he also represented the complainer, the malcontent that some said underlies the German character. In the early 30s, when Delmer toured as a British correspondent with Hitler’s entourage, Hitler took Delmer aside on occasion, and declared how he wanted an alliance with the British, but would also tell Delmer about his view of the “Schweinhund” or pig-dog, in every man.

“With the help of a clever persistent propaganda, even heaven can be represented to the people as hell, and the most wretched life as paradise." Hitler said in Mein Kampf. While I don’t think you could say that British radio psyops were Nazi inspired, Delmer’s enthusiasm might have stemmed from his knowledge of Goebbels Radio Concordia as well as making sure the Nazis got a taste of their own medicine.

Goebbels knew that propaganda, especially gray and black propaganda, was a double-edged sword. His diaries often express concern that a wedge would be driven between the Nazi Party and the German people.

Toward the end of the war, the Soviet Armies approached Germany’s eastern borders. The world began to hear Ilya Ehrenburg’s Soviet motto, “Comrade, kill your German!” A grim witticism, probably disseminated further by gray and black radio, was regularly whispered among the German populace: “Enjoy the War. Peace will be terrible.”

One thing we have NOT dealt with here is the morality of gray and black radio. Is it a fair weapon of war? On one hand, is it more or less moral than an artillery shell? Or, does it corrupt both the parties on the sending and the receiving end and history too, in the way some would maintain that English propaganda at the end of World War I set the stage for the "stab-in-the-back" theory and thus the rise of the Nazis.

But, believe it or not, the brains behind British gray and black radio did have a moral crisis in the war's aftermath. In his aptly titled Black Boomerang, Sefton Delmer worried that his gray and black radio operations helped to build up the myth of a good anti-Nazi Wehrmacht.

In the 1970s, the Watergate era with revelations about dirty tricks, newspapers & journals, especially in the UK, carried many references to WW II gray and black operations in relation to political dirty tricks in British and American politics.

There were intimations, at least in principal, that a nation could obtain victory in war, and yet suffer defeat in peace.

She was probably the most listened-to disc jockey in history, yet hardly anyone remembers her as such today, in spite of, or perhaps because of, the lingering infamous legend surrounding her. Brought up by her immigrant Methodist parents to think of herself as an American, Iva Ikuko Toguri (1916 - ), a first generation Japanese-American ("Nisei") was forced to broadcast propaganda for Japan during World War II, after her native U.S. abandoned her there mere days before the Pearl Harbor attack, and despite her continual efforts throughout the war to return home.

Chosen out of the NHK/Radio Tokyo typing pool to be a disc jockey by the very Allied POW's being beaten and starved into writing her shows, she became an adept at sabotage of her own broadcasts, trained to read and eventually write her segments of "The Zero Hour" the way the POW saboteurs intended, while helping to keep these soldiers alive at mortal personal risk with food, medicine, clothing and hope during her almost daily visits to their cells. Though employed to broadcast pro-japanese propaganda, her outspoken support of the Allies off-mike (while cleverly concealing it within her message and delivery on-air) resulted in numerous arguments and even fist fights at work, and continual harrasment at home and elsewhere. She literally cheered in the streets as U.S. Gen. Doolittle's Raiders flew over Tokyo, and cheered yet again when the first American B-29's appeared over Tokyo in the fall of '44 (the first one was a BR-29 reconnaissance craft named "Tokyo Rose").

When she decided that NHK and the Japanese Army were interfering too much with the show, she started not showing up for work, spending months incommunicado without permission, at one point taking a month's retreat at a Church college to receive religious instruction to convert to Roman Catholicism. She was the only Japanese of Allied national citizenship involved with broadcasting WWII Japanese propaganda to refuse to give up their citizenship, even in the face of the twice-weekly and sometimes daily 3 AM harrassments she endured at the hands of the Kempeitai Thought Police.

Yet in spite of, and ironically because of this, she was to be only person ever tried or sent to prison for these broadcasts, based wholly upon evidence that U.S. authorites had fabricated and threatened two NHK workers who had given up their American citizenship, George Mitsushio and Ken Oki, into perjuring themselves with. In a trial she was subjected to precisely because she had kept her precious citizenship intact, she was to see it revoked in the end as part of her punishment. Hers was the most expensive trial in American history up until that time, and probably the most garishly trumped-up of all its show trials, though these facts have been largely forgotten.

All this in order that she might have foisted upon her for popular and political purposes the title of "Tokyo Rose", even though neither she nor anyone else had ever broadcast for the Japanese under that name, and had in fact never even been in front of a radio microphone till fall of 1943, years after the myth of a single "Tokyo Rose" arose from the imaginations of Allied soldiers in the Pacific who tried to put a face on the many female voices coming from numerous Japanese controlled radio stations. Though long since pardoned by President Ford, himself a veteran of the Pacific War and survivor of many kamikaze attacks, controversy over her supposed guilt continues even to this day. Of her own broadcasts, during which she actually used the name "Orphan Ann", all that remains are a smattering of scripts, and a precious few recordings that can barely be accounted for on two hands.

I. A Stranger in a Strange Land “I have gotten used to many of the things over here and I think that in a few more months that I will be able to say that I don’t mind living in Japan. It has been very hard and discouraging at times but from now on it will be all right I’m sure. … but for the rest of you, no matter how bad things get and how much you have to take in the form of racial criticisms and no matter how hard you have to work, by all means remain in the country you learn to appreciate more after you leave it.” —Iva Toguri, in a letter to her family, 13 October 1941

Iva Ikuko Toguri was born on 4 July 1916 in south central Los Angeles, the daughter of a Japanese immigrant and his diabetes-crippled wife. She was raised Methodist, listened to The Shadow and Radio Orphan Annie on the radio, joined the local Girl Scouts, played on the varsity tennis team, took piano lessons and had a crush on Jimmy Stewart. At home, she took care of her mother and dreamed of becoming a medical doctor. To this end, she went to UCLA, where she graduated with a Bachelor’s Degree in Zoology in 1941. She had registered to vote as a Republican and voted for Wendell Wilke in 1940. When her aunt Shizu took ill and Iva was chosen to go to Japan to represent the Toguri family, she listed her occupation as “pre-med student”—her dream was still alive.

On 5 July 1941, the day after her 25th birthday, Iva set off to Japan aboard the Arabia Maru without a passport; the State Department wouldn’t issue one on such short notice and had instead given her a Certificate of Identification which it said was sufficient to get her to and from Japan. This was to prove not to be the case. When she applied to return to the U.S. in November, she was refused on the grounds that there was no evidence that she was an American citizen. She was stranded in Japan when war broke out in December.

Iva was regarded as an enemy alien by the Japanese authorities, who told her that she should renounce her American citizenship and register as a Japanese citizen. She refused and requested that she be interned with other foreign nationals, but was refused in turn due to her gender and the fact that she was of Japanese extraction. When Doolittle’s Raiders bombed Tokyo, Iva was overjoyed to see the American planes—even as she rushed to take shelter from them!

When her pro-American attitudes caused the neighbors to complain to her uncle about his harboring an enemy under his roof, Iva struck out on her own. Illiterate and almost totally ignorant in Japanese, she taught piano lessons to pay for her Japanese language lessons and eventually found work as a typist, transcribing English-language news broadcasts for the Domei News Agency. Here she saw the names of her family on a list of Japanese Americans interned at the Gila River Relocation Center in Arizona.

Here she also met her first real friend in Japan, a Portuguese national named Felipe d’Aquino. He shared her pro-American views and provided her with much needed moral support. Returning home one night, she found all of her belongings in the street and her boardinghouse room being ransacked by the Kempeitai Secret Police. She again requested to be interned with other Allied nationals, but was told that it cost too much for them to feed her when she could earn a living for herself.

Poor diet took its toll and Iva was hospitalized for six weeks with malnutrition, pellagra and beriberi. She had to borrow money from Felipe and her landlady to pay the bill and began seeking a second job to pay them back. She found it at Radio Tokyo, as a typist again, typing up English-language scripts drafted by Japanese authorities for broadcast to the Allied troops in the Pacific. Here she met Australian Major Charles Cousens, a former Radio Sydney celebrity captured in Singapore, and his associates American Captain Wallace Ince and Filipino Lieutenant Normando Reyes, who had been captured at Corregidor.

Iva was delighted to meet soldiers who had been fighting for her side and touched by their underfed and overworked haggardness. She took Cousens by the hand and told him to keep his chin up, that she would try to see them as often as she could. Put off by her overt friendliness and pro-Americanism, the POWs initially suspected her of being a Kempeitai spy, but over the next few months, as she smuggled food and medicine to them, they eventually came to trust her. When Radio Tokyo directed Cousens to write a woman DJ into his Zero Hour program, he asked for Iva Toguri by name. The moment of truth had arrived.

III. The Hunt for “Tokyo Rose” “I suppose, if they found someone and got the job over with, they were all satisfied. It was Eeny, Meeny, Miney … and I was Moe.” —Iva Toguri, to Morley Safer on 60 Minutes, broadcast on 24 June 1976

When General Douglas MacArthur’s plane set down at Atsugi on 30 August 1945, it also carried dozens of military and civilian reporters covering the historic event. Among them were Clark Lee of INS and Harry Brundidge of Cosmopolitan. These two reporters had joined forces to get the beat on the two most sought-after interviews in post-war Japan: Hideki Tojo and “Tokyo Rose.” The former was easy to find, he was under house arrest in Tokyo, but “Tokyo Rose” was a mystery.

Brundidge offered a $250 reward to anyone who could put him in touch with “Tokyo Rose” and $2,000 to “Rose” herself for an exclusive interview. The $250 reward was equal to ¥3,750 or about three year’s income. $2,000 was over ¥30,000—a fortune by either standard. Leslie Nakashima, a Nisei at Radio Tokyo, gave them Iva Toguri’s name, which Clark Lee promptly reported to the world at large.

Iva, figuring that she had as good a claim to the name and therefore the money as anyone else, signed a contract that identified her as “the one and only ‘Tokyo Rose.’”

Note The United States of America was on the Gold Standard from 14 May 1900 to 31 December 1974. On 31 January 1934, President Franklin Roosevelt proclaimed the U.S. gold dollar to be $35 per fine troy ounce. This value was ratified by Congress in the Gold Stablization Law of 19 January 1937 and reaffirmed in the Gold Price System of 17 March 1968.

$250 in gold-backed 1945 dollars would be about $3,000 dollars in today’s currency. $2,000 in gold-backed 1945 dollars would be about $24,000 dollars in today’s currency.

But Brundidge had jumped the gun. His editor at Cosmopolitan not only rejected the story, but also refused to authorize the $2,000 payment. The money would have to come out of Brundidge’s own pocket unless he could void the contract. He took Lee’s 17-page notes of the interview to 8th Army Counter Intelligence Corps commander General Elliot Thorpe and urged him to arrest Iva Toguri: “She’s a traitor and here’s her confession.” He also suggested a mass news conference between Toguri and the other 300 reporters, which would abrogate the terms of his “exclusive” contract and allow him to escape payment.

Not knowing Brundidge’s hidden agenda, everyone agreed and Iva met with reporters at the Yokohama Bund Hotel. She subsequently gave interviews to Yank and Pacific Stars & Stripes and recorded a simulated “Orphan Ann” broadcasts for the American newsreels. Iva thought that “Tokyo Rose” was the popular darling of the GIs, as “Orphan Ann” had always been intended to be. She thought she was now a radio celebrity and happily signed autographs and posed for pictures as “Tokyo Rose.”

Iva cheerfully answered all the questions put to her by 8th Army CIC, laughing off suggestions that she might have done anything wrong in broadcasting for the Japanese. She was puzzled by questions about her giving predictions of troop movements and impending counterattacks, talk about wives in the arms of 4-Fs (Iva had never even heard the term “4-F” before, much less used it any of her broadcasts) and other such nonsense, but offered her Radio Tokyo scripts to set the record straight.

Meanhile, back in the U.S., the news that “Tokyo Rose” was an American citizen who intended to return to her home in California sparked angry protests.

On 17 October 1945, Iva Toguri d’Aquino was washing her hair when three CIC officers arrived at her apartment in Setagaya and asked her to accompany them to Yokohama to answer a few more questions. As they were leaving, she was told that she might have to stay overnight and that she should bring a toothbrush.

Only after she arrived at the 8th Army HQ brig was she told that she was in fact under arrest, with no warrant and no charges. A debate ensued as to whether she was Japanese or American, to be fed rice or bread, to be given a futon or a cot.

She finally got the bread and the cot, but was kept awake for the next three days by a constant stream of curiosity-seekers and rowdy name-callers outside her cell. She was allowed one bucket of hot water every three days to bathe herself and launder her clothes. Felipe d’Aquino was denied a visitor’s pass when he tried to see her. One of her guards extorted a “Tokyo Rose” autograph from her by leaving the lights on in her cell for a week.

Iva’s arrest for treason was announced publicly, but Iva herself was never told the reason for which she was being held. A month later, she was transferred to Sugamo Prison and placed in a cell on “Blue Block,” where diplomats and women accused of war crimes were held. She spent the next eleven and a half months locked in a 6-by-9 cell, allowed only one 20-minute visit from Felipe on the first of each month and a bath every three days. In a bizarre episode, she was spied upon while bathing by a contingent of seventeen visiting Congressmen, who had come to the prison to “look in” on Tojo.

Early in her imprisonment, she learned of her mother’s death enroute to the internment camp in Arizona and her family’s subsequent relocation to Chicago.

While Iva was in custody, Major Cousens was tried by the Australian Army and acquitted of treason for his work for the Japanese. He returned to work at Radio Sydney.

Captain Ince was not only cleared of all wrongdoing but also promoted to Major.

Meanwhile, Iva was interrogated by the Army CIC and the FBI, neither of which seemed to believe anything she told them.

All the evidence indicated that “Tokyo Rose” was a composite person and that Iva had done nothing treasonable.

On 25 October 1946, Iva was told at 11 am that she was to be released “without condition” from Sugamo Prison later that day, but she wasn’t allowed to leave the prison until 7 p.m. that evening.

A crowd of reporters waiting for one last look at the notorious “Tokyo Rose” greeted her at the gates: Reuters, INS, AP, UPI, Domei, Tass, Australian and French.

A platoon of soldiers formed double ranks as an honor guard and Sugamo Prison commandant Colonel Hardy presented her with a bouquet of cosmos flowers before escorting her past the reporters, flanked by two MPs. Her husband Felipe, now working as a Linotypist for an English-language Yokohama newspaper, shielded her from the press as they got into a waiting jeep amid popping flashbulbs. Iva had spent a year, a week and a day in military custody without ever once being charged with a crime.

Iva and Felipe hid out for awhile, then she applied for a passport to return home, but was again frustrated by the lack of documentation that had gotten her stranded in Japan in the first place. Iva became pregnant in 1947 and vowed her child would be born in the U.S., but the baby died shortly after he was born in January 1948. It is likely that this loss, too, was a result of her imprisonment. She was physically exhausted and emotionally devastated by this tragic loss for over three months, at the end of which she was again ruthlessly exploited.

Iva Ikuko Toguri d’Aquino was Prisoner 9380-W at the Federal Reformatory for Women in Alderson, West Virginia, from 18 November 1949 to 28 January 1956. The people whom you’d expect to be among her greatest critics, the staff of Alderson prison, became some of her most staunch supporters. Although her official classification as a “notorious offender”—and the reputation of the “Tokyo Rose” legend—engendered some initial hostility, Iva was soon regarded as a model prisoner by the Alderson staff.

On January 8, 1930 Portland Police Chief, Leon V. Jenkins asked the Portland City Council for a broadcast station, to be used in apprehending criminals. Chief Jenkins would need $16,000. to build the station. He urged the city council to make an immediate application to the Federal Radio Commission for an assigned wavelength. There were only 91 wavelengths allocated for police departments. Chief Jenkens suggested four police cars be equipped with receiving sets. This would increase as the city could afford to do so.

On May 20, 1930 the FRC granted authority to the "City of Portland, Bureau of Police" to erect a shortwave station on 2452kc with the power of 200 watts. Word of the Commissions action was announced by Radio Engineer, Cliff H. Watson of the firm Hallock & Watson Radio Corp. (Joseph H. Hallock). They had built & operated KGG in 1922 and had owned part interest in KOIN in 1926. Mr. Watson had also been KOIN's first C.E. Call letters assigned the new police station were KGPP, which stood for: Government Portland Police. Radio receivers had already been installed in automobiles of Chief Jenkens & Captain, Harry M. Niles (later Chief). Precinct No.1 had been tentatively selected as the site for the new police transmitter, Mr. Watson said.

It was estimated that KGPP and the receiving equipment would now cost $25,000. Portland had not found the funds to build the radio station. The country was in the midst of the Great Depression, which would bottom out in the Summer of 1932. Mr. Watson devised a plan to down size the station with a smaller temporary transmitter that Hallock & Watson would build. In September 1930 the FRC granted the "City of Portland, Bureau of Police" Experimental station W7XAV on 2452kc with the power of 25 watts. W7XAV base was located at the Police Department Building (2nd. & Oak Sts., now: 209 S.W. Oak St.). Sometime in mid 1931 W7XAV began operation. In January 1932 KGPP, still un-built, was re-assigned to 2442kc.

On March 2, 1932 The Portland City Council designated Mount Tabor Park as the transmitter site for the new KGPP. Hallock & Watson Radio Corp. would build the recently increased power approved 500 watt shortwave station. Charles L. Austin would install the apparatus and become KGPP's Chief Engineer until retiring in 1955. Mr. Austin was Oregon's First Broadcaster as we know radio today, owning & operating 7ZI in 1920, 7XF in 1921 & KGN in 1922.

On August 26, 1932 KGPP was tested by Multnomah County Sheriff, Martin T. Pratt when he conducted a motor tour in a radio equipped car. He notified Chief Jenkins with excellent results. Reception reported at Salem was good, as well as other equally distant points. Two places near Newberg & Amity, reception was poor do to electric lines. Sheriff Pratt hopes to be able to equip a number of county cars. W7XAV & KGPP were Oregon's First Police Radio Stations. Oregon's First Police Radio Dispatcher was Sergeant, John H. Schum.

By this date KGPP had already helped in the apprehension of two burglars who had broken into the "Donkers & Son" grocery store at 601 Rhone St. (now: 1501 S.E. Rhone St.) at 2:30am. Both burglars were sentenced by Judge, Fred W. Stadter to one year in jail for stealing groceries.

On February 14, 1937 it was announced that Oregon's state wide shortwave network of 14 stations was in full operation. The stations were jointly used by the State Police, State Highway Dept. & Forestry Div. The State Police were given preference in broadcast operations. The largest of these stations were in Salem, Klamath Falls & La Grande. The cost of the network was approximately $70,000.

The listing below is from 1939.

KOHA Astoria - 1706kc - State Police - 50 watts KOHB Baker - 1706kc - State Police - 100 watts KOHN Bend - 1706kc - State Police - 50 watts KOHU Burns - 1706kc - State Police - 50 watts KBDT Cascade Locks - 3265kc - Forestry Div. - ? KOHC Coquille - 1706kc - Forestry Div. - 10 watts KOHE Eugene - 1706kc - Highway Dept. - 50 watts KADV Eugene - 2442kc - Eugene Police - 200 watts KOHG Grants Pass - 1706kc - State Police - 10 watts KBAM Grants Pass - 3445kc - Forestry Div. - ? KIJY Hood River - 2728kc - construction permit KOHK Klamath Falls - 1706kc - Highway Dept. - 1kw KGZH Klamath Falls - 2442kc - K-Falls Police - 25 watts KOHL La Grande - 1706kc - State Police - 1kw KOHQ Medford - 1706kc - State Police - 100 watts KOHM Milwaukie - 1706kc - State Police - ? KOHP Pendleton - 1706kc - State Police - 100 watts KGPP Portland - 2442kc - Portland Police - 500 watts KBAA Portland - 3385kc - Forestry Div. - ? KBDU Powers - 3385kc - Forestry Div. - ? KOHR Roseburg - 1706kc - State Police - 50 watts KOHS Salem - 1706kc - Highway Dept. - 1kw KGZR Salem - 2442kc - Salem Police - 50 watts KOHD The Dalles - 1706kc - Highway Dept. - 50 watts

... March 15, 1963 History of Cascade Broadcasting Company Cascade Broadcasting Company was organized in 1937 in Everett, Washington, by ex-senator and governor Mon C. Walgren and his family. In 1944, A.W. Talbot of Seattle bought Cascade’s radio station KEVE in Everett and moved it-transmitter, console and all-to Terrace Heights Boulevard in Yakima, Washington. At that time, there was only one station operating in Yakima, and in October, 1944, KTYW became Yakima’s second radio station, operating with 500 watts of power day and night on 1460 kc. Art Moore, who now represents the Cascade Stations in Seattle and Portland, was the first manager of the Yakima station, and it was he who employed Tom Bostic as assistant news director in December, 1945. In 1947, Lee Black, who was then general manager, changed KTYW’s call letters to the last four letters of “Yakima”, KIMA. It was within a few months of this time that the company acquired 40 percent of KWIE in Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, which operates with 5,000 watts day and night on 610 kc. The real expansion of Cascade began in 1952, at the end of the FCC-Imposed television freeze. At that time, the experienced people in broadcasting were forecasting that there would never be profitable television operations in markets of less than 500,000. With this as a background, the then directors of Cascade did many months of soul-searching before deciding to take the plunge and apply for Channel 29, which had been allocated to Yakima. On December 4, 1952, the FCC granted the construction permit for KIMA-TV, and two days later, work began on the transmitter building on Ahtanum Ridge. KIT in Yakima was granted a construction permit on the same date, but, perhaps because Cascade was ready to go and started moving immediately, KIT never commenced construction and eventually gave up the construction permit for Channel 23. At the time KIMA-TV as being constructed, many other stations throughout the country were also being built. After a four-year freeze, when no television stations had been built, it was extremely difficult to obtain equipment. Cascade finally contracted with General Electric for a 1,000-watt transmitter and two Dumont image orthicon cameras, with a target date for test pattern of June, 1953. Before finally getting g a test pattern on the air, the last day of June, we were to endure two strikes beyond our control, on in Syracuse, New York, against General Electric, and the other in Yakima by the Hod Carriers’ Union against the building contractors. KIMA-TV went on the air on July 19, 1953, with the present headquarters building of Cascade not yet completed. Leading dignitaries of the Yakima Valley were present and were required to climb over lumber and otherwise stumble in the dark, since even power to operate the lights and cameras for the opening program had to be strung on a temporary basis from the KIMA Radio building. It is noteworthy, since there are now almost 600 television stations on the air in the country, that KIMA-TV was the 200th television station to come on the air in the United States. Within a few weeks of going on the air, Lee Black resigned as vice president and general manager to purchase KWAL in Wallace, Idaho, at which point Tom Bostic succeeded him as vice president and general manager. Not very many months had elapsed when it become apparent that, while satisfactory progress was being made, it was going to be necessary to create a larger market than existed in the Yakima Valley. Partly through Cascade’s urging, the FCC, early in 1954 authorized satellite stations, and Cascade was the first company in the United States to make application for such a station. On December, 28, 1954, KEPR-TV became the first satellite television station in the world. Within two weeks, it was realized that the residents of the Tri-Cities wanted no part of an out-and-out satellite, so efforts were begun to sell advertising in the Tri-Cities, with Monte Strohl, who until then had been a radio salesman at KIMA, being installed as the first manager-salesman of KEPR-TV. At this particular time, a heavy load was imposed on the Cascade engineering staff, for they not only had to build KEPR-TV, but simultaneously were installing a new 5,000-watt transmitter at KIMA Radio in Yakima. The following year, 1955, Cascade expanded again and received a construction permit for KLEW-TV, Channel 3, in Lewiston, Idaho. Here we not only had to construct KLEW-TV, but also to engineer and construct a microwave link to take the programs from KEPR-TV to KLEW-TV. Charlie White, who had been sales manager of KPTV in Portland, was the first manager of KLEW-TV. In 1957, Cascade constructed its fourth television station, KBAS-TV in Ephrata. This Channel 43 station was later shifted to Channel 16, and during its lifetime operated as a satellite of KEPR-TV in Pasco. After more than four years operating as a satellite of KEPR-TV, Cascade’s KBAS-TV was shut down December 4, 1961. Its death was brought about by: small market, heavily saturated with television programming from three Spokane stations. Also in this period, Cascade acquired Radio Station KWIQ, a one-kilowatt daytime station, but disposed of it in the spring of 1961, after approximately two years of operation. Cascade also acquired the remaining 60 percent of the stock of KWIE in the Tri-Cities in 1956 and changed the call letters to KEPR. Early in 1961, A.W. Talbot indicated that he wished to dispose of his 70 percent holdings in Cascade. Following many months of negotiation, the Haltom Corporation signed a contract with Mr. Talbot and the third largest stockholder, Ralph Sundquist, to purchase 100 percent ownership of Cascade, on December 4, 1961, for a total price of approximately $1,500,000. The date had a certain amount of nostalgia connected with it, for it was just nine years to the day after KIMA-TV had received its original construction permit. Subsequently, the Haltom Corporation went through a series of legal maneuvers to change its name back to Cascade Broadcasting Company. This and FCC approval was accomplished by May 1, 1962, at which time the old Cascade company was dissolved and the new Cascade Broadcasting Company formally took over ownership and operation of the five Cascade stations. Jerry Burling Remembers Early KIMA Television... KIMA TELEVISION IS 50 YEARS OLD By Jerry D. Burling KIMA Television is 50 years old, this year. As an old KIMA-TV alum, my thoughts of those early days are as vivid as ever, as if they just happened yesterday. Please bear with me as I dust off the old memory banks and wax nostalgia, as the old saying goes. The early years of the station were shakey and difficult in a number of ways. First, technology had not developed to what it is today. Vacuum tubes were the state of the art but they were prone to such things as drift, heat, and low emission problems. Keeping equipment in top notch condition took lots of maintenance, diligence, and sweat. Much of this inventiveness goes to KIMA-TV Chief Engineer Dow Lambert and Studio Engineer Ron Krous. Both of these men were under the supervision of Director of Engineering Barry Watkinson. Transmitting usable television pictures around the country had its share of difficulties. At first, the telephone company used coaxial cable for city to city transmission. But miles and miles of cable contained massive losses that could not be overcome. By 1952, the transcontinental microwave system had been developed out of World War II radar technology and stable, clear, usable television pictures could now be transmitted nationwide. Second, there were not enough trained technicians and engineers. This new technology required specialized qualifications and there weren't enough trained personnel for this new business of television. Many engineers came from the radio industry and they lacked training and experience in the new medium. Consequently, it was necessary to learn as one went along. The early days were full of trial and error engineering practices which later became standard operating procedures for those who followed. Third, and last, television was new and did not have the impact and standing that it has today. Network, and local station, advertising personnel were faced with stiff opposition from the radio industry that was already established as a viable medium. Many advertisers considered television as experimental and a fad that would not last. Many early television advertising rates were BELOW those of radio. Consequently, early television did not have the financial base on which to produce and air quality television programming. It was up to network and local station executives to come up with the revenue to survive as best they could. As a result, in the early 1950s, the three television networks had a difficult time selling sponsors on small markets like Yakima, which, at that time, only had a population of about 50,000 people. Advertising agencies had an uphill climb trying to convince sponsors to spend their advertising dollars in small markets like Yakima, instead of medium to large markets, like San Francisco or New York. So, when KIMA-TV went on the air in 1953, its network programming output was very low to non-existent. National and regional advertising revenue simply was not there. To offset this loss, station manager, Tom Bostic, and his staff, made the decision to air syndicated programming such as Dangerous Assignment, Whirlybirds, Silent Service, Highway Patrol, and others, and to fill the commercial islands, in these programs, with local sponsored commercials. One of the first to come on board was the Safeway Corporation. The station had purchased about 5 or 6 folding leg banquet tables and placed them on wooden dollies sitting on rubber wheels. As a college student taking a college course in television production at KIMA-TV in the autumn of 1954, my job was to load and unload these carts with Safeway products. Prior to a commercial in the studio, I, and a number of others, would load various Safeway products on each table so the camera could pan them from left to right. After loading, they would be wheeled into the studio where the commercial announcer would present the products during live announcements. After the commercial, the table was rolled into the back room, the finished products were taken off, and new ones were loaded in their place. This went on all night, every night, for a number of years. The station aired at least 25 to 30 live Safeway commercials each night. I take my hat off to Safeway. If it wasn't for this company, KIMA-TV might not have survived. Later, when national advertising revenues were more plentiful and the television medium had achieved more prominence, the CBS Television Network purchased the Yakima market, along with its 3 satellite stations. The satellite stations increased Cascade Broadcasting Company's market share to the point where national and regional sponsors decided that there were enough viewers in the Central Washington and Idaho markets to warrant the expense. To keep costs down, it was decided to install the master control operation at the transmitter building on the ridge. Only the Terrace Heights live studio operation was remote, which was fed to the transmitter site via a 6900 MHz microwave link with subcarrier audio. Having the whole operation, with the exception of live studio, at the transmitter allowed the FCC licensed transmitter operator to also be the master control engineer and the on air announcer. The master control operating position was in the same room with the transmitter, with no noise sound proofing. When the operator made on air announcements, the blower, and pump, noise from the transmitter, could be heard on the air. But station management felt that it was a money saving compromise and well worth the inconvenience. At one time, KIMA-TV, being the only television station in town, was an affiliate of NBC, CBS, and ABC at the same time. When CBS, KIMA-TV's primary network affiliation, did not pick up the market, the station aired programming from the other networks to fill up the time. When Channel 23 came on the air and became an ABC affiliate, this network was no longer available to KIMA-TV. However, it still continued to air programming from the other two. Later, CBS required that its affiliates not air programming from any other network if it wished to maintain that affiliation, so KIMA-TV became a sole affiliate of the CBS Television Network. In 1959, when I was employed by KIMA-TV as a transmitter and master control engineer, the station was carrying programming from both CBS and NBC. Except for network programming, KIMA-TV was strictly black and white in those days. However, NBC was pioneering color and KIMA-TV was airing programs from this network. Two of the early notable NBC color programs aired by KIMA-TV were "Bonanza" and "The Wonderful World of Color" (Walt Disney). The Wonderful World of Color then aired on Saturday night and Bonanza aired on Sunday night. People, with color sets, were poised, anxiously awaiting these two programs, since KIMA-TV did not air many other NBC color programs and CBS was stubbornly resisting the onslaught of color technology. CBS had lost out in the color race to RCA and it resolutely refused to commit any of its revenue, or its facilities, to color production. Therefore, NBC reigned supreme in the color department. What a thrill it was to sit at the operating position and see color television for the first time. KIMA-TV also aired such NBC color programs as "The Tonight Show," with Jack Paar, "Matinee Theater," with John Conti, and, of course, "The World Series." In 1954 when I was in high school, I used to skip classes to sneak down to a furniture store on Yakima Avenue to watch The World Series on an RCA CT-100, 15 inch color set in the store's front window. I could not understand how color pictures could be sent through the air. It was beautiful. It was a miracle. Maybe it still is. I could see the green grass, the blue sky, and the colors on the uniforms of the players. Everytime I went to this store, there was a crowd watching the display. Try that now and people would laugh. Why would anyone today stand on the sidewalk, outside of a store, to watch a color television program? But in 1954, it was a big event. A really big event. Many television installation shops complained to NBC that the network was only broadcasting color programs in the evening hours. This caused them the needless expense of paying a technical overtime to install a color receiver in someone's home at night. The technician needed to see a color program on the set following installation to determine that it was functioning normally. To offset this dilemma, NBC made the decision to produce, and air, a live color program during the daytime hours. It developed a daily anthology dramatic program called "Matinee Theater," which aired live to the entire NBC Television Network at 12:00 noon Pacific Time and 3:00 PM Eastern Time. The program originated at NBS's new color televison complex in Burbank, California and aired Monday through Friday, which allowed television technicians to install sets in people's homes during daylight hours, thus saving money. As the 1950s turned into the 1960s, the television boom hit the country. Station revenues DOUBLED every year from 1960 to 1968 and television executives thought that the sky was the limit. However, things began to level out in the early 1970's. Even thought the television industry finally established itself as the megalith we know it to be today, those early years were still harrowing and difficult. Thankfully, KIMA-TV survived and went on to become the premier, power house voice of the Yakima Valley. Happy 50th Anniversary KIMA Television. May you have 50 more. Central Oregon joined the television world back in 1977 when KTVZ flipped the switch and went on-air for the first time. KOAP-TV channel 10 studio & transmitter site at 4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive. (former KGW-FM & KQFM transmitter site. KOAP-TV began operation 2-6-61). On February 19, 1976 OEPBS purchased KVDO (TV) channel 3 Salem OR for $203,000. On February 26, 1976 KVDO began separate OEPBS programming. On February 28, 1976 a disgruntled viewer protesting KVDO's sale to OEPBS cut guy wires, toppling the channel 3 TV tower. On August 31, 1976 KTVR La Grande OR was donated to OEPBS from KTVB, Inc. of Boise ID. Channel 13 was then shut down. On September 20, 1976 KVDO signed back on the air with a new tower. On February 1, 1977 KTVR signed back on the air re-broadcasting portions of KWSU-TV Pullman & KSPS Spokane WA, mirroring OEPBS-TV programming as much as possible (4PM to 11PM) until the OEPBS-TV translator network was completed, delivering the signal. On September 1, 1977 OEPBS shut down KTVR because of increasing technical problems at the Mount Fanny transmitter site. On January 1, 1978 KTVR signed back on the air carrying OEPBS programming for the first time. On June 1, 1978 KOAP-TV began receiving programming via the Westar 1 satellite. On June 30, 1978 PBS landlines were discontinued. On March 5, 1997 OPB's experimental high-definition television station transmitted a random-bit data stream using the FCC's new DTV standard. OPB was the first in Oregon to achieve this. (experimental DTV license issued 9-96). On September 15, 1997 OPB's experimental DTV station was assigned the calls KAXC for UHF channel 35. On October 11, 1997 at 4:37PM KAXC became the first TV station in Oregon and one of the first on the west coast to transmit a high-definition television picture. In September 1998 KOPB-FM's Golden Hours was also offered on SAP (second audio program) on stereo TV's. In January 1999 Golden Hours programming ended over KOPB-FM's SCC. *(In March 1973 KOAP-FM began it's SCA sub-carrier channel service for "Golden Hours". Monday through Friday 10:00AM to 5:00PM with Graham Archer as Director.)* Also in 1982 licensee named changed to State of Oregon, acting by and through The Oregon Commission On Public Broadcasting. On August 6, 1983 KVDO Salem signed off the air, ending 13 years of service to the Willamette Valley. Channel 3 would move to Bend OR. In mid December 1983 KOAP-TV moved it's antenna to the KPDX tower site on Skyline. (211 N.W. Miller Rd.). On December 22, 1983 at 9AM, KOAB channel 3 Bend signed on the air. KOAC-TV began operation October 7, 1957. Other TV stations now part of OPB started originally: KTVR December 6, 1964 KVDO February 24, 1970 Welcome Welcome!!! On June 16, 1928 Wilbur J. Jerman Owner & Manager of KWJJ announced that within two months his station would begin installation of television equipment for broadcasting of small 2 inch square pictures. Experimental License 7XAO, the first experimental TV license in the Northwest, would broadcast on 54 Meters Shortwave. Two months later on August 26, 1928 Mr. Jerman, anxious to begin operation of 7XAO, announces to the Oregon Journel Newspaper, that he only awaits permission from the FRC to assemble the equipment and begin test broadcasts. He stated, it wouldn't take him more than 48 hours to do so. Word was, the FRC had already granted permission for several East Coast stations to begin. A construction permit was granted to the Fred Elsemann Radio Corp.(reported on June 2, 1929, Oregon Journel), to build a visual experimental broadcasting station W2XCP in Portland to operate on 2000 to 2100kc and also on 2850 to 2950kc. The license would cover both areas on the band. Construction would begin at once, it was stated. This I want to give credit to a kind email I got from fred@sgranata.org(FRED GRANATA) and the following email re: Mr.Jerman...again I thank the sender for the info over a period of time. Dear Mr. Gaule: I just read your history of television in Portland. You may be interested to know that Wilbur Jerman, who is my father-in-law, is still alive, 102 years old, active and mentally competent. Fred Granata.Dear Gerald: Having sent your article and some other stuff to my son in Virginia, he responded with this additional information.This is fascinating, especially to the extent that no one held a license within 2000 miles of Oregon. Wilbur was a real pioneer. Jessie once told me that Wilbur had offers to work for RCA, and at one point had personal contact with Sarnoff and Kelly, who were RCA's TV pioneers following WWII. Wilbur was content to stay at home in Oregon and run KWJJ at the time. Visual Broadcasting Stations as of June 30, 1930 The following is the Federal Radio Commission list of visual broadcasting stations as of June 30, 1930. Thanks to John Bowker, who provided this website with the original FRC publication. Call City State Frequency Power Licensee W1XAV Boston MA 2.1-2.2 500 Shortwave & Television Laboratory (Inc.) W1XAY Lexington MA 2.0-2.1 5000 Lexington Air Stations, Adams St., care of Carl S. Wheeler W1XY Lawrence MA 2.0-2.1 250 Pilot Laboratories (Inc.) W2XAP Jersey City NJ 2.75-2.85 250 Jenkins Television Corp. (portable) W2XBA Newark NJ 2.75-2.85 500 WAAM (Inc.), 7 Bond St. W2XBO Long Island City NY 2.0-2.1, 2.75-2.85 5000 United Research Corporation, 39-41 Van Pelt Ave. W2XBS New York NY 2.0-2.1 5000 R. C. A., 66 Van Cortlandt Park, South (portable) W2XBU Beacon NY 2.0-2.1 100 Harold E. Smith W2XCD Passaic NJ 2.0-2.1 5000 De Forest Radio Co. W2XCO New York NY 2.1-2.2 5000 R. C. A. W2XCP Allwood NJ 2.0-2.1, 2.85-2.95 2000 Freed-Eisenmann Radio Corp., Junius St. and Liberty Ave., New York, N. Y. W2XCR Jersey City NJ 2.75-2.85 5000 Jenkins Television Corp. 346-370 Claremont Ave. W2XCW Schenectady NY 2.1-2.2 20000 General Electric Co. W2XR Long Island City NY 2.1-2.2, 2.85-2.95 500 Radio Pictures (Inc.), 3104 Northern Blvd. W2XX Ossining NY 2.0-2.1 100 Robert F. Gowen W3XAD Camden NJ 2.85-2.95 500 R. C. A. Victor Co. (Inc.) W3XAK Bound Brook NJ 2.0-2.1 5000 R. C. A. (portable) W3XK Silver Spring MD 2.0-2.1, 2.85-2.95 5000 Jenkins Laboratories, 1519 Connecticut Ave., Washington, D. C. W3XL Bound Brook NJ 2.85-2.95 30000 R. C. A. Communications (Inc.) W7XAO Portland OR 2.75-2.85 100 Wilbur Jerman, 385 Fifty-Eighth St. W8XAV East Pittsburgh PA 2.0-2.1, 2.1-2.2, 2.75-2.85 20000 Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. W8XT East Pittsburgh PA 0.66 25000 Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. W9XAA Chicago IL 2.0-2.1 1000 Chicago Federation of Labor W9XAG Chicago IL 2.0-2.1 1000 Aero Products (Inc.) W9XAO Chicago IL 2.0-2.1 500 Western Television Corporation, 6312 Broadway W9XAP Chicago IL 2.75-2.85 1000 Chicago Daily News W9XAZ Iowa City IA 2.0-2.1 500 State Univesity of Iowa W9XG West Lafayette IN 2.0-2.1 1500 Purdue University W9XR Downers Grove IL 2.85-2.95 5000 Great Lakes Broadcasting Co., 72 West Adams St., Chicago, IL W10XU Aircraft: unnamed ... 2.0-2.1 10 Jenkins Laboratories, 1519 Connecticut Ave., Washington, D. C. (portable) I found it by typing Wilbur's name in the Google search engine. I did enjoy the page. Few people are aware of Wilbur being the first to broadcast television in Oregon. From what I can find, he had the only license west of Chicago in those early days. Wilbur was the founder of radion station KWJJ which call letters bear his initials. He informed me that his television studio was located in the attic of his home on SE 58th Avenue in Portland. Wilbur was born not far from you in Brownsville. He grew up, however, in Silverton. He was a natural tinkerer and became interested in radio when he worked for Stubbs Electric, also a early radio broadcaster. He built his radio station with his own hands. The television broadcasting equipment, he also built, but from a kit. Unfortunately he gave this away years ago. Its whereabouts are unknown. It would be a great artifact for the Oregon Historical Society Museum. Wilbur's televison "studio", as it were, was located in the attic of his home on SE 58th in Portland. The televison signal was broadcast on the shortwave band and the sound on the KWJJ radio band. There were so many technical problems that he gave it up after a few months. Fred Granata..Thanks fred for the info...really!! AND IN 1947 KGWG Portland OR 6 .... Oregonian Publishing Co. KGW AND IN 1949 Portland KGWG 6 The Oregonian Publishing Co. KGW -- -- Portland KTVU 3 Video Broadcasting Co. – (ALL ABOVE WERE APPROVED) IN 1952.. Portland KPTV 27 NBC Target 9-52 9a-Mdn MORE INFO.. Jan. 22, 1947. W6XYZ changes call to KTLA(TV)* (5), first commercial TV west of Chicago. A 30-minute show is telecast from the Paramount TV stage, featuring Bob Hope, Jerry Colonna, Dorothy Lamour, and William Bendix. The FCC microfiche records show the station was granted a Special Temporary Authorization for commercial operation on 1/9/47 and that the date of its first commercial license was 2/9/53. Sept. 30, 1948. FCC freezes new TV applications; channel 1 deleted, assigned to land mobile May 9, 1949. Broadcasting reports FCC authorizes NBC to operate a UHF station at Bridgeport CT for experimental rebroadcasts of programs of WNBT New York. (STATION BOUGHT AND LATER BROUGHT OUT TO PORTLAND OREGON,FOR KPTV/27. Dec. 29, 1949. KC2XAK, first experimental UHF TV station operating on a regular basis is opened by NBC at Bridgeport CT on 529-535 MHz. Apr. 14, 1952. FCC lifts TV freeze as of July 1; provides for 617 VHF and 1436 UHF allocations, including 242 non-commercial educational stations; establishes 3 zones with different mileage separation and antenna-height regulations; changes required of 30 TV stations. Oct. 12, 1952. KBTV(TV)* Denver (9), first post-freeze station in channels 7-13 KOAC-TV went on the air in 1957, followed by KOAP-TV in Portland four years later. By 1970, OPB had established its presence on television and radio throughout the state. In 1953 the Federal Communications Commission issued a license for a television station to be located in Bellingham, Washington. The operation took the call letters KVOS-TV and offered its first program on May 23, 1953. KVOS-TV grew out of KVOS radio which was owned and operated by Rogan Jones. Unlike most of his contemporaries, Jones was convinced that television could succeed in a city as small as Bellingham. A TRIBUTE TO A NW PIONEER IN TV..KPTV/27-KLOR 12 On September 18,1952...A new age of Television began in Portland Oregon..KPTV 27..Was the world's first Commercial UHF TV station... channel 27 transmitted a mere 1000 watts when it first went on.And that the original transmitter had been a GE experimental unit, and KPTV got a good deal on it used. That may have been why they went on UHF.(The station was built in a record 90 days by EMPIRE COIL TELEVISION). about KPTV 27 suggests that it ran 1000kw but I understand there was a lot of trouble with multipath interference. Vast improvements have since been made on UHF transmitter.KPTV channel 27 bought KLOR channel 12 in 1957 and became KPTV channel 12. KLOR went on in 1955. Tower was at 4700 S.W. Council Crest Dr. & KPFM 97.1 went on from that new tower 10 days before KLOR hit the air. KPFM was on a smaller tower before this. Channel 12's transmitter was in KPFM's basement. This was not the end of Channel 27. In 1958 KHTV went on the air for a brief period, maybe six months before pulling the plug. It was Portland's first Independent TV station.KPTV then moved to channel 12 and closed down channel 27 which must have been quite a relief for them since the all-channel act didn't go into effect until 1964 and there weren't that many UHF tuners installed in TVs until that happened. In fact, the only way to receive the station at the beginning, was to have a channel 27 strip installed in your VHF only TV. Also, UHF transmission and reception, in those early days, left a great deal to be desiredI can remember having a large converter box on top of the TV set so that we could receive CH 27. It was about the size of a toaster, and you had to set the dial to get 27. In about 1953 / 1954 we could get both 27 and 12 here in town. The reception was really poor for CH 27 right in the middle of town (SE area) and couldn't get it at all the the 'shadow' area on the west side of town. regarding early UHF tuners, Mallory UHF set top converter. Sensitivity on this unit, as on a lot of older mechanical UHF tuners is poor because there is no RF preamplifier! If you want to get technical, the sensitivity on any such tuner would be significantly worse than that of the first stage of amplification after the converter because there is always a loss of 6 dB or more. KPTV signed on with NBC..Sarnoff wanted KPTV as an afilliate and sent his engineers come out(free of charge)to get NBC in portland. KPTV later went to ABCMORE HISTORY ON KPTV Now for an earlier attempt for Portland Television.The earliest cable systems are born in remote areas of Pennsylvania and(ASTORIA) Oregon. Known then as Community Antenna Television, its function was simply to bring TV signals into communities where off-air reception was either non-existent or poor because of interfering mountains or distance.The Oregon site was used to KING-TV 5.This was in 1948. Ed Parsons, owner of KVAS Astoria (Clatsop Video Broadcasters), Elroy J. McCaw, owner of out of state radio stations & Jack Keating, owner of a Portland recording studio. The new owners applied for FCC permission to install an experimental television relay transmitter to rebroadcast KING-TV Seattle on channel 3.The purchase was made following tests of KING-TV reception made via mobile equipment by Mr. Parsons in all sections of Portland. The plan was to apply later for a regular television license. None of this occurred.About King TV. In the beginning… It all began in November 1948 when Channel(KRSC) 5 became the first television station north of San Francisco and west of the Mississippi and 15th in the nation. On November 25, 1948, the first "wide-audience" television broadcast is shown on nearly 1000 TV sets around Puget Sound. Viewers marvel at the telecast of a high school football championship game between West Seattle and Wenatchee, despite technical problems and the grainy quality of the image. Seattle's first television broadcast actually occurred almost 20 years earlier, when, on June 3, 1929, KOMO radio engineer Francis J. Brott televised images of a heart, a diamond, a question mark, letters, and numbers over electrical lines to small sets with one-inch screens. A handful of viewers were captivated by the broadcast. TV might have caught on earlier, had not a nationwide depression and a world war intervened. TV technology was available during the 1930s, and by the 1940s a few Eastern stations were broadcasting two to three hours a day. After World War II started, receivers were no longer built, which hindered TV's popularity. After the war, the FCC was busy defining new technical rules, but by the end of the decade the field was open for the "new" medium. KRSC-FM, the region's first frequency-modulation radio station, brought in television technology at about the same time they were fine-tuning their FM transmitters. KRSC-TV began training cameramen and engineers in preparation for the opening broadcast on Thanksgiving Day, 1948.(When KING TV/5 Came on Walt Disney was commissioned to Design and draw The KING microphone mascot for their legal ID/Reader board imposed on the screen for around $47.00). Two cameras were placed in the stands above the 50-yard line at Civic Field (now Memorial Stadium at the Seattle Center). One camera had a wide-angle lens, and the other had a telephoto lens for close-ups. A microwave relay transmitter was mounted on the roof. As on many Seattle Thanksgivings, the weather that day was miserable -- cold, dark, and wet. The game began at 1:45 p.m., and by halftime the rain was pouring down. Wet microphone cords started to hum. A transmission line went out, which caused the game to go off the air for a short time. Engineers attempting to sharpen the image ended up turning it negative so that white appeared as black and black appeared as white. They Were Not Bothered Did this bother the thousands of viewers who had gathered at places like radio and hardware stores to watch this event? No. The telecast was discernable, and best of all it was new and exciting. Even though the game ended in a mud-splattered 6-6 tie, the thrill of seeing it on an 8-inch screen was enough for most people. After the game, KRSC ran the puppet show "Lucky Pup," an old serial film called "Devil Horse," followed by a film of the Broadway play, "Street Scene." Such captivating fare kept hundreds glued to their tiny screens. Eight months later, a local businesswoman named Dorothy Bullitt bought the fledgling station and began a tradition of local quality programming which would be rivaled by none. A broadcast pioneer and a visionary, Mrs. Bullitt changed Channel 5's call letters to KING, matching those of its sister FM classical radio station. KING 5 quickly emerged as a station with a reputation for excellence, which set the standard for the entire industry. In 1953 KING became an ABC affiliate, then moved to NBC in 1959. KING 5 was also the first TV station in the Northwest to telecast in color and the first non-network-owned station in the country to buy videotape machines. From the very beginning, KING 5 prioritized local programming, community news, first-rate production, events, and talent. Mrs. Bullitt passed away in 1989 and her children sold the company to The Providence Journal Company in 1992. Then in early 1997, another leading broadcast company, A.H. Belo Corporation, acquired the Providence Journal and the King Broadcasting stations. Through acquisition, Belo became the nation's third largest independent television group.Now about Portland Wrestling.. Frank Bonnema was the main announcer. These were the days of Tough Tony Bourne, Lonnie Maine, Beauregard And the Claw. After Frank died (not sure when) Dutch Savage took over as announcer. Other wrestlers of that time...Haru Susaki, the Von Stiger Brothers, Tex Mckenzie, Jimmy Snuka..and "Shag Thomas"!! KOIN aired Portland Wrestling on Friday night from 1955 until January 1966. It had various start times (11:00, 11:15 & 11:20.) Bob McAnulty was the announcer for the majority of that time. I think a former wrestler named Herb Freeman took over after Bob left. Portland Wrestling returned to TV on KPTV in February 1967 with Frank Bonnema. It ran on Friday nights at 9:30 until wrestling was moved from the Armory to Portland Sports Arena in 1968. At that time, it moved to Saturday at 9:30. In 1970, it moved to 8:30. In 1979, KPTV started tape delaying the show until 11:00. Bonnema was the announcer (and a great one) until his death in October 1982. At that time, Don Koss & Dutch Savage took over. Savage was later replaced by Stan Stasiak.It wasn't until about 1972 that KPTV started broadcasting Portland Wrestling in color. Even for a few years after that, if KPTV broadcast another sporting event (Blazers, Ducks or Beavers) on a Saturday night, Portland Wrestling would be in wonderful black & white. They must have only had one color broadcast truck.(The seny the signal by Microwave, then the technology had 100 mw with a 25 mile line of sight range). KPTV cancelled Portland Wrestling in 1991 with the final show airing in December 1991.Later it was broadcasted on KOIN and KPDX IN THE MID 90'S AND AS OF JAN 4,2003 it was revived on KBWP-TV 32 for one hour at 11 pm,Saturdays and co-sponsored by TOM PETERSON. The weekly Portland Sports Arena shows were filmed live to tape and then aired on a delay later that night on the 90 minute "Portland Wrestling" broadcast. KPTV would then syndicate a one hour version of the show entitled "Big Time Wrestling" to stations around Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Alaska, Idaho, and even parts of Montana and California. The weekly show would usually consist of two preliminary matches, many interviews, and a two out of three falls main event. This format went unchanged until the late 80s, when they adapted a more modern booking style. Don Owen was not the only promoter in the territory. Sandy Barr promoted weekly shows in Salem, OR and Dutch Savage ran the Seattle and Tacoma programs. There were also weekly shows in Eugene, OR at the Lane County Fairgrounds, as I am sure all former fans remember. The Northwest was one of the last territories to die, right behind the USWA in Memphis. It survived the McMahon onslaught of the mid 80s, but couldn't survive the sport itself becoming uncool in the early 90s. Tom Peterson, the number one sponsor who did live commercials from the Sports Arena every week, filed bankruptcy. At the same time "Portland Wrestling" was garnering low ratings for the first time since its inception in 1948. KPTV reluctantly canceled its oldest program and replaced it with WWF "Superstars of Wrestling." Don Owen continued to promote his weekly Portland shows, but without T.V. the attendance fell to an all time low. As a last ditch effort, promo time was bought on KPTV during the WWF show to hype the cards, but it didn't work. Don Owen ran his final shows in 1992. Promoter Sandy Barr bought Owen's promotion and took over the weekly shows, but the crowds were very small, and all the big name talent had exited the area in search of greener pastures. Barr had a TV show that aired his weekly cards, but it had a horrible time slot that many fans didn't know about it, and unfortunately, many just didn't care about. Owen would eventually sell the Sports Arena, forcing Barr to a new location. Barr ran into trouble with the Oregon State Wrestling Commission which drove him out of the state. For the next three years Barr would continue to promote shows, using green talent, in front of very small crowds. Finally in 1997, the remnants of Portland Wrestling that had been hanging on by a thread broke off. Since then many promoters have started up running local shows, trying to recapture the magic that Don Owen had for over 60 years, but nobody has even come close. If there was a Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame, Don Owen would surely be one of the first inducted. For him, and all the people who made Portland Wrestling great over the years, I look forward to honoring them on this great web site. Portland Wrestling from 1953-91 Before there was The WWF..there was Portland Wrestling…a tv staple for 38 years has produced and introduced a giant list of names and future stars all from Portland Wrestling.. Many big league promoters would send their new talent to Don in Portland to learn the ropes and to refine their TV character in front of Kptv’s live cameras. Don Owens’s Portland Wrestling helped start the careers of some of the most famous names in the industry. Gorgeous George Gorilla monsoon Mil Mascaras Jimmy Sneak Jesse Ventura Roddy Piper Playboy Buddy Rose Super Star Billy Gram Jay Youngblood Steve Regal Curt Henning Pedro Morales Stan Stasiak Mad Dog Vachon Jonathan Boyd Killer Brooks, Dr. Ota, Johnny Eagles, Ricky Hunter, Sal Martino, Frank Dusek, Gino Hernandez,Jessie Barr,Clay Sugarman,The Gentile Mormon, Cowboy Frankie Laine, Sergeant Slaughter got his start there, Lou Thesz, , the Funks, Briscos, Rick Martel (twice PNW champion), Billy Jack,Al Madril, Even future actor Nick Nolte,Shag Thomas,The Teeenage Idol “Sandy Barr”,Von Steigers,Haru Sasaki,Lonnie Mayne,The Austrailans,Dutch Savage,John Rambo, ART BARR, STEVE DOLL,The Grappler,Col.DeBeers,Luke Brown, Ed Wiskwoski,Rip Oliver, Ed Francis, Royal Kangaroos, Sam Oliver (Ron) Bass, Iron Sheik, The Sheepherders, Don Leo Jonathan , Dory Funk, And many more who passed through the doors..and “Ringside Rosie”who always sat ringside to help out the ref and boo the bad guys..who passed on at the age of 80 and loved the wreslters.. To name a few, got their start on Kit’s Portland Wrestling. Don Owens’s focus was to build strong TV characters using Kit’s cameras. Don understood the power of comic chaos during the live TV interviews. Portland turned out some of the best witted TV wrestling characters in the industry. A long-running staple in Portland television, wrestling had exposure on other Portland stations, including KOIN (6), but found its greatest success, for nearly 25 years, on KPTV. Herb Freeman was the first host..I think for Koin..then Frank,Don and even the producer Chuck Grendall..filled in when Don was not available..that is what I understood..The remotes were sent via microwave link at 100 mw…with a reach of 25 miles(line of sight).along with two remote trucks…and lots of cable.. Don and his brother Elton would run the NW with Talent…Elton would have the matches in Salem and was shown on KVDO-3… Portland Wrestling returned to TV on KPTV in February 1967 with Frank Bonnema. It ran on Friday nights at 9:30 until wrestling was moved from the Armory to Portland Sports Arena in 1968. At that time, it moved to Saturday at 9:30. In 1970, it moved to 8:30. In 1979, KPTV started tape delaying the show until 11:00. Bonnema was the announcer (and a great one) until his death in October 1982. At that time, Don Coss & Dutch Savage took over. Savage was later replaced by Stan Stasiak. It wasn't until about 1972 that KPTV started broadcasting Portland Wrestling in color. Even for a few years after that, if KPTV broadcast another sporting event (Blazers, Ducks or Beavers) on a Saturday night, Portland Wrestling would be in wonderful black & white. They must have only had one color broadcast truck. It was on KOIN for many years and was broadcasted from The Portland Armory…here is some history Heidelberg Wrestling BROADCAST HISTORY JUL 1953-???eidelberg Wrestling BROADCAST HISTORY - : FRI 10:00PM-11:00PM It ran until..I believe when KOIN took over and was on KOIN from the 50’s to 1967.. FEB 1967 - : FRI 9:30PM-11:00PM [LIVE] JUN 1969 - NOV 1969: SAT 9:30PM-11:00PM [LIVE] OCT 1970 - SEP 1979: SAT 8:30PM-10:00PM [LIVE] SEP 1979 - DEC 1991: SAT 11:00PM-12:30AM Don.. ran wrestling in the Pacific Northwest, out of the Portland office, with the help of his son Barry Meanwhile, Dutch Savage ran the NWA office in Washington State, with main event wrestlers working out of both offices. Until PNW's closing in 1992, it was one of the longest-running family owned sports promotions in the country. Pacific Northwest Wrestling federation, grandfather, Herb Owen, was a boxing and wrestling promoter. The legendary Jack Dempsey even boxed in his federation! Later, he became strictly a wrestling promoter. And before George became Gorgeous, he wrestled for the Owens’s promotion. George was wrestling for PNW and married a girl in the area. She started sewing his outfits and spent a lot of money and time on them. George didn't want to just throw them over the ropes, he wanted to fold them properly to protect the outcome of his wife's labor. The crowd got annoyed with his fussiness and began badgering George to hurry and start the match. This became his gimmick. He took longer and longer, and the outfits got gaudier and gaudier. Then came the hair. Before long he'd acquired the nickname 'Gorgeous.'" He was not to be the only wrestler who gained fame during or after their time in PNW.. Don, and his brother, Elton, used to wrestle and referee for PNW. Both of them promoted in the '50s. Together, they ran a big territory in Oregon, Washington, Vancouver and even Hawaii. Elton retired in 1982. There were about 10 towns in PNW's federation area that were covered weekly, Sports Center in Portland was a converted bowling alley. Prices were usually $8.00 for ringside, $7.00 for the floor and $5.00 general admission. The early '90s saw an end to PNW. There was a new executive director of the Boxing and Wrestling Commission of Oregon, Bruce Anderson. And Billy Jack Haynes had come back to town trying to start up a new federation in 1988. Haynes got the necessary licensing and then attempted to woo away PNW's main talent (Brian Adams, Moondog Moretti, Rip Oliver and Mike Miller were among those who defected. All of this added to PNW losing the TV show had for over 40 years. Some of the sponsors (particularly long time sponsor Tom Peterson) went bankrupt and the station wouldn't keep producing the show (despite 'Portland Wrestling' drawing consistently good ratings in its time slot from the time when TV was invented). they sold the Sports Arena to a neighboring church."..some early roots go back to tv in 1948.Other sponsors Friendly Chevrolet..and so on…A 'typical' work week for the 15 or so stable of wrestlers in PNW.. They were all anxious to work, and we worked them long and hard hours. Some would work 5-6 nights a week, others 4-5. Don Passed away in 2002 at the age of 88…Dutch works in Real Estate..and Shag was the owner of The Ringside Restaurant. Frank did a report on KYXI Radio of the highlights… Big time wrestling was seen in Montana,Yakima,Seattle and other markets. On May 30, 1992, Don Owen said good bye to the fans. During his 10-year stint as ring announcer, Don Coss saw it all. From bad interviews to good matches, from flubbed intros to fabulous athletes, from connecting punches to undone heroes - Coss was there in the middle of it all - in the Pacific Northwest Wrestling Federation. Coss worked full-time in radio and at Portland's KPTV, Channel 12 on the weekends. In 1972 he began filling in several times a year as announcer/interviewer for "Portland Wrestling" when main announcer, Frank Bonnena, was out or ill. In 1982, Bonnena died and Coss became the full-time announcer for the show which aired on Saturday nights until its closure in 1992. “Frank had worked with the (PNW owners Don and Barry) Owens for 15 years, so I was stepping into some big shoes. I remember Frank was there in the black and white days of PNW but the night of the first color broadcast, he became ill and I stepped in.” When I worked for Coss at KWBY in Woodburn Ooregon…Don had told me that when Frank was ill in the hospital…Tony Borne and Bonnema would go over the notes for the matches.. Most of the wrestlers started out living at the Bomber Motel. Many of them moved out when they saw that PNW was going to be a long gig for them, but some lived there during their stay with the fed. A lot of the guys gathered there for parties and the fans followed them. A typical Saturday evening for Don Coss consisted of arriving at the Portland Sports Arena around 7:45pm. He would head to Don Owens’s office and get the lineup for that night’s taping. Owen would tell Coss some things he would want promoted in the course of the interviews or ring announcements and that was it. According to Coss” Then I’d head to the 'crow’s nest' and make out my cue boards (a list of special things about that night or upcoming matches) for reference. When I started, everything was live, but in the late 70s, they went to a ‘live to tape’ format which allowed for some editing, if there was an injury or something. But almost all of what the TV audience saw was the way it happened. Channel 12 never went out of their way producing the show. There was no third camera at ringside, just the two from the 'crow’s nest' that caught the action in the ring, then swung around for the interview segments where I was.” Those interviews were always on the fly. I knew who was up next, but sometimes another guy would try to horn in or the interview went badly. One time I was filling in for Tom Peterson (the local sponsor) and doing his commercials. He got me the script and told me not to let anything happen to his products (some TV sets). Jimmy “Superfly” Sneak and Bull Ramos, a mountain of a man, came to the interview segment and started out talking. That turned into yelling, then shoving and Sneak fell backward into some chicken wire. He jumped up and shoved Ramos. Pretty soon one punch led to another and Sneak went down. I was backing off, trying not to be involved, when Sneak got up and headed for one of the sets on the desk. He hit Ramos with it. The set bounced off his shoulder, and hit the floor and broke. We got some police to end it and went to a commercial! Funny thing about it all - that set sold for way more than it was worth because it had been used in a fight! You just never knew what would happen during an interview.” Don Owen had booked some of the top, and most expensive, names in the nation to come to the Portland Memorial Coliseum on Tuesday May 21, 1985. But three days prior to the arrival of the NWA and AWA world champions, the WWF's top heel, and the AWA World tag team champions, only 5,000 tickets had been sold to the 13,000 seat Coliseum. Often, as a feud got hot, one of the participants would call Don up to the Crow's Nest and would beg for a certain, Cage, Chain, Coal Miner's Glove,Apache Strap,Street match,loser leaves town or cut the hair match. Don would listen. As Lonnie Mayne would say, "There's excitement in the air!"I hoped to be accurate and do my best…thanks…this site is dedicated to my Dad…who loved to watch the show.. KGW 620 was owned by Pioneer Broadcasting, which also owned KGW-TV Channel 8. This combo lured Canada's #1 DJ, Red Robinson to Portland in early '59. Red was Canada's first DJ to play Rock'n'Roll and Rhythm'n'Blues in 1954. Only 16, Red would hurry from High School to do his afternoon show on CJOR in Vancouver, BC. In 1957, Red emceed Elvis Presley's Vancouver, BC concert. The audio is electrifying and will be heard on this website in the future. Red joined KGW to handle 2-6pm and host Portland Bandstand, a weekly Teen Music Dance show Saturdays on Channel 8. Gene Brendler's "High Time" had been going strong weekday afternoons on KPTV, since 1958. Local High School and Jr. High cliques booked time in a crowded studio to dance to the hits, and be seen on local TV. The show also featured national artists "lip synching" their hits, & being interviewed by Gene. Red handled those duties on KGW-TV's new Portland Bandstand. Red's Teen Canteen Show was touted as the fastest growing club in North America. When Red came to the U.S., he already had 25,000 - 30,000 members. Red featured instrumental themes throughout his show including "Rebel Rouser" by Duane Eddy, and even "The Happy Whistler" by Don Robertson. This whistling theme was used later by Portland TV clown, Rusty Nails during stints with both KPTV and KATU. Red was Portland's connection to the recording stars. They did testimonials for his show. A prime example is the Connie Francis sound file on your left. I actually believed Red spent his time on the phone talking to the stars when he got home at night. He made you afraid "not to listen." Why? He was always popping "rabbits out of a hat." If you couldn't listen, you were afraid you were missing something great... like Bobby Darin dropping by!!! Many emerging rock stars got their start at Portland's Division Street Corral. Bobby mentions he's appearing in Longview and at "D Street." The "recording session" Bobby mentioned "in about 2 weeks," yielded America's #1 hit of 1959, "Mack The Knife." You've heard of "must see T.V." This was truly "must hear radio". THE FUN STOPS HERE (from an article) On February 13, citing "threatening letters" from the State of Oregon Boxing and Wrestling Commission and the Attorney General's Office, WB32 announced it would no longer be producing episodes of their Saturday night show Portland Wrestling. The Boxing and Wrestling Commission's complaint was that the show violated state statute ORS 463.035. The statute sets forth certain wrestling standards: no strangle holds, no jumping on opponents from the ropes of the ring, no hair pulling, eye gouging, head butting, or crotch kicking. The rules are there to ensure the fairness of the contest. What sets these rules apart from most others is that violations can be prosecuted as Class A misdemeanors, with fines of $5,000 and up to a year in jail. The Boxing and Wrestling Commission asserted that WB32 was "holding, conducting, and otherwise arranging a wrestling contest," and therefore, the station was required to follow ORS 463.035. "Basically, they wanted to apply a set of wrestling rules that ban everything that professional wrestlers do," said Steve Dant, the Vice President and General Manager of WB32. Dant went on to state that because Portland Wrestling is not a sporting event but rather "an episodic, scripted television show," WB32 shouldn't have to abide by the regulations. Frank Culbertson, WB32's Business Manager (who was both executive producer and, weirdly enough, the play-by-play announcer for Portland Wrestling), put it more bluntly: "The state contends we are a competition--we're not. Here's a shocker for you: the outcomes are predetermined." WRESTLERS AGAINST ILLITERACY. KOMO Channel 4 Seattle debuted, on December 10th 1953. At first, KOMO was NBC's best local affiliate on the west coast. KOMO played home to the first live local made by NBC's "The Home Show" and played host to a number of NBC events. Not to be outdone, the Bullitt family pursued NBC to drop KOMO, and in 1958, it happened. NBC dropped KOMO in the most controversial move ever by a network at that time. O.D. Fisher was devastated at that move, and his station lost about 80% of its market share in Seattle and throughout Western WA. ABC, a then distant Fox-like network, saw something in KOMO, and ABC picked up KOMO later that year. Right after that, Fisher saw KOMO's ratings raise through the roof again, and KOMO again became Seattle's most powerful station. In fact, KOMO became ABC's best affiliate for ten years running out of all ABC stations on the west coast that weren't an ABC O&O. In the early 60's, Portland would play host to another Fisher station. In 1962(Around The Columbus Day Storm), KATU Channel 2 opened its doors, and its broadcast signal, and KOMO/KATU dominated the Pacific NW. Fisher's Blend Station was now a strong running company, now with two TV stations in tow. Two years earlier, KOMO became the first station on the west coast to transmit TV in color. This was possible by a discovery made by a KOMO News photographer. He discovered a way to develop color news film in color at a rate far faster than the current methods at the time. KOMO was then known as the "Color Station" for years afterward. With this, in the early seventies, KOMO began to outgrow their existing facility again, so they expanded it in 1976. That same year, the parent company of KOMO, "Fisher's Blend Station" became "Fisher Broadcasting Inc.". KOMO had consistently outdone KING, and CBS affiliate KIRO (which debuted in 1958,.The first night on the air they showed the movie "High Noon",before KIRO CBS TV programming from both KTNT-TV 11 Tacoma and KVOS-TV 12 Bellingham, WA. both CBS affiliates back then. In 1980, KOMO would again make news. News in a way that they hoped not to. On May 18th, 1980, KOMO News photographer David Crockett went to Mt St helens on a hunch that something was going to happen. He was right. Mt St Helens blew its top off in the largest explosion in US history, and Dave Crockett was right in the middle of it all. He was trapped in the explosion and filmed over 6 minutes on film of what he thought would be "his last day on Earth." His film is now used in various volcano documentaries around the world. And it was even featured in a movie remake about the Mt St Helens blast. In 1985 KOMO made news again. KOMO became the first station in the Pacific NW to make use of stereo sound in daily broadcasts. And in 1989, KOMO became the first Seattle TV station on scene of the Berlin Wall Collapse. Just after President Clinton entered office, Dan Lewis, KOMO News 4 Weeknight anchor, becamse th first TV News reporter to interview President Clinton after taking office. That was in 1993. In 1996, KOMO would make news again, setting another "1st." KOMO becamse the first TV station in the US to test their signal in HDTV, and in 1999, began broadcasting in HDTV on a daily basis. With this, KOMO's current facility was bursting at the seams, and last year, KOMO opened up "Fisher Plaza" and their old building was destroyed. A great piece of post-war Seattle Art-Deco architecture was now history. More Tidbits.. KOIN TV-6 Donated a camera to KOAP-TV in 1961(which)it did not have..When KGW TV-8 built the new building on S.W Jefferson(Chet Huntley)from NBC News dedicated the building and for sales promotion GAF/VIEWMASTER custom made a Viewmaster shaped like the KGW Building. RICHARD ROSS Longtime news anchor for KGW-TV sent shockwaves through the local television industry when he defected to rival KATU in 1975. Two years later, Ross admitted he had been an FBI informant in the '50s; he was asked to report on the political leanings of his news colleagues. Ross retired from KATU in 1986 and took a PR job promoting the Oregon Lottery for two years. The Lake Oswego resident is now a trustee of a tax-free trust fund for Oregon cities and counties and continues to serve on the executive committee of Goodwill Industries of Oregon. (The Rose Festival coronation will never be the same without you, Dick.) Launching a television station in Medford was a daunting enterprise, but that’s exactly what William B. Smullin did when KBES signed on the air in 1953. As with the early days of radio, no one seemed to mind the rather hazy transmission quality. Community enthusiasm had already been fed by long-distance television reception for some time Months before KBES signed on, local appliance stores began to extensively advertise their new television sets. Minkler’s TV on East 6th offered the twenty-one-inch screen Westinghouse Deluxe for $229.95. Johnston Stores on South Riverside offered the prestigious RCA line at prices ranging from $199.95 to $550. Modern Plumbing on North Riverside sold the twenty-one-inch Hallicrafters for $249.95. By July, KBES was broadcasting a test pattern “so that ... television sets can [be] properly adjusted by [the] dealer who sold them. . . [for] perfect reception of the KBES-TV programs. Originally, the FCC allocated Medford two television channels, 4 and 5. Medford’s KMED Radio had long been associated with NBC, and the network encouraged all its radio stations to apply for Channel 4 where possible. Not wanting to fight for the channel, Bill Smullin applied for Channel 5. With the request approved, he constructed a transmitter and studio on Blackwell Hill near Gold Hill. When CBS-affiliate KBES signed on at 6:00 P.M. on August 1, 1953, a studio orchestra played for the first thirty minutes. Medford attorney Frank Van Dyke then hosted opening ceremonies that featured Acting Governor Eugene E. Marsh, Oregon Secretary of State Earl Newbry, State Treasurer Sig Unander, local legislator Bob Root, and a host of officials from Jackson and Josephine counties. At 7:00 P.M., KBES broadcast its first network feature, the “Chrysler Medallion Theatre.” Reception reports for the broadcast came in from Weed, Yreka, Klamath Falls, Lakeview, Bend, Eugene, Roseburg, and Coos Bay. CBS provided KBES with most of the station’s programming. Because Oregon did not yet observe daylight savings time—and Pacific Standard Time was four hours behind the network’s East Coast offerings—KBES broadcast that first summer from 3:55 P.M. until 10:35 P.M. As television matured, the station’s program schedule lengthened and the station made subsequent arrangements to carry programs from NBC, Dumont, and eventually ABC. Bill Smullin pursued expansion in a variety of ways, and shortly after KBES signed on, he built a TV station in Eureka, California. Since the success of KBES depended on the number of television sets in use, Smullin also relentlessly pushed television sales. In 1955, Roseburg businessman Harris Ellsworth petitioned the FCC to move Channel 4 from Medford to Roseburg. When the move was approved, Smullin filed for the frequency, as did owners of Eugene’s KVAL-TV. Smullin and the KVAL interests subsequently joined forces and evenly split ownership of the new station. Roseburg’s new KPIC signed on April 1, l956. That same year, W.D. Miller of Klamath Falls sold Smullin the FCC permit to build a Channel 2 station. Smullin then built studios on the site of the old Oregon Institute of Technology and signed on the new KOTI on August 12. Operating as a KBES satellite station, KOTI carried the same programming as its parent station. IN 1956.. April l – Roseburg’s first television station, KPIC, signs on Channel 4. August 12 – Klamath Falls’ first television station, KOTI, signs on Channel 2. IN 1960 October 1 – KCBY, Channel 11, signs on as Coos Bay’s first television station 1953: Television comes to Idaho with KIDO-TV in Boise.MORE TO COME!!!SO STAY TUNED!! On Oct. 15, 1953, KOIN-TV signed on as Portland's first VHF television station and an affiliate of the CBS Television Network. Many of KOIN Radio's on-air personalities made the transition to the new medium, becoming television stars on KOIN-TV. KOIN-TV always has been an innovator in local television news. KOIN was the first station in Portland to broadcast a one-hour newscast at 5 p.m. The first to bring Portland viewers an early-morning newscast. The first to fly a news helicopter. The first to use state-of-the-art electronic newsgathering (ENG) cameras in the field. The list of KOIN's television innovations has spanned three decades, ranging from totally live local programs to an independent television production company, from expanded local news programs to satellite weather animation, and from special documentary reports to community-oriented awareness programs. KOIN and the eight other television stations owned by Lee Enterprises were purchased by Emmis Communications Inc. in the spring of 2000, and the official change of ownership took place in October of 2000. Emmis Communications. The east one came down in the Columbus Day storm of 1962, and was replaced in 1963 (the KGW-TV tower went down, too, that day.) I didn't know why KOIN-TV refused to air some of CBS's daytime programming including "The Bold and the Beautiful." I guess it took them 13 years to air this popular soap opera. Here's another fact: KOIN-TV didn't air "the Price Is Right" in the 1970s and early 1980s. Fortunately, they are airing "The Bold and Beautiful" currently. However, I don't why KOIN-TV refused to air some of CBS daytime shows? KOIN-TV's "Cartoon Circus" was hosted by Frank Kincaid. He also worked in the KOIN-TV news department as their arts reporter as he was a very cultured man. He also did some general reporting as well. In later years, I remember that he anchored their noon news from time to time. "Cartoon Circus" debuted in 1959 & aired at various times in the late afternoon (usually 4:00-4:15)until mid 1965 when it was moved to mornings at 7:35. It stayed there until it went off the air in late 1970/early 1971. KOIN TV used to have a morning show called the KOIN Kitchen. One of the tv chefs was Horst Mager for koin tv and radio there was Red DUNNING, Bill Drips with RFD6 Doris Tabor with Hi NEIGHBOR,A couple of names JULIUS Walter, organ, Cash Duncan violin, johnny carpenter vocals,and Red himself on base.Thats part of the koin orchestra On Friday Afternoon October 12, 1962, 40 years ago, Oregon was hit with the most violent hurricane in it's history. 80 M.P.H. winds lashed the region. 26 people died. Damage was estimated at 170 million. Five days later, 100,000 people in the Northwest were still powerless, with 10,000 in Portland alone. KGW-TV lost it's tower at Sylvan, 299 N.W. Skyline Blvd. KBZY Salem loaned a 120 foot spare. This could have been the former KOCO tower. KTNT-TV Tacoma loaned them an antenna. There was fear, the lower power level could not reach TV translator stations on the coast. KGW-TV returned to the air Tuesday night. KATU with it's tower in a remote part of Clark County, 7 miles N.E. of Camas on Livingston Mtn., did not have a generator. They would buy one, if power was not restored by Tuesday. K-2 was just 7 months old and beginning it's broadcast day in the afternoon. KPTV 12 was ABC. On February 27, 1971 Koin's 708 foot (above ground, 1,530 average terrain) TV tower collapsed on it's 750 foot "Stand By" tower, forcing KOIN-TV off the air at 1:18AM. KOIN-FM had signed off at Midnight. The towers landed on part of the transmitter building. Ice had coated the antenna, tower & guy wires thick. A wind gust blew a huge chunk off the structure. The weight of the absent ice on one side, threw the tower off balance and it came tumbling down. On March 9, 1971 KOIN-TV returned to the air at 6:25AM, using it's original 220 foot mast. KOIN-FM returned to the air using the Koin mast on April 12, 1971 at 5:30AM, after several holdups. On July 13, 1971 KOIN-FM began broadcasting from the new 985 foot Koin tower with added vertical polarization. Cost of the replacement towers was estimated at $600,000. In 1973 Richard J. Butterfield became G.M. There was talk at the time that KVDO was allowed to broadcast CBS so as to keep a CBS presence in the Portland area. I don't remember the details as that was 30 years ago. I think KOIN was off for 3-6 months. KVDO was an independent and I think they were hoping that when all was done that they would get to keep CBS for the Salem location, having proved themselves in the interim period. More on others.. Television Factbook" from Spring-Summer 1958. Under "Channel Allocations" channel 2 was assigned to Portland. Applications for CH 2 were: Fisher Broadcasting Co., owner of KOMO-TV CH 4 Seattle, Tribune Publishing Co., owner of KTNT-TV CH 11 Tacoma & KPOJ, Inc. Portland also had these UHF allocations: 21 & 27. Salem had: 3, (18 educational), 24 & 66. The Vancouver area had no allocations,Then KVAN later was applying for a license and KGAL.’s Gordon Allen was applying for a UHF and went to Hollywood for negotations for Networks. KVDO "TV-3" began operation at 7PM on Feb 24, 1970 with 18.6KW visual & 3.7KW audio. Antenna 1,070 feet above average terrain. Tower on Prospect Hill, 300 feet. Studios at 3000 Portland Rd., N.E. in Salem. After the one hour inauguration program "K-Video" debuted it's first program at 8PM "Video Theatre" (the movie "Trapeze" was shown) followed by the series "Secret Agent" at 10PM. Broadcast hours were 3:30PM to midnight. KVDO was aquired by the Oregon Commission on Public Broadcasting on Feb 19, 1976. Channel 3 was moved to Bend in I believe 1983. (Broadcasting Yearbook does not list the Bend debut date, but rather still list's the Salem start, anybody know the Bend date?) Trivia: I watched the KVDO sign-on and cassette taped the audio test tone to the debut. It's some where at home. Also have a KVDO Coverage Map, Summer 1970 Program Schedule with Rate Card 1a. The Oregon Journal used to run listings for KVDO with a disclaimer that said the new station's signal may not be received in all parts of the Portland area KTVR channel 13 began operation on Dec 6, 1964. KTVR was donated to the State of Oregon, Oregon Communications on Public Broadcasting on Sept 22, 1976. KTVR still cost the State money. OEPBS had to build a network of microwave relays to get the signal to La Grande. Underwood Mtn. (Hood River area, WA side), Stacker Butte (The Dalles-Goldendale area, WA side), Goodnoe Hills WA, Black Mtn. (Heppner area) to the Mt. Fanny transmitter. KTVR went on the air as a NBC primary with ABC in 1964. channel 3 was assigned to Portland and that was later changed to 2. Perhaps, 3 was assigned to Salem at a later time. In 1949. KPOJ(Oregon Journal) had aps in for CH 2. Tribune dropped out early. There had to be protection from CH2 to CH3, which was alloted to Salem. Because there had not been an application for Salem, they would not know where it's transmitter would have been. Therefore, the custom was to take the courthouse as the center of the town. The task was to look for a site closest to Portland that would protect Salem. So, the then current chief engineer of KPOJ got out the maps, drew the cirlces of coverage and then started looking for a site that would work and be just outside the circle of coverage. He discovered the Mt. Livingston site in Washington which was at the time also at Telco repeater site. That is where they applied. Later, Fisher offered to go in with KPOJ on a combined application but KPOJ decided not to pursue a relationship. Eventually, due to some unfortunate personal circumstances with the Jackson family, owners of the Journal, among others, they decided to withdraw their application and Fisher went with the Livingston location. The went on the air with it but applied to move to the west hills. They were granted permission with circumstances and they moved a few years later. The condition was that if CH3 went on in Salem, they would reduce power so as to not interfere with Salem's channel 3. When the station did go on, they were located south of Salem so as to not interfere with CH2 and vice versa (get the distance). When the State took over CH3, it is said that KATU GM, Tom Dargan, paid the State $100K to have them move the channel assignment to Bend. That turns out to have been one smart move. When KATU began operation on March 15, 1962. The transmitter began operating from N.W. Skyline Blvd. on January 19, 1964. KATU became an abc affiliate on March 1, 1964. KPTV tried to sue abc on this move. Rusty Nails switched to Channel 12 at or shortly after abc switched to 2. 12 had more time to fill after the network switch. 12 also dropped it's dinner & late night newscasts. But channel 2 did broadcast from Livington Mtn. for a year.Addium 10/17/03 There was no cable TV in Sweet Home in 1957, and the reception of TV channels from Portland (6, 8, and 27), and Eugene (13), was very poor at best. Adduim 10/27/03 More tv… The original Channel 12 was KLOR until about 1958,when it merged with KPTV and gave the latter its channel slot. Portland's hilly terrain and the premature UHF technology doomed early UHF in Portland. As many know,dozens of early UHFs bit the dust in the 1950s and early 1960s.Channel 27 limped along as KHTV for another year or two but then went dark. KGW-TV went on the air as an ABC affiliate and then swapped networks with KLOR/KPTV 12. What is somewhat amazing is the story of KATU ch. 2. They went on the air in 1962 as an independent and then aquired ABC in 1964. KATU is STLL owned by the company that put it on the air: Fisher Broadcasting KHTV as owned by Trans-Video Co. of Oregon (Wallace J. Matson, President, G.M. & 55.5%, Clara V. Matson, Vice-President & 4.15%, C.E. Wheelock, Secretary & 35%, Willis E. Earl, 20% & Paul S. Forsythe, 20%). Portland Area Original TV Sign On Dates KPTV 27 - September 20, 1952 KOIN-TV 6 - October 15, 1953 KLOR 12 - March 9, 1955 KGW-TV 8 - December 15, 1956 KHTV 27 - July 6, 1959 (dark 10-31-59) KOAP 10 - February 6, 1961 KATU 2 - March 15, 1962 KVDO 3 - February 24, 1970 (moved to Bend) KECH 22 - November 21, 1981 KPDX 49 - October 1, 1983 KUTF 32 - May 8, 1989 (dark in early 90's) KNMT 24 - November 16, 1989 Now For Your Eugene Area Viewing Pleasure KVAL 13 - April 16, 1954 KOAC-TV 7 - October 7, 1957 KEZI 9 - December 19, 1960 KMTR 16 - October 4, 1982 KEPB 28 - September 27, 1990 KEVU 34 - October 31, 1991 There was a CP for KTAH 40 in Portland in the 80s, but perhaps they were scared off by all the other new stations that beat them to the punch. They had gone as far as signing agreements to air some syndicated reruns. As a CP, 49's original calls were KLRK referencing Clark County, but it became KPDX prior to sign-on. In the late 50s there was an unbuilt CP for KSLM-TV 3 in Salem. And speaking of Eugene, Lane Community College, had a CP for channel 28 in 1975, but couldn't scrape up funding to put KLCC-TV on the air. there was also supposed to be a channel 62 out of Salem in the late 80s I remember there was a booth at the Oregon State Fair one year that was handing out the UHF loops - I believe it was sponsored by KECH 22 at the time who were trying to achieve their heyday with The Valley News, syndicated shows (Mary Tyler Moore, Bob Newhart Show) and such. Anyway, someone was saying to watch for Channel 62 soon on a board. It never materialized obviously. During the 1970's. The Vancouver School District had a CP to use channel 4. To rebroadcast educational programing. From then KTVW channel 13 in Tacoma. Now today the same Low Power channel 4 is used by KWPB 32. And channel 13 in Tacoma is KCPQ. Ch 4 in Vancouver was going to rebroadcast KTPS ch 28. Portland Area LP TV Stations KWBP-LP 4 - December 1, 1998 (Reedville) KOXI-CA 19 - 1993 (Camas) KORK-CA 35 - before 1991 KKEI-CA 38 - November 3, 1996 KOXO-CA 51 - 1993 (Newberg) KPXG-LP 54 - 1995 Eugene Area LP TV Stations KEVU-CA 23 - November 1, 1987 KORY-CA 41 - 1994 KMOR-LP 51 - 1991 KAMK-LP 53 - 1992 KHWB (slogan calls) 59 - 1980-81 KLSR-TV switched channels with KEVU, now KEVU-CA and channel 25 moved to 23 later. So the November 1, 1987 date was KLSR but in 1987 KLSR-TV was originally K25-- a translater call Ch 32 was originally KEBN before it went dark for a bit then re-appeared as KWBP. Video feeds were handled by the phone company until the late 60's..... Originally, the video feeds were fed via coax cable across the country. The audio portion of the networks was fed over phone lines separately from the video. TOC in 1965, they had recently migrated over to microwave channels. It took one microwave channel per network/video feed. they had four channels for video in Portland...the three networks and one for "satellite" tranmissions relayed from Brewster Flats, Washington. They also used that channel as a backup for the networks when they worked on a channel or as a backup for telephone lines as they could put many individual phone circuits on one microwave channel. It was also used for the occasional PBS feed to KOAP. The audio was not multiplexed. It was on separate lines and was handled in the audio rack two rows over. Most of the radio station STL's were over phone lines through that office, also. Those were equalized 5K lines. A private company set up a national microwave network for video and eventually all network and video traffic went through them. Their facility in PDX was on 12th and Alder or somewhere around there. Eventually, the video distribution went to satellites directly rather than over land microwave routes. The network before PBS, NET - National Educational Television in the 1960's was not really a network. It had no land lines. All programming was on film and sent to NET member stations such as KOAC-TV & KOAP-TV. At Telco, the microwave (not to mention land cable) had many repeaters where the signal was decoded and encoded many times. They were all tube electronics back then and we had to "equalize" different sections often. The channels were really designed for phone carrier circuits, not video. KGW moved from their old location to the current location one morning and we had to switch all their feed lines to the new site. The old site was going to be torn down to make room for the I-405 freeway. It took pretty much most of the graveyard shift to patch those cables and equalize them out. The network feeds were via coax cable from Telco to the stations. I remember NET. The main NET tapes were Mister Rogers and something called What's Happening. B/W at that. The first "network" program that they carried was Sesame Street. They did not call it a network feed but an interconnect feed. It was fed by the spare telco line at first. There were a few extra feeds, occasionally, also. That was prior to 1970. From 1967-1970, KOAC did not originate anything and was a satellite of KOAP. They did an occasional local show but it was fed to KOAP. They would kick off with NBC's Tonight Show most nights getting spots inserted from KGW's Master Control covering NBC spots and therefore running on the NBC stations downstream from KGW, Seattle and Spokane. At least as far as the network video feed went, during those years the road to Seattle ran through Portland! MCI was the name of the company would send to Seattle, Spokane, Yakima all went through Portland. That was also true when Telco controlled the feed. Microwave Communications International would switch the feed North from local stations when necessary. They also had a channel going south. They also moved the feeds for KGW when they moved from the old building to the new one to make way for I405.The private company (the name escapes me at the moment) set up a national microwave network for video and eventually all network and video traffic went through the site Portland Wrestling from 1953-91 Before there was The WWF..there was Portland Wrestling…a tv staple for 38 years has produced and introduced a giant list of names and future stars all from Portland Wrestling.. Many big league promoters would send their new talent to Don in Portland to learn the ropes and to refine their TV character in front of Kptv’s live cameras. Don Owens’s Portland Wrestling helped start the careers of some of the most famous names in the industry. Gorgeous George Gorilla monsoon Mil Mascaras Jimmy Sneak Jesse Ventura Roddy Piper Playboy Buddy Rose Super Star Billy Gram Jay Youngblood Steve Regal Curt Henning Pedro Morales Stan Stasiak Mad Dog Vachon Jonathan Boyd Killer Brooks, Dr. Ota, Johnny Eagles, Ricky Hunter, Sal Martino, Frank Dusek, Gino Hernandez,Jessie Barr,Clay Sugarman,The Gentile Mormon, Cowboy Frankie Laine, Sergeant Slaughter got his start there, Lou Thesz, , the Funks, Briscos, Rick Martel (twice PNW champion), Billy Jack,Al Madril, Even future actor Nick Nolte,Shag Thomas,The Teeenage Idol “Sandy Barr”,Von Steigers,Haru Sasaki,Lonnie Mayne,The Austrailans,Dutch Savage,John Rambo, ART BARR, STEVE DOLL,The Grappler,Col.DeBeers,Luke Brown, Ed Wiskwoski,Rip Oliver, Ed Francis, Royal Kangaroos, Sam Oliver (Ron) Bass, Iron Sheik, The Sheepherders, Don Leo Jonathan , Dory Funk, And many more who passed through the doors..and “Ringside Rosie”who always sat ringside to help out the ref and boo the bad guys..who passed on at the age of 80 and loved the wreslters.. To name a few, got their start on Kit’s Portland Wrestling. Don Owens’s focus was to build strong TV characters using Kit’s cameras. Don understood the power of comic chaos during the live TV interviews. Portland turned out some of the best witted TV wrestling characters in the industry. A long-running staple in Portland television, wrestling had exposure on other Portland stations, including KOIN (6), but found its greatest success, for nearly 25 years, on KPTV. Herb Freeman was the first host..I think for Koin..then Frank,Don and even the producer Chuck Grendall..filled in when Don was not available..that is what I understood..The remotes were sent via microwave link at 100 mw…with a reach of 25 miles(line of sight).along with two remote trucks…and lots of cable.. Don and his brother Elton would run the NW with Talent…Elton would have the matches in Salem and was shown on KVDO-3… Portland Wrestling returned to TV on KPTV in February 1967 with Frank Bonnema. It ran on Friday nights at 9:30 until wrestling was moved from the Armory to Portland Sports Arena in 1968. At that time, it moved to Saturday at 9:30. In 1970, it moved to 8:30. In 1979, KPTV started tape delaying the show until 11:00. Bonnema was the announcer (and a great one) until his death in October 1982. At that time, Don Coss & Dutch Savage took over. Savage was later replaced by Stan Stasiak. It wasn't until about 1972 that KPTV started broadcasting Portland Wrestling in color. Even for a few years after that, if KPTV broadcast another sporting event (Blazers, Ducks or Beavers) on a Saturday night, Portland Wrestling would be in wonderful black & white. They must have only had one color broadcast truck. It was on KOIN for many years and was broadcasted from The Portland Armory…here is some history Heidelberg Wrestling BROADCAST HISTORY JUL 1953-???eidelberg Wrestling BROADCAST HISTORY - : FRI 10:00PM-11:00PM It ran until..I believe when KOIN took over and was on KOIN from the 50’s to 1967.. FEB 1967 - : FRI 9:30PM-11:00PM [LIVE] JUN 1969 - NOV 1969: SAT 9:30PM-11:00PM [LIVE] OCT 1970 - SEP 1979: SAT 8:30PM-10:00PM [LIVE] SEP 1979 - DEC 1991: SAT 11:00PM-12:30AM Don.. ran wrestling in the Pacific Northwest, out of the Portland office, with the help of his son Barry Meanwhile, Dutch Savage ran the NWA office in Washington State, with main event wrestlers working out of both offices. Until PNW's closing in 1992, it was one of the longest-running family owned sports promotions in the country. Pacific Northwest Wrestling federation, grandfather, Herb Owen, was a boxing and wrestling promoter. The legendary Jack Dempsey even boxed in his federation! Later, he became strictly a wrestling promoter. And before George became Gorgeous, he wrestled for the Owens’s promotion. George was wrestling for PNW and married a girl in the area. She started sewing his outfits and spent a lot of money and time on them. George didn't want to just throw them over the ropes, he wanted to fold them properly to protect the outcome of his wife's labor. The crowd got annoyed with his fussiness and began badgering George to hurry and start the match. This became his gimmick. He took longer and longer, and the outfits got gaudier and gaudier. Then came the hair. Before long he'd acquired the nickname 'Gorgeous.'" He was not to be the only wrestler who gained fame during or after their time in PNW.. Don, and his brother, Elton, used to wrestle and referee for PNW. Both of them promoted in the '50s. Together, they ran a big territory in Oregon, Washington, Vancouver and even Hawaii. Elton retired in 1982. There were about 10 towns in PNW's federation area that were covered weekly, Sports Center in Portland was a converted bowling alley. Prices were usually $8.00 for ringside, $7.00 for the floor and $5.00 general admission. The early '90s saw an end to PNW. There was a new executive director of the Boxing and Wrestling Commission of Oregon, Bruce Anderson. And Billy Jack Haynes had come back to town trying to start up a new federation in 1988. Haynes got the necessary licensing and then attempted to woo away PNW's main talent (Brian Adams, Moondog Moretti, Rip Oliver and Mike Miller were among those who defected. All of this added to PNW losing the TV show had for over 40 years. Some of the sponsors (particularly long time sponsor Tom Peterson) went bankrupt and the station wouldn't keep producing the show (despite 'Portland Wrestling' drawing consistently good ratings in its time slot from the time when TV was invented). they sold the Sports Arena to a neighboring church."..some early roots go back to tv in 1948.Other sponsors Friendly Chevrolet..and so on…A 'typical' work week for the 15 or so stable of wrestlers in PNW.. They were all anxious to work, and we worked them long and hard hours. Some would work 5-6 nights a week, others 4-5. Don Passed away in 2002 at the age of 88…Dutch works in Real Estate..and Shag was the owner of The Ringside Restaurant. Frank did a report on KYXI Radio of the highlights… Big time wrestling was seen in Montana,Yakima,Seattle and other markets. On May 30, 1992, Don Owen said good bye to the fans. During his 10-year stint as ring announcer, Don Coss saw it all. From bad interviews to good matches, from flubbed intros to fabulous athletes, from connecting punches to undone heroes - Coss was there in the middle of it all - in the Pacific Northwest Wrestling Federation. Coss worked full-time in radio and at Portland's KPTV, Channel 12 on the weekends. In 1972 he began filling in several times a year as announcer/interviewer for "Portland Wrestling" when main announcer, Frank Bonnena, was out or ill. In 1982, Bonnena died and Coss became the full-time announcer for the show which aired on Saturday nights until its closure in 1992. “Frank had worked with the (PNW owners Don and Barry) Owens for 15 years, so I was stepping into some big shoes. I remember Frank was there in the black and white days of PNW but the night of the first color broadcast, he became ill and I stepped in.” When I worked for Coss at KWBY in Woodburn Ooregon…Don had told me that when Frank was ill in the hospital…Tony Borne and Bonnema would go over the notes for the matches.. Most of the wrestlers started out living at the Bomber Motel. Many of them moved out when they saw that PNW was going to be a long gig for them, but some lived there during their stay with the fed. A lot of the guys gathered there for parties and the fans followed them. A typical Saturday evening for Don Coss consisted of arriving at the Portland Sports Arena around 7:45pm. He would head to Don Owens’s office and get the lineup for that night’s taping. Owen would tell Coss some things he would want promoted in the course of the interviews or ring announcements and that was it. According to Coss” Then I’d head to the 'crow’s nest' and make out my cue boards (a list of special things about that night or upcoming matches) for reference. When I started, everything was live, but in the late 70s, they went to a ‘live to tape’ format which allowed for some editing, if there was an injury or something. But almost all of what the TV audience saw was the way it happened. Channel 12 never went out of their way producing the show. There was no third camera at ringside, just the two from the 'crow’s nest' that caught the action in the ring, then swung around for the interview segments where I was.” Those interviews were always on the fly. I knew who was up next, but sometimes another guy would try to horn in or the interview went badly. One time I was filling in for Tom Peterson (the local sponsor) and doing his commercials. He got me the script and told me not to let anything happen to his products (some TV sets). Jimmy “Superfly” Sneak and Bull Ramos, a mountain of a man, came to the interview segment and started out talking. That turned into yelling, then shoving and Sneak fell backward into some chicken wire. He jumped up and shoved Ramos. Pretty soon one punch led to another and Sneak went down. I was backing off, trying not to be involved, when Sneak got up and headed for one of the sets on the desk. He hit Ramos with it. The set bounced off his shoulder, and hit the floor and broke. We got some police to end it and went to a commercial! Funny thing about it all - that set sold for way more than it was worth because it had been used in a fight! You just never knew what would happen during an interview.” Don Owen had booked some of the top, and most expensive, names in the nation to come to the Portland Memorial Coliseum on Tuesday May 21, 1985. But three days prior to the arrival of the NWA and AWA world champions, the WWF's top heel, and the AWA World tag team champions, only 5,000 tickets had been sold to the 13,000 seat Coliseum. Often, as a feud got hot, one of the participants would call Don up to the Crow's Nest and would beg for a certain, Cage, Chain, Coal Miner's Glove,Apache Strap,Street match,loser leaves town or cut the hair match. Don would listen. As Lonnie Mayne would say, "There's excitement in the air!"I hoped to be accurate and do my best…thanks…this site is dedicated to my Dad…who loved to watch the show.. REAL EARLY TV!! HISTORY OF TELEVISION 1875. George R. Carey of Boston proposes a television system in which every picture element is transmitted simultaneously, each over a separate circuit. 1880. The principle of scanning an image is proposed, by E. E. Sawyer in the U. S., Maurice Leblanc in France, and others (approximate date). 1900. The term television is coined by Constantin Perskyi at the International Electricity Congress, part of the 1900 Paris Exhibition (Tube: The Invention of Television by David E Fisher and Marshall Jon Fisher, p. 29). 1921. Charles Francis Jenkins incorporates the Jenkins Laboratories in Washington for the sole purpose of "developing radio movies to be broadcast for entertainment in the home." May 19, 1922. Charles Francis Jenkins achieves his first successful laboratory transmission. Oct. 3, 1922. Jenkins first public demonstration, using Navy station NOF in Anacostia. He transmitted pictures, rather than television in the modern sense. The photographs were sent by a telephone wire from his Washington office to NOF and they were then broadcast by wireless back to the Post Office in Washington. June 14, 1923. Jenkins' first true television demonstration, using NOF. (He continued to use NOF until 1925. By 1925, the NOF transmissions were on 1875 kHz, using 48 lines.) Dec. 29, 1923. Zworykin applies for a patent for an all-electronic television system. June 13, 1925. Charles Francis Jenkins achieves the first synchronized transmission of pictures and sound, using 48 lines, and a mechanical system. A 10-minute film of a miniature windmill in motion is sent from Anacostia to Washington, D. C., a distance of 5 miles. The images were viewed by representatives of the Bureau of Standards, the Navy, the Commerce Department, and others. Jenkins called this "the first public demonstration of radiovision" (although Baird had publicly demonstrated a working television set at Selfridge's Department Store in London two months earlier). 1926. Orrin Dunlap, radio editor of the New York Times, describes television as "an inventor's will-o'-the-wisp." Aug. 18, 1926. A weather map is televised for the first time, sent from NAA Arlington to the Weather Bureau Office in Washington. Dec. 1926. WGY's TV station*, video 37.8 meters, sound 755 kHz Apr. 7, 1927. An image of Commerce Secretary Hoover is transmitted in the first successful long distance demonstration of television using Bell Telephone Co. experimental station 3XN, Whippany NJ. 3XN used 1575 kHz video, 1450 kHz audio, 185 synch. AT&T had not previously announced its television research, which was being conducted by Herbert E. Ives and others. May 23, 1927. The first demonstration of television before a large audience, about 600 members of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers, at the Bell Telephone Building in New York. Sept. 7, 1927. Philo T. Farnsworth demonstrates TV in San Francisco. His transmission was electronic, unlike the mechanical TV of Bell Labs, Jenkins, and others. Jan. 13, 1928. Alexanderson demonstrates the GE system and announces the beginning of television broadcasting. The pictures were received on sets with 1.5 square inch screens in the homes of Alexanderson and two board members in Schenectady. (This is considered by some the first home reception of television in the U. S.) The picture, with 48 lines at 16 frames per second, was transmitted over 2XAF on 37.8 meters and the sound was transmitted over WGY radio station. Feb. 25, 1928. FRC grants first TV license to Jenkins Laboratories for W3XK at 1519 Connecticut Ave. NW Washington. On air 7/2/28? 6.42 MHz, 48 lines. (In 1929 it was authorized to move the transmitter to between Silver Spring and Wheaton. The station ceased to operate on Oct. 31, 1932.) Apr. 1928. W2XBS New York, RCA, begins in the laboratory. May 11, 1928. The first regular schedule of TV programming is begun by General Electric in Schenectady. Programs are transmitted Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday afternoons from 1:30 to 3:30 p.m., using 24 lines. July 1928. These stations are on the air on this date, according to John Ross: W2XBU Beacon NY (Harold E. Smith); W2XBV New York (RCA); W2XBW Bound Brook NJ (RCA); W2XAV East Pittsburgh (Westinghouse); W4XA White Haven TN; W6XC Los Angeles. July 2, 1928. Charles F. Jenkins begins broadcasting the first regular telecasts designed to be received by the general public. July 12, 1928. First televised tennis match. July 21, 1928. Boston Post reports W1XAY Lexington MA has been licensed. Aug. 13, 1928. WRNY Coytesville NJ becomes the first standard radio station to transmit a television image (the face of Mrs. John Geloso). It was a 1.5 square inch image enlarged by a magnifying glass to three inches so it could be viewed by 500 persons at Philosophy Hall at New York University. Station also operated W2XAL New York, 9.705 MHz. (WRNY broadcast sight and sound alternately rather than simultaneously. Viewers would first see the face of a performer and a few seconds later would hear the voice. The performances took place for 5 minutes every hour and were designed to lure the radio audience into buying "televisor" sets from Pilot. [Tube: The Invention of Television, by Fisher]) Aug. 22, 1928. WGY simulcasts on radio and TV (WGY, 2XAF and 2XAD) Al Smith accepting the Democratic presidential nomination. This was the first over-the-air remote pickup and the first TV news event. Sept. 11, 1928. First play broadcast by television, "The Queen's Messenger," on W2XAD. (Sound was also broadcast over WGY radio.) Video was on 21.4 meters; sound was on 31.96 meters. The event was reported on page 1 of the New York Times the next day. (During 1928, Ernest Frederik Werner Alexanderson of General Electric transmitted daily TV tests over W2XAD.) Sept. 11, 1928. First TV signal in Buffalo, on WMAK in Kenmore Late Oct. 1928. W1XAY* Lexington MA. (The station was licensed to J. Smith Dodge and C. F. Jenkins. J. Smith Dodge was a former engineer for WNAC and former announcer at WGI. Carl S. Wheeler was also involved in founding the station. Station basically broadcast WLEX's radio programming. The station remained on the air sporadically until the end of March 1930.) 1929. Milton Berle appears in an experimental TV broadcast. Film of the appearance survives. 1929. W2XBS (RCA) begins two-hour daily broadcasts from Van Cortlandt Park. Mar. 27, 1929. W2XCL* Brooklyn NY (Pilot Radio and Tube Corp.) begins operating. Mar. 30, 1929. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W9XAO Chicago IL (Nelson Brothers Bond and Mortgage Co.) 2.0-2.1 MHz, 500 watts; W2XCR Jersey City NJ (Jenkins Television Corporation) 2.1-2.2 MHz, 5000 watts; W2XCL Brooklyn NY (Pilot Electric Manufacturing Co.) 2.0-2.1, 2.75-2.85 MHz, 250 watts; W2XCO New York (RCA) 2.1-2.2 MHz, 5000 watts; W2XR New York (John V. L. Hogan), 500 watts (visual broadcasting and experimental); W2XCW Schenectady (General Electric) 2.1-2.2 MHz 20,000 watts. April 1929. W1WX Boston begins experimental broadcasts two times a day with 100 watts. [These broadcasts continued until December, when the call was changed to W1XAV. The licensee of W1WX and W1XAV, Shortwave and Television Laboratory, Inc., was founded on 5 December 1928 by A. M. "Vic" Morgan, Hollis Baird, and Butler Perry. The company was officially dissolved on 1 January 1935, but by that time it existed only on paper, since Baird, Perry, and Morgan had all moved to General Television Corp, which they acquired on 8 March 1934. This information provided by Donna Halper, from state government records.] Apr. 30, 1929. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W1XB Somerville MA (General Industries Co.) 500 watts (experimental and visual broadcasting). May 11, 1929. The "first regularly scheduled TV broadcasts" begin (one source), three nights per week. May 31, 1929. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W9XR Downers Grove IL (Great Lakes Broadcasting Co.) 2.1-2.2, 2.85-2.95 MHz, 5000 watts; W2XCP Allwood NJ (Freed-Eisemann Radio Corp.) 2.0-2.1, 2.85-2.95 MHz, 2000 watts (visual broadcasting and experimental). June 27, 1929. First public demonstration of color TV, by H. E. Ives and his colleagues at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. The first images are a bouquet of roses and an American flag. A mechanical system was used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington. July 1929. WOKO Poughkeepsie NY begins transmitting TV as W2XBU in late July 1929. July 31, 1929. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W9XAA Chicago (Chicago Federation of Labor), 6.08, 11.84, 17.78 MHz, 500 watts. Aug. 31, 1929. Radio World reports WENR radio Chicago receives a license for a 5000 watt TV station (W9XR?). Sept. 30, 1929. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W1XAV Boston (Shortwave and Television Laboratory Inc.) 2.1-2.2 MHz, 500 watts; W3XL Bound Brook NJ (RCA Communications Inc.) 2.85-2.95 MHz, 30,000 watts. Oct. 31, 1929. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W10XU Airplane (Jenkins Laboratories), 2.0-2.1 MHz, 10 watts; W10XZ Airplane (C. Francis Jenkins), 1.608, 2.325, 3.088, 4.785, 6.335 MHz, 6 watts. Nov. 30, 1929. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W9XAP Addison IL (Chicago Daily News), 2.75-2.85 MHz, 5000 watts. 1930. Don Lee's television station opens in Los Angeles. Jan. 1930. W1XAV* Boston Mar. 1930. (End of March) W1XAY Lexington MA goes off the air, leaving W1XAV temporarily as the only mechanical TV station in Boston. Mar. 31, 1930. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W2XBO Long Island City NY (United Research Corporation), 2.0-2.1, 2.75-2.85 MHz, 5000 watts; W8XT East Pittsburgh PA (Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co.), 660 kHz, 25,000 watts. Apr. 30, 1930. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W2XAP Jersey City NJ (Jenkins Television Corporation), 2.75-2.85 MHz, 250 watts. May 22, 1930. An audience at Proctor's Theatre in Schenectady becomes the first to see closed-circuit TV projected onto a big screen. May 31, 1930. Radio Service Bulletin lists these new stations: W10XAL United States (portable) (National Broadcasting Co.), 2.392 MHz, 50 watts; W10XAO United States (portable) (National Broadcasting Co.), 1.584 MHz, 50 watts. Aug. 9, 1930. An Associated Press item has: "Station WMAQ's new television transmitter is to be on the air some time this month. The first regularly scheduled sight programs in conjunction with a sound broadcast station are to provide studio scenes which are to be transmitted three times a day. The television station is W9XAP, 2800 kilocycles." Aug. 20, 1930. The first demonstration of home reception of television, a half-hour broadcast from the Jenkins station, W2XCR in Jersey City, and the de Forest station W2XCD in Passaic. Two sets were available in public places and one in a press suite. (Or Aug. 25 1930) July 30, 1930. NBC opens W2XBS, New York. W2XBS started as an RCA lab rig in Apr. 1928 and was used for big screen theater tests as early as Jan. 1930. In July 1930 it was put in charge of NBC broadcast engineers. Nov. 1930. W9XAP Chicago (Chicago Daily News) broadcast the senatorial election returns. Press release claimed it was the first time a senatorial race, complete with charts showing the standings of the candidates as the votes were tallied, was ever televised. Dec. 7, 1930. W1XAV Boston broadcasts a video portion of a CBS radio program, The Fox Trappers orchestra program, sponsored by I. J. Fox Furriers. Included was what is sometimes called the first television commercial, which was prohibited by FRC regulations. [However, Donna Halper reports that as early as 1928 W1XAY in Lexington Mass. simulcast one hour of WLEX radio daily, and there is a mention of commercials in that hour. She also reports that Big Brother Bob Emery made an appearance on W1XAV, as did several other Boston area announcers, when W1XAV tried on a few occasions in 1930-31 to telecast a Boston radio station's programming. They first tried WEEI and then WNAC. The FRC took a dim view of their attempts to telecast a network program, however, since there was no agreement yet about whether or not experimental TV stations could run network commercials, so the FRC advised them not to try it.] Dec. 13, 1930. Radio World lists W1XY Lawrence MA (Pilot). 1931. The following stations are listed with 1931 start dates in the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook: ch. 2, KTSL, Hollywood, CA Feb. 24, 1931. New York Times article (p. 32) refers to daily television broadcasts which began the previous evening on W2XCD (De Forest) in Passaic. Apr. 1931. W2XCR, Jenkins second station, moves from its original site in Jersey City to 655 Fifth Avenue in New York. The station now had 5000 watts power, and could broadcast 60-line pictures rather than 48-line pictures. Apr. 26, 1931. Jenkins Television Corp. gives a public demonstration on W2XCR, beginning a regular schedule of four hours per day, which lasted into early 1932. Simulcast with WGBS radio. May 1, 1931. The first marriage is broadcast on TV, on W2XCR New York. July 21, 1931. W2XAB New York (CBS) begins broadcasting the first regular seven-day-per-week TV broadcasting schedule in the U. S., 28 hours per week with live pickups and a wide variety of programs. The first broadcast included Mayor James J. Walker, Kate Smith, and George Gershwin. Sept. 4, 1931. W9XD (later WTMJ-TV) Milwaukee licensed. (The first application for a TV license was filed May 5, 1930.) Oct. 1931. W1XG* Boston (Shortwave and Television Laboratory). This was a VHF station with 30 watts. Chief Engineer was Hollis Baird; studios were at 70 Brookline Ave. Oct. 18, 1931. British television pioneer John Logie Baird appears on WMCA radio to discuss a proposed television station to be operated jointly by his company and WMCA. (Radio Pictures Inc. objected to the proposed station since the applicant was a foreign organization, and the FRC denied the application.) Oct. 30, 1931. NBC puts a TV transmitter atop the Empire State Building. The first experimental TV broadcast from the ESB was on Dec. 22, 1931. 1932. RCA demonstrates an all-electronic television system, originally with 120 lines. Aug. 7, 1932. New York Times article describes reception reports received by W2XAB. Nov. 8, 1932. CBS TV reports on the presidential election to an estimated 7500 sets, or 9000 sets according to CBS's estimate. Program consisted of commentary, return charts, still cartoons of politicians. Jan. 23, 1933. W9XAL Kansas City first day of broadcasting. [Journal-Post News Flashes with John Cameron Swayze begin the following day at 12:00 p.m. as a daily program simulcast on KMBC radio.] Jan. 25, 1933. W9XK Iowa City, Iowa, begins mechanical TV broadcasts, with sound on its radio station WSUI. The program included a brief overview of the University of Iowa, a musical number, and a drama sketch. W9XK was the first educational station with regularly- scheduled programs. Feb. 20, 1933. CBS suspends television broadcasts. Mar. 10, 1933. W6XAO (later KTSL, for Thomas S. Lee, then KNXT and KCBS-TV) Los Angeles begins full-scale broadcasting. An earthquake struck Los Angeles the same day, and films of the damage were broadcast the next day. (W6XAO was the first broadcasting station to show a current full-length motion picture, The Crooked Circle.) According to Broadcasting magazine, W6XAO started Oct. 4, 1939 and the call was changed to KTSL in 1949 and KNXT in 1951. Another source gives May 6, 1948, as the start date for KTSL. June 27, 1934. W1XAV Boston is discontinued. The FCC told Shortwave and Television Laboratory that the world didn't need two mechanical TV stations. One license was accepted, the other was denied, effective 13 July 1934. At this point Shortwave and Television changed its name to General Television Corp. and switched from a mechanical to an electronic system. Dec. 1934. Philo Farnsworth demonstrates a non-mechanical television system. 1935. (Mid 1935) W1XG Boston changes from a mechanical to an electronic system. April-May 1935. Short Wave Listener Magazine for April-May 1935 lists these television stations: 2000-2100 kc. W2XDR Long Island City NY W8XAN Jackson MI W9XK Iowa City IA W9XAK Manhattan KS W9XAO Chicago IL W6XAH Bakersfield CA 2750-2850 kc. W3XAK portable W9XAP Chicago IL W2XBS Baltimore MD W9XAL Kansas City MO W9XG West Lafayette IN W2XAB New York NY 42000-56000, 60000-86000 kc. W2XAX New York NY W6XAO Los Angeles CA W9XD Milwaukee WI W2XBT portable W2XF New York NY W3XE Philadelphia PA W3XAD Camden NJ W10XX portable and mobile [Vicinity of Camden NJ] W2XDR Long Island City NY W8XAN Jackson MI W9XAT portable W2XAD New York NY W2XAG portable W1XG Boston MA W9XK Iowa City IA Regarding W6XAH in Bakersfield, listed above, Mark D. Luttrell writes that it "was an experimental television station that was operated by Pioneer Mercantile Company in Bakersfield during 1932. The station was an experimental effort by the Schamblin brothers--Frank, Leo and Charles. It has been reported in several publicattions as 'the first television station west of the Mississippi River.' Due to technical problems the work ended later that year and the company then focused on starting a radio station which went on the air as KPMC 1560 AM in 1933 from Bakersfield. The station was later sold and is now owned by Buckley Radio in Connecticut. ...My grandfather worked in management for the company." June 29, 1936. 343-line TV transmitted from the Empire State Building on W2XBS, the first high-definition television. July 7, 1936. NBC's first attempt at actual programming after 6 years of tests: a 30-minute variety show strictly for RCA licensees, speeches, dance ensemble, monologue, vocal numbers, and film clips. Aug. 15, 1936. Broadcasting reports Philco Corp. demonstrates its system of television with seven-mile transmission of live and film subjects in 345-line images 9 1/2 by 7 1/2 inches. Nov. 6, 1936. RCA displays 343-line TV for the press as part of NBC's tenth anniversary celebration. Apr. 1, 1937. Broadcasting reports CBS applies for experimental video station in New York, plans to install RCA TV transmitter in Chrysler building tower and to construct special studios. May 1937. Gilbert Seldes becomes the first TV critic, with an article "Errors of Television" in the Atlantic Monthly. May 15, 1937. Broadcasting reports RCA demonstrates projection television, with images enlarged to 8 by 10 feet, at Institute of Radio Engineers convention. Oct. 13, 1937. FCC adopts new television allocations: seven channels between 44 and 108 MHz (44-50, 50-56, 66-72, 78-84, 84-90, 96-102, and 102-108 MHz), and 12 additional channels from 156-194 MHz. The higher channels are earmarked for a time when workable tubes are devised for these frequencies. May 31, 1938. W2XBS telecasts the movie The Return of the Scarlet Pimpernel, starring Leslie Howard; the staff projectionist played the last reel out of order, ending the film 20 minutes early. After this incident, NBC could not obtain first-run movies for many years. Nov. 15, 1938. First telecast of an unscheduled event, a fire, on NBC's W2XBT. A mobile unit was in a park in Queens when a fire broke out on Ward's Island, across the river. (However on Apr. 24 1936 an outdoor scene of firemen answering an alarm was transmitted by RCA from Camden, New Jersey.) 1939. The following stations are listed with 1939 start dates in the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook: ch. 4, WNBT, New York, NY; ch. 4, WRGB, Schenectady, NY Apr. 30, 1939. President Roosevelt is the first President to appear on television, from the New York World's Fair on W2XBS, now transmitting on 45.25 MHz visual and 49.75 MHz aural. May 17, 1939. A Princeton-Columbia baseball game is telecast from Baker Field in New York by W2XBS, the first sports telecast 4 p.m. to 6:15 p.m. Bill Stern was the announcer. June 1, 1939. First heavyweight boxing match televised, Max Baer vs Lou Nova, form Yankee Stadium. Aug. 26, 1939. First major league baseball game telecast, a double-header between the Cincinnati Reds and the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, announcer Walter L. "Red" Barber or Bill Stern (sources differ), on W2XBS. Sept. 30, 1939. First televised college football game, Fordham vs Waynesburg, at Randall's Island, New York, on W2XBS. Oct. 22, 1939. First NFL game is televised by W2XBS: the Brooklyn Dodgers beat the Philadelphia Eagles 23-14 at Ebbetts Field in Brooklyn. Play by play announcer was Allen (Skip) Walz. Nov. 10, 1939. W2XB (or W2XD?) (WRGB)* Schenectady NY (became WRGB in 1942, on ch. 3 (?), moved from ch. 4 to ch. 6 in 1954). Jan. 1940. The FCC holds public hearings on television. Feb. 1, 1940. The first NBC network television program, from W2XBS to Schenectady. Feb. 25, 1940. First hockey game televised, Rangers vs Canadians, on W2XBS, from Madison Square Garden. Feb. 26, 1940. The first quiz show, Spelling Bee, on WRGB. Feb. 28, 1940. FCC announces a limited commercial television service will be authorized beginning on September 1. Standards were not set, pending further research until the best system could be determined. (Two days later the FCC suspended its authorization for commercial service, declaring that the marketing campaign of RCA disregarded the commission's findings and recommendations.) Feb. 28, 1940. First basketball game televised, from Madison Square Garden, Fordham vs the University of Pittsburgh, by W2XBS. Mar. 10, 1940. W2XBS utilizes the Metropolitan Opera to broadcast a scene from an opera from its television studio. The audio portion is carried over radio station WJZ. Mar. 15, 1940. Broadcasting reports RCA cuts price of television sets, starts sales drive intended to put a minimum of 25,000 in homes in service area of NBC's New York video station. Apr. 1, 1940. Broadcasting reports FCC suspends order for "limited commercial" operation of TV, censures RCA for sales efforts which are seen as an attempt to freeze TV standards at present level, calls new hearing; critics call move "usurpation of power." Apr. 13, 1940. W2XWV (WABD) licensed to DuMont. June 1940. W2XBS (NBC) covers the Republican National Convention from Philadelphia for 33 hours over five days. Aug. 1940. W9XBK (WBKB)* Chicago (Balaban & Katz/Paramount). Aug. 29, 1940. Peter Goldmark of CBS announces his invention of a color TV system. Sept. 3, 1940. First showing of high definition color TV, by W2XAB, transmitting from the Chrysler Building, using 343 lines. This was the first telecast of any kind from CBS since the closing of their scanner station 2/2/33. 1941. W6XYZ (KTLA)* Los Angeles. 1941. The following stations are listed with 1941 start dates in the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook: ch. 4, WBKB, Chicago, IL; ch. 2, WCBS-TV, New York, NY; ch. 3, WPTZ, Philadelphia, PA. Mar. 1, 1941. New York Times lists: Television Sight: 51.25, Sound 55.75; W2XBS 2-5 p.m. test pattern; 730-830 p.m test pattern; 830 p.m. pick up of... track meet, Madison Square Garden Mar. 8, 1941. NTSC formally recommends TV standards to the FCC, calling for 525 lines and 30 frames per second. Apr. 30, 1941. The FCC approves the NTSC standards and authorizes commercial TV to begin on July 1. May 2, 1941. 10 stations granted commercial TV licenses effective July 1. Stations were required to broadcast 15 hours per week. W2XBS received license number 1. June 30, 1941. Broadcasting reports Bulova Watch Co., Sun Oil Co., Lever Bros. Co. and Procter & Gamble sign as sponsors of first commercial telecasts on July 1 over WNBT New York. July 1, 1941. Commercial TV authorized. July 1, 1941 W2XBS New York NY becomes a commercial station, changes call to WNBT (later calls WRCA-TV, WNBC-TV). At 1:29 p.m., General Mills sponsors a Brooklyn Dodgers-Philadelphia Phillies game, followed by the "Sunoco Newscast" with Lowell Thomas. At 9:15 p.m., "Uncle Jims Question Bee," hosted by Bill Slater and sponsored by Spry, made its one-and-only appearance and, at 9:30, Ralph Edwards hosted "Truth Or Consequences," simulcast on radio and TV and sponsored by Ivory Soap. This was the first game show broadcast on TV. The world's first (legal) TV commercial for Bulova watches occurs at 2:29:10 superimposed over a test pattern. According to a 2004 article in Newsday: "On July 1, 1941, the world’s first television commercial aired on NBC, at that time known as WNBT-TV. The 10-second advertisement for Bulova clocks and watches consisted of the image of a clock and a map of the United States, with a voice-over that announced, 'America runs on Bulova time.' The ad was broadcast before a game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Philadelphia Phillies and cost the Woodside-based company less than ten dollars." [According to microfiche records at the FCC, WNBT was granted a C.P. on 6/17/41 for Channel 1 (50-56 mhz.), effective 7/1/41. License to cover the C.P. granted 6/17/41, eff. 7/1/41. First operation was granted to be effective 7/1/41. The first listed call letters were WNBT. They changed to WRCA on 10/18/54 and to WNBC on 5/22/60.] July 1, 1941. CBS station in New York changes call to WCBW (later call WCBS-TV), goes on the air with the first news telecast at 2:30 p.m. This was the station's first actual programming other than test patterns and the color demo. At 3:25 p.m., WCBW broadcasts "Jack and the Beanstalk," narrated by Lydia Perera, Ann Francis and animator John Rupe. Mr. Rupe drew cartoons to accentuate the narrative in a program that ran each afternoon for the first several months of the stations operation. [According to microfiche records at the FCC, WCBW was granted a C.P. on 6/24/41 for Channel 2 (60-66 mhz). Program tests authorized to commence on 7/1/41. License to cover the C.P. granted 3/10/42. The date of first operation is shown as 10/29/41. The first listed call letters were WCBW. They changed to WCBS on 11/1/46.] July 1, 1941. W3XE Philadelphia becomes WPTZ Philadelphia PA (later call KYW-TV). The station was then off during the war. (However Broadcasting magazine and the 1946 Broadcasting Yearbook give Sept. 1941 as the date for WPTZ.) July 1, 1941. New York Times lists: WNBT, (2) WCBW, (4) W2XWV Aug. 7, 1941. The first audience-participation program, a program of charades, is broadcast on WNBT. Oct. 12, 1941. New York Times lists: (1) WNBT, (2) WCBW 1942. The following stations are listed with 1942 start dates in the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook: ch. 5, KTLA-TV, Hollywood, CA Jan. 6, 1942. FCC grants permission to Du Mont Laboratories to build a commercial TV station, to operate on 78-84 MHz (then channel 4). Mar. 1, 1942. W2XB Schenectady changes call to WRGB (for Walter R. G. Baker, GE executive.) Mar. 1, 1942. New York Times lists (1) WNBT Apr. 13, 1942. Broadcasting reports minimum program time required of TV stations is cut from 15 hours to four hours a week for war period. June 28, 1942. [This is the date WABD was established according to the 1946 Broadcasting Yearbook. Station would have been W2XWV at the time. However apparently programs for W2XWV were listed in the New York Times before this date.] Oct. 13, 1943. WBKB* Chicago Sept. 19, 1943. New York Times lists: (4) W2XWV Nov. 7, 1943. New York Times lists: (4) W2XWV Dec. 23, 1943. The first complete opera, Hansel and Gretel, is telecast, by WRGB Schenectady. Jan. 2, 1944. New York Times lists: (4) W2XWV May 1, 1944. Broadcasting reports CBS proposes starting off postwar TV with high-definition, full-color pictures, broadcast on 16 MHz bands. May 2, 1944. W2XWV becomes a commercial station, changes call to WABD New York NY (later calls WNEW-TV, WNYW-TV). At 9 p.m. station broadcasts "Your World Tomorrow," a 30-minute show consisting of news about World War II and entertainment segments featuring singer Jessica Dragonette. The program was sponsored by Dun22 Plastics. [According to microfiche records at the FCC, WABD was granted a C.P. on 5/2/44 for Channel 4 (78-84 mhz.) License to cover the C.P. granted on 5/2/44. The first listed call letters were WABD. Call changed to WNEW on 9/7/58.] May 22, 1944. Broadcasting reports single ownership of five TV stations is permitted by FCC, up from former limit of three. Oct. 2, 1944. Broadcasting reports FCC opens hearings on postwar allocations with testimony of Radio Technical Planning Board that agreement had been reached to recommend the 41-56 MHz band for FM, TV allocations to extend upwards from there. Oct. 9, 1944. Broadcasting reports CBS, in testimony presented by Paul Kesten, executive vice president, asks for more space for FM, with TV being moved to UHF part of spectrum above 300 MHz. 1945. The following stations are listed with 1945 start dates in the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook: ch. 5, WTTG, Washington, DC Jan. 15, 1945. FCC announces allocations proposal for spectrum above 25 MHz: 44-50 Television; 50-54 Amateur; 54-84 Television 84-88 Educational FM broadcasting; 88-102 Commercial FM broadcasting; 102-108 (Non-Government but not yet determined). May 21, 1945. FCC announces allocation of spectrum above 25 MHz with exception of 44-108 MHz but delays decision as to placement of FM for propagation studies to be made by FCC and industry engineers. The 44-108 MHz spectrum is to be allocated, following tests, on one of the following three alternatives: Alternative 1: 44- 48 Amateur; 48-50 Facsimile; 50-54 Educational FM broadcasting; 54-68 Commercial FM broadcasting; 68-74 Television; 74-78 Non-Government fixed & mobile -aero markers on 75 MHz to remain as long as required; 78-108 Television, fixed, mobile [shared]. Alternative 2: 44-56 Television; 56-60 Amateur [the same as pre-WW2]; 60-66 Television; fixed; mobile [shared]; 66-68 Facsimile; 68-72 Educational FM broadcasting; 72-86 Commercial FM broadcasting. aero markers remain on 75 MHz as long as required; 86-92 Television; 92-104 Television, fixed, mobile [shared]; 104-108 Non-Government fixed and mobile. Alternative 3: 44-50 Television, fixed, mobile [shared] 50-54 Amateur; 54-78 Television, fixed, mobile [shared] aero markers remain on 75 MHz as long as required; 78-84 Television; 84-88 Educational FM broadcasting; 88-102 Commercial FM broadcasting; 102-104 Facsimile; 104-108 Non-Government fixed and mobile. June 4, 1945. Broadcasting reports in joint request, FM Broadcasters Inc. and Television Broadcasters Association ask FCC to allocate 44-108 MHz immediately: FM to get 50-54 MHz for educational use, 54-68 MHz for commercial operation; TV to receive 68-74 MHz and 78-108 MHz. June 27, 1945. FCC allocates 88-92 educational FM; 92-106 commercial FM; 106-108 facsimile broadcasting; 92.1-93.9 community; 94.1-103.9 metro; 104.1-105.9 rural; TV channel 1 44-50; TV channel 2-6 according to the present scheme. Aug. 9, 1945. WABD New York and WTTG Washington are linked for a network broadcast, according to Alan E. Ruiter, biographer of Allen B. Dumont. Sept. 20, 1945. WABD(TV) signs off, channel 4, 78-84 MHz; plans to return Dec. 15 on channel 5, 76-82 MHz Sept. 24, 1945. Broadcasting reports FCC distributes 13 VHF channels among 140 markets 1946. The beginning of network television as WNBT begins feeding its programs to Philadelphia and Schenectady on a more-or-less regular basis. (Some programs were fed from New York to both cities as early as 1941.) Jan. 15, 1946. A directory of U. S. commercial television stations as of this date (from the 1946 Broadcasting Yearbook lists: WBKB Chicago 66-72 MHz now; channel 4 on Mar. 1 Established 1943 WABD New York 78-84 MHz now; channel 5 on Mar. 1 Established June 28, 1942 WCBW New York 60-66 MHz now; channel 2 on Mar. 1 Established July 1, 1941 WNBT New York 50-56 MHz now; channel 4 on Mar. 1 Established July 1, 1941 WRGB Schenectady 66-72 MHz now; channel 4 on Mar. 1 Established Nov. 10, 1939 WPTZ Philadelphia 66-72 MHz now; channel 3 on Mar. 1 Established Sept. 1941 KTSL Hollywood 50-56 MHz now; undesignated on Mar. 1 Has CP WTZR Chicago 50-56 MHz now; undesignated on Mar. 1 Has CP WMJT Milwaukee 66-72 MHz now; undesignated on Mar. 1 Has CP Jan. 17, 1946. W18XGZ Charleston seeks license to cover experimental TV (Zaharis) Jan. 31, 1946. WTZR* Chicago IL (Zenith). Feb. 4, 1946. Broadcasting reports CBS demonstrates color-television film program broadcast from its new UHF transmitter; says with industry cooperation color for the home can be available within a year. Feb. 18, 1946. Broadcasting reports first Washington-New York telecast through AT&T coaxial cable is termed success by engineers and viewers. Feb. 25, 1946. New TV channel assignments go into effect; among the changes: WCBW from 60-66 to (2) and WNBT from 50-56 to (4). Mar. 1, 1946. Modern channel allocation system goes into effect with channel 1 44-50 MHz, channel 2 54-60 MHz, etc.; WCBW(TV) and WNBT(TV) go off the air for channel conversions (WNBT resumes May 9 on channel 4) Apr. 22, 1946. Broadcasting reports CBS color-television program is successfully transmitted over 450-mile coaxial cable link from New York to Washington and back. May 9, 1946. First variety show premieres, Hour Glass, on NBC. The show ran 10 months. June 19, 1946. First televised heavyweight title fight (Joe Louis vs Billy Conn), broadcast from Yankee Stadium, is seen by the largest television audience to see a fight. 141,000. Sept. 6, 1946. W9XBK changes its call to WBKB(TV) Chicago IL, ch. 4 (later ch. 2; later call WBBM-TV). Sept. 30, 1946. Broadcasting reports CBS petitions FCC to adopt standards and authorize commercial operation of color-television stations in UHF frequencies immediately. Oct. 1, 1946. New York Times lists (2) WCBW, (4) WNBT, (5) WABD Oct. 2, 1946. Faraway Hill airs on the DuMont network, becoming the first TV network soap opera. Nov. 1946. WTTG* Washington (DuMont), according to one source; however, the 1954 Telecasting Yearbook gives Jan. 1 1947 and Broadcasting magazine gives January 1947. The call stands for Thomas T. Goldsmith, DuMont's chief engineer. (Station was originally W3XWT. Starting May 28, 1945, it had given test pattern and recorded announcements asking for reception reports. None was received for 3 months. The U. S. Navy finally picked it up while monitoring for "suspicious" radio signals.) Nov. 1, 1946. WCBW changes call to WCBS-TV. Nov. 4, 1946. Broadcasting reports RCA demonstrates all-electronic system of color TV. Nov. 11, 1946. Broadcasting reports Bristol-Myers is the first advertiser to sponsor a television-network program, Geographically Speaking, which started Oct. 27 on NBC-TV's two-station network. Dec. 24, 1946. The first church service telecast, Grace Episcopal Church in New York, on WABD on the New York-Philadelphia-Washington network. 1947. The following stations are listed with 1947 start dates in the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook: ch. 4, WNBW, Washington, DC; ch. 7, WMAL-TV, Washington, DC; ch. 2, WMAR-TV, Baltimore, MD; ch. 4, WWJ-TV, Detroit, MI; ch. 5, KSD-TV, St. Louis, MO; ch. 5, WABD, New York, NY; ch. 5, WEWS, Cleveland, OH; ch. 6, WFIL-TV, Philadelphia, PA; ch. 3, WTMJ-TV, Milwaukee, WI Jan. 22, 1947. W6XYZ changes call to KTLA(TV)* (5), first commercial TV west of Chicago. A 30-minute show is telecast from the Paramount TV stage, featuring Bob Hope, Jerry Colonna, Dorothy Lamour, and William Bendix. The FCC microfiche records show the station was granted a Special Temporary Authorization for commercial operation on 1/9/47 and that the date of its first commercial license was 2/9/53. Jan. 30, 1947. The FCC declares that the CBS color system is "premature" and requires further testing before it could be approved. Feb. 8, 1947. KSD-TV* St. Louis MO, ch 5. Mar. 4, 1947. WWDT (WWJ-TV) Detroit MI, ch 4, experimental (regular programs June 3). Mar. 24, 1947. Broadcasting reports FCC denies CBS petition for commercial color-TV operation, sends color back to labs for continued search for "satisfactory" system. May 7, 1947. Kraft Television Theater premieres on NBC, the first regularly scheduled drama series on a network. June 27, 1947. WNBW-TV (WRC-TV)* Washington DC (was W3XNB). Sept. 13, 1947. WFIL-TV* Philadelphia PA, ch. 6. Sept. 30, 1947. The opening game of the World Series is the first World Series game to be telecast, between the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers at Yankee Stadium. The game was carried by WABD, WCBS-TV, and WNBT in New York, and was also telecast in Philadelphia, Schenectady, and Washington. The 1947 World Series brought in television's first mass audience, and was seen by an estimated 3.9 million people, mostly in bars [Tim Brooks]. Oct. 3, 1947. WMAL-TV (WJLA-TV)* Washington DC, ch. 7, the first VHF high band station. Oct. 5, 1947. First presidential address telecast from the White House: Truman speaks about food conservation and the world food crisis, proposing meatless Tuesdays and eggless and poultry-less Thursdays Oct. 17, 1947. WEWS* Cleveland OH. Oct. 27, 1947. WMAR-TV* Baltimore MD, ch. 2. Nov. 6, 1947. Meet the Press first appears as a local program in Washington. Nov. 17, 1947. Broadcasting reports television network service extends to Boston with the opening of AT&T radio relay system between that city and New York. Nov. 20, 1947. Meet the Press first network telecast. (Became a weekly program on Sept. 12, 1948.) Dec. 3, 1947. WTMJ-TV* Milwaukee WI, ch. 3 (later ch. 4) (previous experimental operation as W9XMJ and W9XD.] Dec. 17, 1947. WEWS* Cleveland OH, ch. 5. Dec. 27, 1947. Puppet Television Theater (later called Howdy Doody Time), debuts on NBC TV with Buffalo Bob Smith. It was carried by six stations. 1948. The following stations are listed with 1948 start dates in the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook: ch. 9, KFI-TV, Los Angeles, CA; ch. 13, KLAC-TV, Los Angeles, CA; ch. 5, KPIX, San Francisco, CA; ch. 6, WNHC-TV, New Haven, CT; ch. 8, WSB-TV, Atlanta, GA; ch. 7, WENR-TV, Chicago, IL; ch. 9, WGN-TV, Chicago, IL; ch. 5, WAVE-TV, Louisville, KY; ch. 6, WDSU-TV, New Orleans, LA; ch. 4, WBZ-TV, Boston, MA; ch. 7, WNAC-TV, Boston, MA; ch. 11, WBAL-TV, Baltimore, MD; ch. 13, WAAM, Baltimore, MD; ch. 7, WXYZ-TV, Detroit, MI; ch. 5, KSTP-TV, St. Paul, MN; ch. 13, WATV, Newark, NJ; ch. 4, KOB-TV, Albuquerque, NM; ch. 4, WBEN-TV, Buffalo, NY; ch. 7, WJZ-TV, New York, NY; ch. 11, WPIX, New York, NY; ch. 8, WHEN, Syracuse, NY; ch. 4, WLWT, Cincinnati, OH; ch. 4, WNBK, Cleveland, OH; ch. 13, WSPD-TV, Toledo, OH; ch. 10, WCAU-TV, Philadelphia, PA; ch. 4, WMCT, Memphis, TN; ch. 5, WBAP-TV, Fort Worth, TX; ch. 4, KDYL-TV, Salt Lake City, UT; ch. 6, WTVR, Richmond, VA; ch. 5, KING-TV, Seattle, WA [WLWT was previously W8XCT.] 1948. ABC broadcasts the series On the Corner on four stations. ABC considers this its first network show, although an earlier show, Play the Game, produced by ABC using DuMont's facilities, was seen on a network. 1948. CBS begins network programming. Jan. 1, 1948. New York Times lists: (2) WCBS-TV, (4) WNBT, (5) WABD. Jan. 18, 1948. The Original Amateur Hour with Ted Mack debuts. Feb. 9, 1948. WLWT(TV)* Cincinnati OH, ch. 4 (later ch. 5). Mar. 1, 1948. WCAU-TV* Philadelphia PA (was W3XAU). Mar. 11, 1948. WBAL-TV* Baltimore MD, ch. 11. Mar. 15, 1948. WCAU-TV* Philadelphia PA, ch. 10. Apr. 5, 1948. WGN-TV* Chicago IL, ch. 9. Apr. 22, 1948. WTVR (WTVR-TV)* Richmond VA, ch. 6. Apr. 27, 1948. KSTP-TV* St. Paul-Minneapolis MN, ch. 5. May 6, 1948. KTSL(TV)* (KNXT) Los Angeles CA, ch. 2. May 10, 1948. Broadcasting reports FCC orders into effect earlier proposal assigning TV ch. 1 (44-50 mc) to nongovernmental fixed and mobile services, denying FM spokesmen's pleas for that channel for use in FM network relaying; gives FM stations in 44-50 mc band until end of year to move to 88-108 mc; issues proposed new expanded TV allocation table; calls hearing on feasibility of TV use of frequencies above 475 mc; proposes required minimum hours of TV station operation be scaled from 12 hours a week for first 18 months to 28 hours a week after 36 months. May 14, 1948. WBEN-TV* Buffalo NY, ch. 4. May 15, 1948. WATV(TV)* (WNTA-TV, WNDT-TV, WNET-TV)* Newark NJ. [According to an Internet web page, WATV began licensed operations on Jan. 2 1948.] June 8, 1948. Milton Berle Show premieres on NBC. June 9, 1948. WBZ-TV* Boston MA, ch. 4. June 15, 1948. WPIX-TV* New York NY, ch. 11; WNHC-TV* New Haven (ch. 6, moved to channel 8 in December, 1953; became WTNH in 1972) (was affiliated with NBC, CBS with a little ABC and DuMont programming as well; exclusively an ABC affiliate since September, 1955) June 20, 1948. Toast of the Town, with Ed Sullivan, premieres on CBS, with guests Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis. (The name was changed to the Ed Sullivan Show on September 18, 1955.) June 21, 1948. First network telecast of political conventions; both parties meet in Philadelphia that year; telecasts reach cities connected to network lines with Philadelphia. NBC sends edited kinescope recordings for next-day telecasts on those stations not yet connected to the network. June 21, 1948. WNAC-TV (WNEV-TV, WHDH)* Boston MA, ch. 7. July 21, 1948. WSPD-TV* Toledo OH, ch. 13. July 30, 1948. Professional wrestling premieres on prime-time network TV (DuMont). July 1, 1948. KDYL-TV (KCPX-TV)* Salt Lake City UT, ch. 4. Aug. 10, 1948. WJZ-TV (WABC-TV)* New York NY, ch. 7, 7 p.m. The first broadcast originated from the Palace Theater on Broadway with a four-hour show. The opening act was Carlton Emmys dog act, followed by stars such as Ray Bolger, Beatrice Lillie, Pat Rooney, Ella Logan, James Barton, Willie West and McGinty, Buck and Bubbles, Walter "Dare" Wahl, Gus Van, Henry Morgan, Raye and Naldi, and Paul Whiteman and his orchestra. Aug. 10, 1948. Candid Camera debuts on ABC. Aug. 15, 1948. The first network nightly newscast, CBS-TV News, debuts on CBS with Douglas Edwards. Aug. 25, 1948. KSEE (KFI-TV, KHJ-TV)* Los Angeles CA, ch. 9 (was W6XEA). However another source says KHJ-TV went on the air as KFI-TV on Oct. 6, 1948. Aug. 27, 1948. Whitaker Chambers, appearing on Meet the Press, accuses Alger Hiss of being a communist. Sept. 21, 1948. Texaco Star Theater, with Milton Berle, premieres on NBC (or Sept. 14) Sept. 17, 1948. KLAC-TV* (KCOP-TV)* Los Angeles CA, ch. 13; WENR-TV (WBKB-TV, WLS-TV)* Chicago IL, ch. 7. Sept. 29, 1948. WSB-TV* Atlanta GA, ch. 8. (With the merger in 1951 of Atlanta Constitution into Atlanta Journal, Cox took over the ch. 2 facility of Constitution and sold channel 8 to Broadcasting, Inc.) Sept. 29, 1948. WBAP-TV* Fort Worth TX, ch. 5. Sept. 30, 1948. FCC freezes new TV applications; channel 1 deleted, assigned to land mobile Oct. 8, 1948. WNBY (WNBQ, WMAQ-TV)* Chicago, first telecast (a World Series game). Broadcasting magazine says WNBQ went on the air Sept. 1, 1948. Oct. 9, 1948. WXYZ-TV* Detroit MI, ch. 7. Oct. 24, 1948. WJBK-TV* Detroit MI, ch. 2. Oct. 31, 1948. WNBK (KYW-TV, WKYC-TV)* Cleveland OH, ch. 4 (later ch. 3). Nov. 2, 1948. WAAM-TV (WJZ-TV)* Baltimore MD, ch. 13. Nov. 24, 1948. WAVE-TV* Louisville KY, ch. 5 (later ch. 3). Nov. 25, 1948. KRSC-TV (KING-TV)* Seattle WA, ch. 5. Nov. 27, 1948. WDTV (KDKA-TV)* Pittsburgh sends out its first signal, ch. 3 (although Jan. 11, 1949, is considered the start date below). Nov. 29, 1948. KOB-TV* Albuquerque NM, ch. 4; Kukla, Fran and Ollie debuts on NBC. (Show had previously aired on WBKB Chicago as Junior Jamboree beginning Oct. 13, 1947.) Dec. 1, 1948. WHEN-TV* Syracuse NY, ch. 8 (moved to ch. 5 in July 1961) Dec. 11, 1948. WMCT (WMC-TV)* Memphis TN, ch. 4 (later ch. 5). Dec. 18, 1948. WDSU-TV* New Orleans LA, ch 6. 6 p.m. Dec. 22, 1948. KGO-TV* San Francisco CA. Dec. 24, 1948. The first Catholic midnight mass is telecast by WNBT, WJZ-TV, and WCBS-TV. 1949. The following stations are listed with 1949 start dates in the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook: ch. 4, WBRC-TV, Birmingham, AL; ch. 13, WAFM-TV, Birmingham, AL; ch. 5, KPHO-TV, Phoenix, AZ; ch. 4, KNBH, Los Angeles, CA; ch. 7, KECA-TV, Los Angeles, CA; ch. 11, KTTV, Los Angeles, CA; ch. 8, KFMB-TV, San Diego, CA; ch. 4, KRON-TV, San Francisco, CA; ch. 7, KGO-TV, San Francisco, CA; ch. 9, WOIC, Washington, DC; ch. 7, WDEL-TV, Wilmington, DE; ch. 4, WMBR-TV, Jacksonville, FL; ch. 4, WTVJ, Miami, FL; ch. 5, WAGA-TV, Atlanta, GA; ch. 5, WOC-TV, Davenport, IA; ch. 5, WNBQ, Chicago, IL; ch. 10, WTTV, Bloomington, IN; ch. 6, WFBM-TV, Indianapolis, IN; ch. 2, WJBK-TV, Detroit, MI; ch. 7, WLAV-TV, Grand Rapids, MI; ch. 4, WTCN-TV, Minneapolis, MN; ch. 4, WDAF-TV, Kansas City, MO; ch. 3, WBTV, Charlotte, NC; ch. 2, WFMY-TV, Greensboro, NC; ch. 3, KMTV, Omaha, NE; ch. 6, WOW-TV, Omaha, NE; ch. 12, WNBF-TV, Binghamton, NY; ch. 9, WOR-TV, New York, NY; ch. 6, WHAM-TV, Rochester, NY; ch. 7, WCPO-TV, Cincinnati, OH; ch. 7, WKRC-TV, Cincinnati, OH; ch. 3, WLWC, Columbus, OH; ch. 6, WTVN, Columbus, OH; ch. 10, WBNS-TV, Columbus, OH; ch. 5, WLWD, Dayton, OH; ch. 13, WHIO-TV, Dayton, OH; ch. 4, WKY-TV, Oklahoma City, OK; ch. 6, KOTV, Tulsa, OK; ch. 12, WICU, Erie, PA; ch. 13, WJAC-TV, Johnstown, PA; ch. 4, WGAL-TV, Lancaster, PA; ch. 3, WDTV, Pittsburgh, PA; ch. 11, WJAR-TV, Providence, RI; ch. 4, KRLD-TV, Dallas, TX; ch. 8, KBTV, Dallas, TX; ch. 2, KLEE-TV, Houston, TX; ch. 4, WOAI-TV, San Antonio, TX; ch. 5, KSL-TV, Salt Lake City, UT; ch. 5, WSAZ-TV, Huntington, WV Jan. 1, 1949. KLEE-TV (KPRC-TV)* Houston TX, ch. 2; KTTV* Los Angeles. Jan. 3, 1949. Colgate Theatre premieres on NBC. Jan. 10, 1949. The Goldbergs premieres on CBS. Jan. 11, 1949. A two-hour special on all networks celebrates the linking of eastern and midwestern networks via coaxial cable; WDTV (KDKA-TV)* Pittsburgh PA, ch. 3 (later ch. 2). Jan. 16, 1949. KNBH (KRCA, KNBC)* Los Angeles CA; WOIC (WTOP-TV)* Washington DC. Jan. 17, 1949. Broadcasting reports AT&T coaxial cable links East Coast and Midwest television stations. Jan. 31, 1949. Broadcasting reports first Emmy awards ceremony is held, and broadcast by KTSL(TV) Los Angeles. Feb. 23, 1949. WHIO-TV* Dayton OH, ch. 13 (later ch. 7). Mar. 8, 1949. WAGA-TV* Atlanta GA. Mar. 15, 1949. WLWD (WDTN-TV)* Dayton OH, ch. 5 (later ch. 2); WICU-TV* Erie PA, ch. 12. Mar. 18, 1949. WGAL-TV* Lancaster PA, ch 4 (later ch. 8). Mar. 21, 1949. WTVJ(TV)* Miami FL. April 1949. KTLA Los Angeles broadcasts 27 hours and 30 minutes of live coverage of the effort to rescue three-year-old Kathy Fiscus, who had fallen into a well. The event gripped Los Angeles and stimulated sales of TV sets in the city. Apr. 3, 1949. WLWC* Columbus OH, ch. 3 (later ch. 4). Apr. 4, 1949. WKRC-TV* Cincinnati OH, ch. 11 (later ch. 12). May 1949. The first telethon, benefitting the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund, is hosted by Milton Berle. It aired for 24 hours. May 5, 1949. KGO-TV* San Francisco CA. May 9, 1949. Broadcasting reports FCC authorizes NBC to operate a UHF station at Bridgeport CT for experimental rebroadcasts of programs of WNBT New York. May 16, 1949. KFMB-TV* San Diego CA; Milton Berle appears on the covers of both Time and Newsweek. May 22, 1949. WAFM-TV (WABT, WAPI-TV)* Birmingham AL. May 30, 1949. WFBM-TV* Indianapolis IN, ch. 6 Broadcasting reports longest direct TV pickup, 129 miles, is made by KFMB-TV San Diego during dedication when it got and rebroadcast salute from KTLA(TV) Los Angeles without special equipment of any kind. June 1, 1949. KSL-TV* Salt Lake City UT, ch. 5. June 6, 1949. WKY-TV* Oklahoma City OK, ch. 4. June 11, 1949. WHAM-TV (WROC-TV)* Rochester NY, ch. 6 (later ch. 5, and later in a trade to ch. 8). June 27, 1949. Captain Video debuts on DuMont. July 1, 1949. WBRC-TV* Birmingham AL ch. 4 (to ch. 6 in 1953); WTCN-TV (WCCO-TV)* Minneapolis-St. Paul MN, ch. 4. July 10, 1949. WJAR-TV* Providence RI, ch. 11 (later ch. 10). July 11, 1949. FCC announces TV allocation plan; to add 42 UHF channels to the present 12 VHF channels, with another 23 to 28 UHF channels reserved for experimental television, providing for 2,245 TV stations in 1400 communities. July 15, 1949. WBTV* Charlotte NC, ch. 3. July 18, 1949. WJAR-TV* Providence ch. 11 (moved to ch. 10 in May 1953). July 26, 1949. WCPO-TV* Cincinnati OH, ch. 7 (later ch. 9). Aug. 15, 1949. WLAV-TV (WOOD-TV)* Grand Rapids MI, ch. 7 (later ch. 8). Aug. 25, 1949. RCA announces the development of a compatible color TV system. Aug. 29, 1949. WOW-TV* Omaha NE, ch. 6. Aug. 30, 1949. WTVN-TV* Columbus OH, ch. 6. Sept. 1, 1949. KMTV* Omaha NE, ch. 3. Sept. 15, 1949. WMBR-TV (WJXT)* Jacksonville FL, ch. 4; WJAC-TV* Johnstown PA, ch. 13 (later ch. 6). Sept. 16, 1949. KECA-TV (KABC-TV)* Los Angeles. Sept. 17, 1949. KBTV (WFAA-TV)* Dallas TX, ch. 8. Sept. 22, 1949. WFMY-TV* Greensboro NC, ch. 2. Oct. 5, 1949. WBNS-TV* Columbus OH, ch. 10. Oct. 6, 1949. The Ed Wynn Show becomes the first regularly scheduled network show to broadcast from the West Coast, where it is seen live. Oct. 11, 1949. WOR-TV (WWOR-TV)* New York NY, ch. 9 (was W2XBB; later to Secaucus NJ). An Internet web page says the inaugural broadcast was Oct. 11 1949 and began at 7 p.m., with soprano Joan Roberts accompanied by an off-stage pianist in the 15-minute "Joan Roberts Show." That was followed by "Apartment 3C," a domestic comedy starring John and Barbara Gay and the "John Reed King Show," a giveaway sponsored by Flagstaff Foods, "The Handy Man," featuring Jack Creamer with tips for homemakers. Then "The Barry Gray Show" with guests Myron Cohen, Irving Caesar, Tony Canzoneri, the Di Castro Sisters and Hope Miller with interviews conducted from the roof studio at the New Amsterdam Theater. Oct. 14, 1949. WSAZ-TV Huntington WV 1st test pattern, channel 5 (regular programming begins Oct. 24) Oct. 16, 1949. WDAF-TV* Kansas City MO, ch. 4. Oct. 22, 1949. KOTV* Tulsa OK, ch. 6. Oct. 31, 1949. WOC-TV (KWQC)* Davenport IA, ch 5 (later ch. 6). Nov. 11, 1949. WTTV* Bloomington-Indianapolis IN, ch. 10 (later ch. 4). Nov. 15, 1949. KRON-TV* San Francisco CA; WSAZ-TV* Huntington WV, ch. 5 (later ch. 3). Dec. 1, 1949. WNBF-TV* Binghamton NY, ch. 12; WKTV* Utica NY, ch 13 (later ch. 2). Dec. 3, 1949. KRLD-TV (KDFW-TV)* Dallas TX, ch. 4. Dec. 4, 1949. KPHO-TV* Phoenix AZ. Dec. 11, 1949. WOAI-TV* San Antonio TX, ch. 4. Dec. 19, 1949. WXEL (WJW-TV)* Cleveland OH, ch. 9 (later ch. 8). Dec. 29, 1949. KC2XAK, first experimental UHF TV station operating on a regular basis is opened by NBC at Bridgeport CT on 529-535 MHz. Feb. 2, 1950. What's My Line debuts on CBS. Feb. 15, 1950. WSYR-TV* Syracuse NY, ch. 5 (later ch. 3); KEYL (KGBS-TV, KENS-TV)* San Antonio TX, ch. 5. Feb. 21, 1950. WOI-TV* Ames IA, ch 4 (later channel 5). Feb. 25, 1950. Your Show of Shows premieres on NBC. Mar. 27, 1950. WHAS-TV* Louisville KY, ch. 9 (later ch. 11). [According to a history of WHAS, the station originally operated with 9600 watts, but increased power to 50 kW visual on Aug. 7, 1951, the first TV station to broadcast with this much visual power. On Feb. 7, 1953, the station moved to Channel 11 and became the nation's first station with 316,000 watts visual ERP.] Apr. 2, 1950. WTAR-TV* Norfolk VA, ch. 4 (later ch. 3). May 1, 1950. WJIM-TV* Lansing MI, ch. 6. May 29, 1950. Broadway Open House debuts. June 1, 1950. WKZO-TV* Kalamazoo MI, ch. 3. July 1, 1950. WHBF-TV* Rock Island IL, ch. 4. July 10, 1950. Your Hit Parade premieres on NBC. Sept. 4, 1950. Broadcasting reports FCC states it will adopt the CBS color-television system unless set makers agree to "bracket standards" to enable sets to receive both present 525-line pictures and the 405-line images proposed by CBS; if they agree, commission will adopt "bracket standards" for black-and-white TV and postpone color decision. Sept. 30, 1950. WSM-TV* Nashville TN, ch. 4. Oct. 10, 1950. The FCC approves CBS color TV system, effective Nov. 20. CBS promises 20 hours of color programs a week within two months. RCA continues work on its compatible system. Manufacturers are divided as to whether to make sets and converters to receive CBS colorcasts. Mar. 26, 1951. Broadcasting reports FCC reveals proposed allocation plan making full use of UHF band in addition to 12 VHF channels to provide for some 2,000 TV stations in more than 1,200 communities. May 28, 1951. The U. S. Supreme Court upholds the FCC's approval of the CBS color system. June 25, 1951. CBS broadcasts color using its non-compatible system. The one-hour program, called Premiere, featured Ed Sullivan and other CBS stars, and is carried on a five-station East Coast CBS-TV hookup. Late June 1951. RCA demonstrates its new electronic color system. Aug. 11, 1951. First baseball games televised in color, a double-header between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Boston Braves, by WCBS-TV. Red Barber and Connie Desmond were the announcers. Sept. 4, 1951. First transcontinental TV broadcast, featuring President Truman. Sept. 22, 1951. First live sporting event seen coast-to-coast: a college football game between Duke and the University of Pittsburgh, at Pittsburgh (NBC-TV). Oct. 1, 1951. WLTV (WAII-TV, WQXI-TV)* Atlanta GA, originally ch. 8, later ch. 11. Oct. 3, 1951. First live coast-to-coast network telecast of a World Series game (produced by Gillette, aired on NBC, CBS and ABC). Oct. 15, 1951. I Love Lucy premieres on CBS. Nov. 18, 1951. See It Now premieres on CBS, showing live shots of the Statue of Liberty and San Francisco Bay. Dec. 24, 1951. First televised opera written for television, Amahl and the Night Visitor, on NBC. 1952. KTLA makes the first telecast of an atomic bomb detonation. Klaus Landsberg led the engineering feat on short notice that established microwave links that had previously been considered impossible with existing technology. The station fed the coverage to the nation. Jan. 14, 1952. Today show premieres on NBC. Apr. 14, 1952. FCC lifts TV freeze as of July 1; provides for 617 VHF and 1436 UHF allocations, including 242 non-commercial educational stations; establishes 3 zones with different mileage separation and antenna-height regulations; changes required of 30 TV stations. Sept. 18, 1952. KPTV(TV)* Portland, the first commercial UHF TV station, transmits its first test pattern, on ch. 27. Sept. 23, 1952. Richard Nixon's "Checkers" speech is delivered. Oct. 12, 1952. KBTV(TV)* Denver (9), first post-freeze station in channels 7-13 Dec. 21, 1952. WSBT-TV* South Bend IN. [The station claims to be the longest continuously broadcasting UHF television station in the U. S., and the first UHF station to produce a live telecast.] Late 1952 to 1954. Numerous TV stations switched channels. This list may not be complete. CALL CITY FROM TO WBRC-TV Birmingham 4 6 WLTV Atlanta 8 11 WMAZ-TV Macon 7 13 WBKB or WBBM-TV Chicago 4 2 WTTV Bloomington 10 4 WOI-TV Ames 4 5 WOC-TV Davenport 5 6 WAVE-TV Louisville 5 3 WHAS-TV Louisville 9 11 WLAV-TV Grand Rapids 7 8 WHAM-TV Rochester 6 5 WRGB Schenectady 4 6 WSYR Syracuse 5 3 WKTV Utica 13 2 WCPO-TV Cincinnati 7 9 WKRC-TV Cincinnati 11 12 WLWT Cincinnati 4 5 WNBK Cleveland 4 3 WXEL or WJW-TV Cleveland 9 8 WLWC Columbus 3 4 WHIO-TV Dayton 13 7 WLWD Dayton 5 2 WJAC-TV Johnstown 13 6 WDTV Pittsburgh 3 2 WGAL-TV Lancaster 4 8 WJAR-TV Providence 11 10 WMCT Memphis 4 5 WTAR-TV Norfolk 4 3 WSAZ-TV Huntington 5 3 WTMJ-TV Milwaukee 3 4 Mar. 8, 1953. WFMJ-TV Youngstown begins broadcasting on channel 73, the highest channel so far. Mar. 25, 1953. CBS concedes victory to RCA in the war over color TV standards. Apr. 3, 1953. First issue of TV Guide is published, with 10 editions and a circulation of 1,562,000 copies. May 25, 1953. KUHT* Houston, the first non-commercial educational TV station, begins regular programming. May 29, 1953. St. Petersburg Times reports WSUN-TV will go on the air with a half-hour dedication ceremony at 4:15 p.m. May 31 (test patterns are currently being transmitted) channel 38 (to 2/23/70) Aug. 30, 1953. NBC's Kukla, Fran, and Ollie Show is broadcast in color, the first publicly announced experimental network broadcast in compatible color. Sept. 28, 1953. Broadcasting reports that, with the end of daylight saving time, CBS and NBC inaugurate "hot kinescope" systems to put programs on air on the West Coast at same clock hour as in the East. Oct. 19, 1953. Arthur Godfrey fires Julius La Rosa on the air. Nov. 22, 1953. RCA tests its compatible color TV system on the air for the first time with a telecast of the Colgate Comedy Hour. [or Nov. 23?] Dec. 17, 1953. FCC reverses its 1951 decision and approves the RCA/NTSC color system. NBC broadcasts the NBC chimes image at 5:31:17 p.m. using NTSC standards. CBS broadcasts the first live color program at 6:15 p.m.; NBC followed with a live program at 6:30 p.m. Jan. 1, 1954. NBC broadcasts the Rose Parade in color on 21 stations. Mar. 9, 1954. Edward R. Murrow denounces Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy on See It Now. Apr. 1, 1955. Dumont drastically cuts back its programming; very few Dumont shows stay on the air past this date. By September, 1955, Dumont programming has been reduced to NFL football on Sunday afternoons, boxing on Monday nights, and some college football on Saturday afternoons. Oct. 17, 1954. WNBC to WRCA AM, FM, TV, at midnight; KNBH(TV) to KRCA(TV), WNBW(TV) to WRC-TV Dec. 13, 1954. Broadcasting reports WBRE-TV Wilkes-Barre PA is ready to become the first UHF station to use 1,000 KW, maximum ERP authorized by the FCC. Apr. 18, 1955. Broadcasting reports that DuMont switches to a film network, using Electronicam, reserving live relays for special events and sports. Sept. 28, 1955. First World Series game broadcast in color, by WRCA-TV. Apr. 1956. WNBQ Chicago replaces all black-and-white equipment with color equipment, becoming first TV station to broadcast all its local programming in color. Apr. 1956. Ampex demonstrates first practical videotape recorder at NAB Convention in Chicago. The three networks immediately place orders for Ampex VTR's, which begin to arrive later in the year. July 2, 1956. Broadcasting reports FCC uncovers plan for long-range shift of TV to all UHF and, for present, proposes deintermixture in 13 markets. Aug. 8, 1956. Final telecast of the Dumont network, a boxing card. Although Dumont ceased network operations, the boxing show continued locally in New York until 1958. CBS inherits the rest of the Dumont/NFL football deal, giving the NFL its first-ever true national TV exposure. Oct. 29, 1956. First use of videotape in network television programming: CBS uses its first Ampex VTR to be installed at Television City, Los Angeles, to record the evening news (then anchored by Douglas Edwards) and in turn, feeds the tape to West Coast stations three hours later. Previously, West Coast rebroadcasts had been done by kinescope recordings. Oct. 29, 1956. Chet Huntley and David Brinkley take over anchor duties of NBC newscast, which is renamed "The Huntley-Brinkley Report." Nov. 1956. First use of videotape in production of a network television entertainment program: Jonathan Winters, at the time doing a 15-minute show a couple of nights a week on NBC-TV, uses videotape and superimposing/montage techniques to be able to play two characters in the same skit. During such skits, he tapes the actions and dialogues of one of the two characters he played and did the other live. (His show, except for taped bits to allow him to play two characters, is otherwise done live). Mar. 16, 1962. Walter Cronkite succeeds Douglas Edwards as anchorman of the CBS Evening News. July 9, 1962. Telstar communications satellite is launched into orbit. [The first test transmissions between the U. S., France, and Britain occurred the next day. This was not actually the first trans-Atlantic TV, as the BBC and German TV were received in the 1930s in Long Island and perhaps elsewhere in the U. S.] July 23, 1962. A joint ABC/CBS/NBC production is telecast to Europe via Telstar. The program featured excerpts of a baseball game at Wrigley Field, Chicago, a live news conference by President Kennedy, and a concert by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, who had traveled to Mount Rushmore to perform. The host of the U. S.-to-Europe program was Chet Huntley of NBC. May 15, 1963. First TV pictures transmitted from a manned U.S. space capsule, astronaut Gordon Cooper's "Faith 7." Because the picture quality is poor, only NBC carries the transmission, and on tape-delay, not live. Sept. 2, 1963. CBS becomes first network to expand early-evening network news from 15 to 30 minutes. Sept. 9, 1963. NBC expands early-evening network news to 30 minutes. (ABC did not follow until Jan. 2 1967, since their affiliates were strongly opposed to give up the extra 15 minutes, especially as ABC's news was then a very-distant third place). Apr. 30, 1964. Television sets manufactured as of this date are required to receive UHF channels. Oct. 10, 1964. Live telecast on NBC-TV (via Syncom III) of the opening ceremonies of the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo (airing on the U. S. East Coast from 1 to 3 A.M.); first live color TV program ever transmitted to the U. S. by satellite. Mar. 24, 1965. Live TV pictures from unmanned U. S. moon probe Ranger 9 transmitted prior to impact in the crater Alphonsus. May 1967. Premiere of the Las Vegas Late Show with Bill Dana, which was supposed to be the cornerstone of the United Network, an attempt to launch a fourth commercial TV network. In less than a month, both the show and the fourth network idea get canceled. Oct. 14, 1968. First live network transmission of TV pictures from inside a manned U.S. space capsule in orbit: Apollo 7 There were six such broadcasts during their eleven-day mission. This article appeared in TV Guide on Jan. 25, 1964. From the moment the first TV news bulletin cut through the sticky story line of a soap opera called "As the World Turns," at exactly 1:40 (EST) on Friday afternoon, the world of communications - if not the world - was to be a vastly different sort of place, never to be quite the same again. It was not just the sudden, senseless cutting down of a young, vigorous President that made the experience cut so deep, but the fact that no one had ever lived a national tragedy in quite these terms before. When Lincoln was assassinated by a frenzied actor at Ford's Theater in 1865, Americans had time to assimilate the tragedy. Most people in the big cities knew within 24 hours, but there were some in outlying areas for whom it took days. In the new world of communications there was no time for any such babying of the emotions, no time to collect oneself, no time for anything except to sit transfixed before the set and try to bring into reality this monstrous, unthinkable thing. Because the word was not only instantaneous but visual, and because at no time did the television reporters know any more than the viewers did, 180,000,000 were forced to live the experience not just hour to hour, or minute to minute, but quite literally from second to second, even as the reporters themselves did. According to Nielsen statistics, a point was reached during the funeral on Monday afternoon when 41,553,000 sets were in use, believed to be an all-time high. For four days the American people were virtual prisoners of an electronic box. Thus what happened on the television screen became in every sense an epic drama four days long, in which the viewers were not so much spectators as participants. The insistent commercial, the thin, strident melodrama and the pleasantly foolish prattle of the quiz game had suddenly been stilled, as a blizzard stills the clamor of a big city. No pat endings here. In their place came the endless images of human frailty, dignity and grace, until it seemed the spirit could absorb no more: Mrs. Kennedy, vibrant testimony to the heights to which the human spirit can rise. The new President, constantly reminding us by his actions that there was still someone in charge. "Now then, let's get this airplane back to Washington." The endless thousands filing by the casket of the President in the rotunda. Robert Kennedy, a man so shattered he seemed almost to be walking in his sleep. The solid phalanx of visiting heads of state advancing on the church and looking for all the world like factory workers at closing time. The tum-tum-tum-ta-tum of the muffled drums crossing Arlington Memorial Bridge. John-John's heart-stopping salute to his father on the steps of St. Matthew's. Blackjack, the riderless horse, ancient symbol of the fallen hero, all skittish and full of spirit The white-gloved hands during the flag folding at Arlington National Cemetery. The bugler who played the sour note during taps. "The bugler's lip quivered for the Nation," Edward P. Morgan observed later. The nasal voice of Richard Cardinal Cushing, whose burial service seemed at times more like a cry of anguish. Counterpointed against all this, the jarring impact of the alleged assassin's own murder, so quick, so unexpected, so nightmarish in its implications and so immediate because an already-staggered Nation saw it as it happened on TV. "It was as if the sacrifice of a President were not enough," Charles Collingwood said. Most unforgettable of all were the faces of the crowd, especially the teen-age Negro girl, she of the beautiful face, in Rockefeller Center, minutes after the President's death was announced. Chet Huntley said that she spoke for all the world when, asked how she felt, she replied, "I really couldn't say. . . . Really right now I don't know what to do. . . I don't even know where to go . . . or what to say. There is nothing for me to say." The intense personal involvement of the ordinary man, so evident throughout the Four Days of broadcast, was heightened by still another circumstance: John Fitzgerald Kennedy was, more than any other public figure in history, a product of television. Young, personable, fast on his feet, he seemed born to the medium. His wife seemed in every way the perfect visual complement to such a man. A young woman faced with older responsibilities, she bore them with a dignity and grace surpassed only by her near-superhuman behavior after her husband's death. Together, they were the perfect embodiment of the American success story, and it was TV that had heralded the fact. No wonder then, that, exposed to the tragedy's every agonizing detail through television, 180,000,000 people reacted as they did. Walter Cronkite, the anchor man of the CBS team, was the first on the air with the bulletin. At 1:30 (EST) when the soap opera, "As the World Turns," went on live, Cronkite was preparing his regular evening news show, and in every sense the day was an ordinary one, at least judging by the trials and tribulations of the characters in the soap opera. In retrospect, the hero's sudsy dilemma as to whether or not he should remarry his divorced wife, and his mother's subsequent conversation with his grandfather about it, seems about as eerily remote as another galaxy. Actress Helen Wagner was just saying, "I gave it a great deal of thought, Grandpa," when the program was interrupted. Cronkite's voice came through, dolorous but contained, as a bulletin slide was displayed on the screen. "Bulletin . . . In Dallas, Texas, three shots were fired at President Kennedy's motorcade. The first reports say the President was seriously wounded, that he slumped over in Mrs. Kennedy's lap, she cried out, 'Oh, no!' and the motorcade went on . . . The wounds perhaps could be fatal . . ." Viewers tuned to ABC and NBC at the moment heard similar bulletins. At that point CBS switched back to the soap opera. The actors, unaware, continued their performance, but the show was cut off at the second commercial. ABC and NBC blacked out a variety of local and regional shows. Bulletin: "Further details . . . The President was shot as he drove from the Dallas airport to downtown, where he was scheduled to speak at a political luncheon in the Dallas Trade Mart . . . Three shots were heard . . . a Secret Service man was heard to shout, 'He's dead!' . . . The President and Mrs. Kennedy were riding with Gov. [John] Connally of Texas and his wife. . ." It was shortly after this that the video portions of the broadcasts came on (almost simultaneously on all networks), and the last entertainment or commercial that anyone would see for three and a half days had run its course. Thus there began what Cronkite was later to describe as "the running battle between my emotions and my news sense." Yet, of all the newsmen who covered the first tense hours (Ed Silverman and Ron Cochran of ABC; Bill Ryan, Chet Huntley and Frank McGee of NBC; Charles Collingwood and Walter Cronkite of CBS), it was Cronkite who agonized the most and controlled it best. For a man obviously deeply affected by the tragedy, he was able to exercise precise control without seeming to cancel out what he was feeling. Huntley, while almost as well controlled, met the situation with righteous indignation. At one point Friday he talked bitterly of "pockets of hatred in our country and places where the disease is encouraged. You have heard," he said, "those who say, 'Those Kennedys ought to be shot!'. . . It seems evident that hatred moved the person who fired these shots. . ." That sort of talk did not come easily from Cronkite, let alone from Cochran, a more formal kind of man who prides himself on a rigid professional detachment from emotion. Yet it was Cochran who several times on Friday afternoon visibly shook. All three men seemed to be trying desperately to stave off the inevitable news that the President was dead, and all three advanced as gingerly through the reports as a buck private through a mine field. Still the reports kept coming. Governor Connally, shot in the chest, is "serious but not critical." The President is now in the emergency room. Mr. Kennedy is unhurt. The Vice President is unhurt Rep. Albert Thomas (D., Texas) reports, "The President is still alive but in very critical condition." Blood transfusions are being given. In Washington David Brinkley calls the White House to see if they have any late information. "No," replies a sniffling member of the White House staff. "We were watching you to see if you had any." An abrupt switch to the Dallas Trade Mart, where the camera hammers the tragedy home by lingering on the lectern where the President was to speak, by panning over the milling guests and the uneaten lunch and a waiter drying an eye with a napkin. Two priests are reported entering Parkland Hospital. A small boy saw the fatal shooting by a man in the window of the Texas School Book Depository building near the underpass where the shooting took place. The stock market slumps. The stock exchanges close. Connally is quoted as saying, "Take care of Nellie." It is now 2:32 (EST). The two priests say the President is dead. UPI reports at 2:35 (EST) that the President has died. Cochran, lowering his voice, says that Government sources now confirm that the President is dead. Over at NBC, Bob MacNeil is relaying the news from Dallas: The White House says the President is dead. At CBS, at 2:38 the awful news is finally announced without qualification: "From Dallas. . . a flash . . . The President died at 2 o'clock Eastern Standard Time . . . The President is dead. . ." On a New York street NBC focuses its cameras on a chicly dressed, middle-aged woman wearing dark glasses and a tailored hat at the moment the news comes over an auto's loudspeaker. The woman starts, lets out a cry and falls back into the crowd. At that moment there began something which could only happen in the age of TV. As a Nation we were able to live out our grief in concert and at the same time begin the arduous business of picking up the pieces. Moreover, we were able to prepare ourselves for the new order of things. At the end of the Four Days we were to know the new President intimately, who he was, where he came from and, most important of all, how he behaved in a time of extreme stress. As Cronkite was later to comment: "We saw before our very eyes a smooth transition of government No confusion. Only a man in command moving ahead to the problems at hand." And Cochran was to add: 'Television had actually become the window of the world so many had hoped it might he one day." Through that window now came many things: ABC's brilliant tapes (obtained through its Dallas affiliate) of the President's arrival at the airport that morning, for example. This footage, among the most heart-stopping to he seen during the whole coverage, showed the smiling President, alive and vibrant, moving through a sea of outstretched hands which wanted only to touch him. ABC was to follow this later with an interview with James C. Hagerty, in which the onetime Eisenhower Presidential press secretary, now a broadcasting executive, illuminated the nature of the security problem. "This is the President's way of saying thank you to the people," Hagerty declared, referring to the scenes at the airport. "How can you stop it? I don't think you want to stop it . . . It's rather difficult, while guarding the President, to argue that you can't shake hands with the American people or ride in an open car where the people can see you. . ." By late afternoon the great and small were trying to find the right words. And TV was recording every halting one. Harry S Truman was reported so distraught that he was unable immediately to make a statement. The following day the cameras caught up with a saddened ex-President at the Truman Library at Independence, Mo. Mr. Truman, his voice low, paid a forthright tribute. Kennedy was "an able President, one the people loved and trusted," he said. At the end a reporter asked him how he felt the new President would do. The former Chief Executive perked up. "Perfectly capable of carrying out the job," he snapped. "Don't you worry about him." If the Nation had been in a cheering mood, it would have cheered. President Kennedy's predecessor, Dwight D. Eisenhower, came on at about 5 o'clock Friday. He felt, he said, not only shock and dismay, but indignation. His voice verged on anger when he spoke of "the occasional psychopathic thing," then he assured us that we are a Nation "of great common sense." We are not going to he "stampeded or bewildered." Shortly after 3 P. M. (EST) the President's casket was moved aboard the Presidential airplane. Mrs. Kennedy, still wearing the blood-stained pink suit in which she had started out the day, never left her husband's side except to attend the swearing-in of the new President. The swearing-in, conducted by U. S. District Judge Sarah T. Hughes, took place in the airplane itself with no television coverage. The still pictures were broadcast, and showed a stunned Mrs. Kennedy, hard by the side of the new President. All afternoon the air was alive with film from Dallas, terrifying in the confusion it showed milling crowds in the police station. Parade route spectators flattened on the grass at the moment of the shooting, motorcycle policemen with slightly dazed looks on their faces, footage of the Texas School Book Depository from which the shots were alleged to have come, and visual reconstruction of the killer's supposed route. Then there was the young construction worker, who stood 20 feet away from the President when the shot was fired, who described the scene in almost too vivid detail: "We heard a shot and the President jumped up in his seat. I thought it scared him because I thought it was a firecracker." "Stunned disbelief" become the by-word, and if Huntley used it once he must have used it a score of times. In late afternoon the networks announced the cancellation of all regular programming until after the funeral. Gen. Douglas MacArthur told the Nation that "The President's death kills something in me." And Adlai Stevenson, speaking from the UN, said, "And all men everywhere who love peace and justice and freedom will bow their heads." Later he observed, "It's too bad that, in my old age, they couldn't have spent their violence on me and spared this young man for our Nation's work." On the streets total strangers consoled each other. At the White House aides wept openly in the corridors. In Dallas Governor Connally was pronounced out of immediate danger. And in New York Charles Collingwood came in to relieve harassed Walter Cronkite in the CBS anchor position. "Where's your coat, Walter?" asked Collingwood. For the first time Cronkite realized he had been too busy to put it on. As the Nation groped for meanings, the Presidential airplane put down in Washington's Andrews A. F. base shortly after 6 (EST). The television eye hungrily devoured every detail as the hydraulic lift lowered the casket and the honor guard placed it in the waiting ambulance. It was followed closely by Mrs. Kennedy, never far from her husband and still wearing the pink suit. The step from lift to runway was long and somehow symbolic. An aide made the actual assist down to the level of the ambulance, but it was clearly made in the name of every American. In a way hard to define, it was one of the most moving moments of the Four Days - the small, determined figure, devastated but not undone. And America marveled. As the ambulance with Mrs. Kennedy and the casket sped away, the new President, Mrs. Johnson at his side, walked purposefully out of the airplane to face a barrage of cameras. "This is a sad time for all people," said Lyndon Baines Johnson in the first public pronouncement of his Administration. "We have suffered a loss that cannot be weighed. . . . I will do my best That is all I can do. I ask for your help - and God's." In Dallas there was emerging in grisly counterpoint the portrait of the man who was ultimately to be charged with the President's murder. In mid-afternoon, the networks reported that "a Dallas policeman had been shot while apprehending the suspected assassin." The arrest of one Lee Harvey Oswald, 24, had taken place in the Texas Theater, some six blocks from the spot where he had allegedly gunned down Officer J. D. Tippit. Television cameras had a field day photographing the marquee. "Battle Cry" and "War Is Hell," it said. But it took until much later to confirm that the police had found the murder weapon, an Italian-make rifle with a telescopic sight, beside the sixth floor corner window of the Texas School Book Depository - along with a sackful of chicken bones. And that the onetime defector to Russia and militant espouser of pro-Castro causes had already undergone hours of intensive questioning. At 7:30 (EST) viewers got their first good look at the man. He was preceded into the bedlam of the Dallas police station by an officer holding the rifle aloft over the heads of the milling throng of reporters. Oswald entered, an animal-like figure looking puffy-eyed and morose, flanked by beefy, stone-jawed police, and wearing the T shirt about which he was later to complain because no one had offered him a clean one. Viewers got only a fleeting glimpse as, handcuffed, he was whisked away to a fifth floor cell. Later the cameras offered vignettes of Oswald's Russian wife, a pathetic figure with her two young children, and his mother, who could only murmur, "But he's really a good boy." Later that night the Dallas police formally charged Lee Harvey Oswald with the murder of John F. Kennedy. As the image faded, most Americans felt a sinking feeling in the pits of their stomachs. The inescapable truth, as it came through so clearly on television, was that Oswald was beneath contempt, unworthy of the emotions we all felt toward him - anger and outrage. Saturday was a day to shore up the human spirit, a time to prepare for the massive emotion of the lying-in-state at the Capitol on Sunday and the funeral on Monday. In Hyannis Port, Mass., Mrs. Rose Kennedy was with son Ted, the Massachusetts senator, and daughter Eunice, wife of Sargent Shriver. She went to the 7 A. M. Mass, stayed through another at 7:30, then returned home, where Ted broke the news of the President's death to the ailing Joseph Kennedy, the late President's father. Very early in the morning (4:30 A. M.) the President's body had been moved into the White House and placed in the East Room on a catafalque similar to the one on which Lincoln had rested. At 10:30 the Washington Kennedy family members attended a private Mass in the East Room. Later, dignitaries arrived to view the casket. Former President Eisenhower came first, followed later in the day by Chief Justice and Mrs. Warren, former President Truman, Governor and Mrs. Rockefeller and the new President. In between times a steady stream of Government officials, senators, congressmen, the military and friends of the family filed past the bier. The camera caught them all, heads bowed as thee, mounted the steps of the White House. At one point during the morning the new President crossed the street to the White House to confer with Secretary of State Rusk, whose plane had turned around in mid-Pacific (he had been on his way to Tokyo for an economic conference) to return to Washington. As Rusk came out, Secretary of Defense McNamara went in. The Nation took silent comfort in this assuring visual evidence that the Government was still functioning. Saturday was the day, too, when the reaction began to pour in. By Relay satellite we saw and heard Pope Paul from Rome, who was "profoundly saddened," he said in hard-to-follow English, "by so disturbing a crime" and prayed that "the death of this great statesman may not damage the cause of the American people, but rather reinforce it." England's Prime Minister, Sir Alec Douglas-Home declared that the President had left "an indelible mark on the entire world." The camera offered us a glimpse of just how indelible by taking us to see the crowds outside the American Embassy in London, where the faces again told the story. Premier Khrushchev was later to appear personally at the embassy in Moscow to pay his respects. General de Gaulle let it be known that he intended to attend the funeral, as did 19 other chiefs of state and heads of government and three reigning monarchs before the weekend was done. We saw faces of Frenchmen, Italians, Germans crying. In London, the regular cast of "That Was The Week That Was," the outrageously irreverent British TV satire on the week's events, tossed out their regular script and in just 16 hours prepared as moving a tribute as was seen during the entire Four Days, rendered even more moving in that it came spontaneously from the hearts of Englishmen whose stake in an American President was presumably not as great as ours. The tape, flown over by jet, ran on NBC Sunday night and was repeated on Monday. One of the young men said, "There wasn't anything anyone could do about it." Another talked of "the All-American humanity of the man." And still an other said that "Behind the rocking chair. . . and Caroline's pony. . . behind the trappings of the image, [the President] was the first Western politician to make politics a respectable profession for 30 years." And another: "Death has become immediate to people all over the world." Housewives wept. Former Vice President Richard Nixon, speaking from his New York City home, said, "President Kennedy yesterday wrote the finest and greatest chapter in his 'Profiles in Courage.' The greatest tribute we can pay is to reduce the hatred which drives men to do such deeds." Sen. Barry Goldwater in a news conference at Muncie, Ind., paid an extravagant and typically American compliment to his late political opponent. From the South came the voices of those staunch segregationists, Govs. George Wallace of Alabama and Ross Barnett of Mississippi, who found in the man in death qualities which they apparently could not find in life. There were other forms of reaction, too. The networks were deluged with mail. Particularly poetry. Later Cronkite was to comment: "This was real mail. Not fan mail. People were desperate to express themselves about this thing. And poetry seemed a natural form. They seemed intent either on finding a way to accept the guilt we were all feeling or laying it on someone or something else, or simply eulogizing the man." Edward P. Morgan and Chet Huntley reported similar reactions. Morgan says in retrospect: "It is probable that when all this is over we will find it created a more personal response than any other event in history." There were negative responses, too. There was the word from Peking that there would be no expressions of regret forthcoming from Red China. There was the man on the street who could only advocate an eye for an eye. "I hope these radicals have got their pound of flesh," he said bitterly. And there was the anonymous phone caller from Little Rock who, when put through to Huntley, requested that harassed gentleman to "Drop dead!" As the day waned, President Johnson in his first proclamation as President, designated Monday as a national day of mourning. Skitch Henderson, Alfredo Antonini and others were heard in special memorial concerts. The Rutgers University Choir sang a Brahms Requiem with the Philadelphia Orchestra. CBS did a one-hour report on the new President. For Lee Oswald, the day had begun early. At 11:36 (EST) the networks switched to the Dallas police station as Police Chief Jesse Curry, a chunky, balding man with glasses, explained through the hubbub that he not only had the rifle which did the killing, but the order letter to the mail-order house where it was purchased. The handwriting, Curry said, matched Oswald's. At that point Oswald was exhibited. The newsmen and the cameras closed in like hunters on the fox. Oswald looked a little weasellike. He said, "I have been told nothing. . . . I do request someone to come forward to give me legal assistance." To questions of why he did it, he did not respond. As the police led him out, a reporter slipped up close to him, and said, "Oswald, what did you do to your eye?" "A policeman hit me," whined Oswald for 180,000,000 to hear. Throughout the day Oswald adamantly insisted he was innocent As the evidence mounted, the police and District Attorney Henry Wade became surer that they had the case wrapped up, and drew criticism when they said so on TV. At one point on Saturday Wade told the TV audience: "We have sufficient evidence to convict him." To which Huntley replied privately: "I'm a TV man, but I hope I'm also a responsible citizen. TV is not a courtroom." And yet the Nation's involvement was such that not admitting to opinions would have been like not admitting that your house was on fire. That then was the mood as Saturday drew to a close The stage was set, but the actors were weary. The Nation slept fretfully. If it had known what was in store for the following day it might not have slept at all. Sunday, November 24 Sunday started quietly with Cardinal Cushing's eulogy, from Boston, to the late President. The President's widow was reported holding up well. She, with other family members, was scheduled to follow the caisson bearing the flag-draped coffin down Pennsylvania Avenue to the Capitol rotunda, where the body of the President was to lie in state. Before that could happen, however, the Nation was to be subjected to yet another shock, one which in some ways was the most jarring of all. NBC was just concluding a two-minute report from Hyannis Port, when Frank McGee in New York heard Tom Pettit, set up at the Dallas police station shout, "Give me air! Give me air!" NBC quickly switched to Dallas, just in time for the following as officially recorded in the NBC log: 12:20 p. m. Dallas City Jail - NBC cameras are trained on Lee H. Oswald, the man accused of shooting Pres. Kennedy, he is flanked by detectives, as he stepped onto a garage ramp in the basement of the jail for transfer to an armoured truck - Suddenly out of The lower right corner of the TV screen came the back of a man. We hear a shot & Oswald gasps as he starts to fall grabbing his side. NBC's newsman Tom Pettit on air says "He's been shot! Lee Oswald has been shot! There is absolute panic - pandemonium has broken out" The shooting of the alleged killer of the President on camera was an event whose deep psychological significance was matched only by its horror. The wielder of the gun, a minor nightclub operator named Jack Ruby, deprived the country of something it needed badly, the chance to formally try Oswald according to law and the oldest traditions of this country. It also served as a reminder that, as CBS's Charles Collingwood put it, "violence had not yet subdued its appetite." ABC's Edward P. Morgan and Howard K. Smith were to be blunter. "Vengeance is a bludgeon," said Morgan. ". . . We will never hear this man's story," lamented Smith. "There is something wrong and we do not know what it is." If NBC's live footage was a kick in the stomach, then CBS's later repeat in slow motion is a kind of grotesque ballet. We see the small figure of Oswald flanked by two detectives. A figure moves out of the group of newsmen, a dark blob in a crouch. He darts forward and toward Oswald. We see the gun. A shot is heard. Oswald cries out and grabs his midsection. There is a split-second for the reflexes to take hold, then a great crush of bodies converges on Ruby. The screen is filled with milling, scuffling bodies, threshing arms and legs. Perhaps a minute later a stretcher is brought. The camera eye is periodically blocked by arms, bodies, ambulance doors, other newsmen, moving across it. The stretcher is lifted into the ambulance. But the ambulance is blocked by the armored car in which Oswald was to have been removed to the county jail. Tom Pettit moves about the melee like a sleepwalker, shoving his hand mike into the face of anyone he can get near. The dialog is strangely flat and disassociated, as talk in moments of crisis is likely to be: Pettit (to Officer P. T. Dean): How would it have been possible for him to slip in? Officer Dean: Sir, I can't answer that question. Pettit (to Capt Will Fritz): Do you have the man who fired the shot? Captain Fritz: We have a man, yes. The police, sleepwalking themselves, give out nothing. The Fates had indeed arranged things strangely. During all this time the procession had been forming at the White House portico to take the body of the President to the Capitol rotunda and the networks had to scramble to get hack in time to record the beginning of the solemn, tradition-steeped ritual with which a grieving Nation assuages its grief. "Ceremony," remarked Collingwood, "is man's built-in reaction to tragedy." And it was never more so than on this sunny Sunday afternoon. The images begin to flood the screen in overwhelming profusion: The caisson so strangely imbalanced with its seven white horses and their four riders; the limousines, long black fish, glutting the curving driveway; the foliage making a tracery as cameras pan up to the flag at half-mast; the chiefs of staff standing nervously on the steps; the three priests who would precede the caisson emerging from the crepe-draped White House door, abreast and solemn; a still photographer darting in front of the camera to get a better angle. The casket emerging, borne by eight enlisted men representing five branches of the service, stiffly inching their way down the steps to the caisson; moments later Mrs Kennedy, majestic, erect, wan and beautiful, her face a haunting mask of sadness, pausing at the top of the steps where the camera provides one of the memorable pictures - still or moving - of the Four Days. The children, Caroline and John, seen for the first time, make darting, childlike movements and cling to their mother. The awkward shuffling and whispered words as President Johnson, Robert Kennedy, the family, the myriad Kennedy children, find the right limousines. At 1:05 (EST) the caisson begins to roll out of the driveway. We hear the hollow clackclack of horses' hooves, then the muffled drums. Parade route spectators, some motionless, others moving restlessly across the back of the picture, still others holding children aloft, crane for a better look at Blackjack, the riderless horse, sword strapped to the saddle, hoots reversed in the stirrups in the ancient tradition of Tamerlane and Genghis Khan. Then the camera picks up the long, long shot down toward the Capitol as the cortege turns down Pennsylvania Avenue. Then as quickly the long, long shot the other way, the cortege in the distance with the Washington monument in the background. It is an awesome sight. Edward P. Morgan intones, "History saturates these pavements . . ." And 180,000,000 agree with him. At the Capitol, the march orders are audible as the military units turn into the plaza. The caisson stops. The high-spirited Blackjack grows skittish and the tall private who has been leading him has to restrain the animal. The pallbearers remove the coffin as the band plays "Hail to the Chief," in dirge time. A flag-bearer precedes the coffin up the steps, dolefully, one step at a time. Inside the great rotunda the casket rests on the Lincoln catafalque. Mrs. Kennedy, looking straight ahead, takes her place. Caroline's head bobs as a curious child's head will. An aide takes John-John's hand and leads him from the crowded rotunda as the honor guard is posted. Presently Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield begins to speak. In the great rotunda the voices sound hollow, and over all there is an eerie obbligato of nervous coughing which the microphones amplify. The television audience strains to catch what Mansfield is saying: ". . .He gave us of a good heart from which the laughter came . . . of a profound wit from which a great leadership emerged. He gave us of a kindness and a strength fused into a human courage to seek peace without fear." Caroline's hands fidget and her mother reaches down and stills them as Chief Justice Earl Warren is intoning: "A believer in the dignity and equality of all human beings, a fighter for justice and apostle of peace, has been snatched from our midst by the bullet of an assassin. . . . The whole world is poorer because of his loss." The camera plays over Robert Kennedy's immobile face. He looks drained, wrung out, hardly hearing. House Speaker John McCormack: Thank God that we were privileged, however briefly, to have had this great man for our President. For he has now taken his place among the great figures of world history." As the Speaker's voice fades, the new President, face implacable but strong, inches forward toward the catafalque, following a soldier who positions a wreath for him. Mrs. Kennedy stirs and, taking Caroline's hand, comes quickly forward and kneels at the coffin. She kisses the flag and Caroline follows suit, her little hand fingering the striped silk before they move back to the periphery of the mourners. Only the coughing and shuffling can be heard as the family goes quickly out. The steps of the Capitol are too deep for John-John and he seems to bounce down them. The President gives Mrs. Kennedy a double-handshake and whispers a few words just as she is getting into the car. The line of long, black limousines moves off. Back inside the rotunda, with its great cavernous dome, the file past the bier is beginning. ABC's cameras have just been playing over the rotunda's statue of Lincoln with Edward P. Morgan's voice over - "It is not the great solemn grandeur but the little human things that are almost too hard to bear," he is saying - when ABC cuts in for a bulletin: "FLASH . . . LEE HARVEY OSWALD IS DEAD." In the rotunda a very young couple with a baby, looking very lost, wander aimlessly by the camera. It moves Morgan to comment to his running-mate, Howard K. Smith, "You keep thinking, Howard, that this is a dream from which you will awake - but you won't." Throughout the afternoon and evening the great line outside the rotunda swells. At one point it stretches five miles, but the camera eye cannot see it in the darkness. An announcer later estimates that 250,000 have passed by the catafalque. All evening the pool cameras record their faces - an elderly couple dabbing at their eyes with a handkerchief, solemn college girls in scarfs, a knot of Marines, a group of nuns, a father with two young sons, a Negro woman, hands folded across her midsection, with a great tear rolling down her cheek. Some wait 10 hours. Some have small children sleeping on their shoulders. As the evening wears on, the pace slows and the guide-lines around the coffin are moved inward so that the flow of mourners widens into a great river. Still they come. It is Morgan who captures the feeling best. It is "the mood of mutinous, somber sadness," he says. Earlier this morning the cameras have caught a fleeting glimpse of Mrs. Rose Kennedy coming out of church in Hyannis Port. Now at 4:30 (EST) they watch again as the President's mother, her daughter Eunice Shriver, and son Edward leave Hyannis Port for Washington. Television is at the airport with Secretary of State Rusk about an hour later to greet General de Gaulle. The general emerges briskly from the airplane, declines to say anything for television and strides toward the waiting limousine. Again at 9:30 the special New York Philharmonic concert conducted by Leonard Bernstein is interrupted as cameras go to Dulles airport where Prince Philip and Sir Alec Douglas-Home are arriving from London. NBC stays on the air. All night long the mourners are still visible, moving past the coffin under the great dome. They are still coming at 9 that morning. "This was the day we were restored to sanity," Charles Collingwood said. The scene at the White House portico at 10:15 A. M. was much the same as the previous day, except that the rhythm had somehow slowed. Six limousines lined the driveway to drive the Kennedy family to the rotunda. Mrs. Kennedy was first out, followed by Pat Lawford, Bobby, Teddy, Eunice Shriver and assorted Kennedy in-laws and children. Notably absent were Caroline and John. Their mother had decided to meet them at St. Matthew's Cathedral after the trip to the rotunda. (Later, at the church, John-John was taken out for most of the Low Pontifical Mass. Neither Caroline nor John went to the cemetery.) It took just 13 minutes for the procession to make the trip to the Capitol plaza. The widow and the two brothers again took the long walk up the Capitol steps and quickly approached the coffin, knelt, and backed away. As quickly, they turned and walked out of the rotunda. It took just seven minutes to get the cortege under way-the caisson with the flag-draped casket, the ever-present riderless horse, the three clergymen, the honor guard, the six limousines and the carful of Secret Service men - but, since it was now a full military funeral procession, it was 45 minutes before the cortege again approached the portico, bringing John Fitzgerald Kennedy to the White House for the last time. At 11:43, the family, the 19 chiefs of state and heads of government, the three reigning monarchs, the dignitaries, President Johnson, Chief Justice Warren, start the long walk behind the caisson from the White House to St Matthew's. Advancing like a great phalanx, they seem to march right into the television lens. De Gaulle dominates the front line of march. But Queen Frederika of Greece (the only other woman visible besides Mrs. Kennedy) is there, too. And so are Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, Crown Prince Akihito of Japan, King Baudouin of Belgium, Prime Minister Lester Pearson of Canada, Chancellor Erhard of West Germany, Prime Minister Inonu of Turkey, First Deputy Anastas Mikoyan of USSR, President Eamon De Valera of Ireland, Prince Philip and Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home of Britain. It is an impressive group of mourners. The emotion tells on the voice of David Brinkley. The camera picks up the shadows thrown by the caisson. The wind takes the edge of the flag as the pallbearers, who seem to be carrying the weight of the world, mount the steps with the coffin. Once inside the church the foreign dignitaries follow De Gaulle to their seats to the right of the family. Again the camera catches the ineffable sadness on the face of Bobby Kennedy, close to his sister-in-law. The Low Pontifical Mass begins. The flat, nasal voice of Cardinal Cushing is heard praying "for John Fitzgerald Kennedy and also for the redemption of all men." The Mass is said to include all those who are present. So on this day it might be said to include 180,000,000. "For those who are faithful to You, Oh Lord, life is not taken away; it is transformed." The Cardinal blesses the casket with holy water. Turning to leave the church he leans down and kisses Caroline Kennedy on the cheek. Outside the church John-John stands hard by his mother as the coffin is brought out. In his hand is clasped the pamphlet which he was given while sitting out the main body of the Mass. As the pallbearers place the casket back on the caisson and the procession prepares to leave, John-John fidgets at his mother's side. She leans over - a "majestic" figure, the London papers will say - she whispers something to him, she takes his pamphlet, then he salutes his father. The camera holds on it a full 30 seconds - the small figure and his courageous mother - the camera does a slight shimmy - as if the cameraman, too, were shaking. As the caisson starts to roll, the heads of state and visiting foreign dignitaries are forced to stand about, waiting for their cars like ordinary men. Ex-Presidents Eisenhower and Truman walk to a car together. The muffled drums begin. And the hoof-clacks. The family cars fall in behind the caisson and the riderless horse. President Johnson's car is accompanied by the Secret Service men. A young, black-hatted priest peers out of the crowd lining the streets, a woman with hands clasped over her bosom, a handsome soldier in dark glasses, a college boy with a transistor radio at his ear, an older woman with an oversize handbag, a family of five sitting on a curbstone with their lunch. Ten minutes later the dignitaries are still waiting for their cars and David Brinkley opines that the head of the procession will arrive at the cemetery before the last of it leaves the cathedral. It is not hard to believe. For it is a procession miles long. As the cortege starts across Arlington Memorial Bridge, the camera captures majestic long shots from Arlington National Cemetery showing the Lincoln Memorial in the background. Over all, the muffled drums. As the cortege enters the cemetery, the Irish Guard stands at parade rest next to the grave, and the coffin slowly advances to the wail of the bagpipes. As the coffin reaches graveside a flight of 50 jet planes (one for each state) zooms overhead. In keeping with tradition, one plane of the formation is missing. Last to fly over is "Air Force One," the President's personal jet, dipping its wings in tribute to a dead President. The pool camera, panning across the sky, catches it all. Soon the gently rolling hillside is a sea of somber figures. Cardinal Cushing begins to intone the prayer: "Oh God, through Whose mercy souls of the faithful find rest, be pleased to bless this grave and Thy holy angels to keep it . . . the body we bury herein, that of our beloved Jack Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, that his soul may rejoice in Thee with all the saints, through Christ our Lord. Amen. . . ." The pool camera takes a serene long shot, sweeping over the line of military graves to the Custis-Lee mansion on the hill behind; then, during the 21-gun salute, cuts to Mrs. Kennedy. She seems to start with every shot. Cardinal Cushing asks the Holy Father to grant John Fitzgerald Kennedy eternal rest, and the bugler, lip quivering for humanity, plays taps. Now the flag-folding begins. The camera moves in for close-ups of the white-gloved hands of the honor guard, anxious, eager hands, making triangular folds of the flag that covered the dead President's coffin. There is a poignancy about the image which again recalls the part hands have played in the Four Days - Mrs. Kennedy's hand in Robert's at the rotunda and at the funeral; the hand of the small boy in a farewell salute to his father; Caroline's hand fingering the flag at the rotunda; the hands of the unseen detective holding aloft the murder weapon in Dallas; the hand of Ruby shooting Oswald. Now the folded flag passes from hand to hand. The camera follows lovingly. John C. Metzler, superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery, takes the flag, turns and gives it into the hand of the young widow. Finally the hand of Cardinal Cushing sprinkling holy water on the coffin as with voice rising, he says ". . . The wonderful man we bury here today." Mrs. Kennedy lights the eternal flame and the funeral is over. Jackie and Bobby turn and leave the grave together. Jackie's foot catches and she stumbles momentarily. That evening was a time for recalling little things: Chet Huntley's story about John-John at the rotunda, how at one point an aide took the restless child to the office of Speaker McCormack and gave him a small American flag to play with. And how John-John asked if he could have another one "for my daddy." How the new President looked, saddened but confident - and confidence inspiring. How NBC's Bill Ryan could not read the official word of the President's death and had to turn it over to Frank McGee. The sad eyes of Walter Cronkite, the poetic irony of Edward P. Morgan, and the righteous anger of Chet Huntley, and his summation of the Man and the Tragedy: "I didn't always agree with JFK, but I liked his style." It was also a time of beginning. The Nation marveled when the word came through that Mrs. Kennedy would, after 3:30 P. M., receive the visiting dignitaries and heads of state. And, from the news reports, one took away the comforting sense that the new Government not only was beginning- it had begun. For television it was a beginning, too. For if nothing else had happened during the Four Days, the medium had gained a new sense of what it could do, if pressed. Moreover, it had shown that it did indeed deserve to be called, as Ron Cochran had put it, the window of the world. And that the window was capable of encompassing not just life's trivia, but the deepest of human experience. What Became of TV Channel 1? 1940. In 1940, the FCC allocated 42-50 MHz for FM radio broadcasting The FCC Report on Ultra-High Frequency Allocations, printed in Broadcasting on June 1, 1940, said, "In addition, the Commission decided to discontinue television service in the present television channels No. 1 and 8; i.e., 44-50 mc., and 156-162 mc. Accordingly, since old television channel No. 1 is discontinued, television channel No. 2 will be renumbered television channel No. 1; and a new channel to be known as television channel No. 2, will be assigned from 60 to 66 mc. There is thus no loss of total space assigned to television below 66 mc., and there will remain a total of 7 television channels below 108 mc. Former television channel No. 8, 156-162 mc. together with frequencies between 116 and 119 mc. will be used to replace assignments in the band 132-140 mc." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1946. In 1945, the FCC decided to move FM radio to the 88-106 MHz band (later 88-108 MHz). Because FM broadcasting would be vacating 42-50 MHz, TV channel 1 was moved down to that part of the spectrum. The TV allocations which went into effect on February 25, 1946. That Radio Network Sound by Fred Krock -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Back in the days before satellites, radio network broadcasts had a certain characteristic sound. Every beginning radio announcer's dream was to work for a network some day. Most despaired of ever developing that network sound in their voice. What they didn't realize was that the network announcers didn't have that characteristic mellow sound in their voices either. That sound came from the telephone company transmission, not from the network announcer's throat. Listeners sometimes were amazed when visiting Los Angeles or New York how different some of their favorite network personalities sounded when the program originated locally. Even today a quick listen to one of the golden age of radio recordings reveals whether that recording was made where the show originated or whether it was recorded on the end of a network line. Frequency response was not a major problem in those days of AM broadcasting. Radio network lines had frequency response up to 8 kHz. Telephone company customers paid according to the amount of bandwidth used. After World War II the networks cut back to 5 kHz lines to save money. Frequency response was essentially flat to 5 kHz. At 5,100 Hz it was 30-50 dB down. A few stations in extremely small markets used 3.5 kHz circuits. Networks paid for delivering programs to most affiliates. If the market were too small to be worth the expense, the station had to pay for the circuit from the nearest network access point. The cheapest circuit was 3.5 kHz. In a few other cases that was all the telephone company could provide into remote areas. Considering all the things that were happening to the sound during network transmission, what is amazing is that it sounded as good as it did. The amount of degradation was a function of distance.On the west coast, programs from Chicago sounded better than those originating in New York. Even a relatively short transmission distance would impart noticeable network sound. I was surprised to hear it on a network newscast I read in San Francisco rebroadcast from Chico, California, a distance of 183 miles by road. It was audible even on a car radio. At one time the telephone company played a major role in radio broadcasting. Virtually all studio-to-transmitter circuits and most remote lines were provided by the telephone company. The FCC would not license radio links for broadcast use unless the station could demonstrate that the telephone company could not provide service. Those few radio studio-transmitter links authorized usually were to FM transmitters on remote mountain tops where the telephone company could not provide an equalized 15 kHz circuit. Only in larger cities did the telephone company provide a facility dedicated to broadcast circuits. In smaller markets you were lucky if you could find a test board man who even knew where the broadcast circuits were located. Often station engineering personel had to show the telephone company installer how to equalize a broadcast line in small markets. The operative word is man. In the 1950's and 60's, I never heard a female voice while talking to any telephone company technicians. Broadcasters referred to the telephone company broadcast circuit test board as toll. When television broadcasting began, the same telephone company crew handled pictures as well as sound. Later the television duties were split off to what was known as TOC for television operations center. Audio circuits were handled by what was renamed Audio Operating Center (AOC). We still called it toll. Most telephone company employees belong to the CWA union. In San Francisco broadcast toll employees belonged to IBEW. Stations usually bought one full-time circuit from toll to the station for incoming remote broadcasts. Then a circuit would be bought from the remote site to toll. Circuits between telephone company central offices could be bought by the quarter-hour as needed. The crew at toll would patch the various circuits as scheduled which saved stations a lot of money. The telephone company did not charge extra for this service at that time. A lot of remote lines were routed via toll even though a shorter path might have existed. This allowed quick access by trained personnel in case of trouble. Circuits were bought either as transmit or receive. Since passive equalizers were used, if no amplifiers were in the circuit, audio could be fed in either direction. Equalization was not perfect when audio was fed in the wrong direction, but it was better than no audio at all in case of a line failure. After the telephone company switched to active equalizers, this emergency backup capability was lost. In 1958 the station where I worked became the Mutual affiliate in San Francisco. In addition to the network audio circuit, the telephone company installed a ringdown telephone to toll. Pick up that telephone twenty-four hours a day and someone answered at toll. Ringdown telephones were supplied free to all major market network affiliates. About ten years later the ringdown was disconnected after a telephone company budget cut. In 1960 the station became the west coast hub for the Mutual network. Our job was to time shift commercials in network newscasts, insert regional commercials in newscasts, and to supply all service to the west coast until 11 PM Pacific Time after the eastern network went goodnight at 9 PM. Laxative spots always were shifted. Laxative spots at meal time brought listener complaints. A spot fed at 9 PM Eastern Time, a prime time for a laxative account, arrived on the west coast at 6 PM dinner time. Other accounts paid a premium for spots to run in drive time. They were delayed three hours. Some spots were tape delayed from their earlier network broadcast. Most were played from transcription discs supplied by advertising agencies. For some reason Preparation H commercials always ran short and never fit into their holes properly. Radio network circuits between New York and Chicago were called the round robin. They made a big loop from New York to Chicago and then back to New York. Any station within the round robin could feed the net. Switching from one point on the round robin to another was instantaneous. The loop must be opened at the station which begins feeding. Occasionally an operator would forget to open the loop when starting a feed. The result sounded like a tape echo as the sound went around and around the loop until the operator woke up. From Chicago to the west coast the network was one way westbound. The circuit could be reversed by the telephone company during a silent period so a west coast station could feed the nation. Networks allowed thirty seconds for the telephone company to reverse the circuit. Reversing the network was a major operation. All amplifiers in the circuit had to have their input and output connections reversed. Starting in 1936 the telephone company would supply at extra cost customer controlled reversing equipment. Reversing the line between the west coast and Chicago caused about three seconds of dead air. Literally thousands of relays would throw. On air reversals usually were done only during newscasts. The east coast newscaster would say something like, "Now with a pause for switching we go to Los Angeles for a report from (name of newscaster)." Three seconds later the Los Angeles announcer would begin talking. Mutual had discontinued customer control reversing between Chicago and the west coast long before we became the west coast hub. Mutual did use customer controlled reversing between Los Angeles and San Francisco. Some newscasts were fed to the west coast from KHJ in Los Angeles. Network reversing control equipment at the station occupied two rack units. It had a small two- position rotary switch and red, white and green lights. The same type of lights and switch were used on telephone switchboards built by Western Electric. The switch turned on phantom power on the network line. This control voltage was repeated from each amplifier to the next all the way to the far end of the network line. If neither end were feeding control voltage, a white light was displayed on both ends. This indicated that the network was unlocked and could be switched to feed from either end. The network audio path did not reverse until the receiving end began to send control voltage. If one end had control the transmitting end displayed a green light while the receiving end displayed a red light. The network could be reversed only when the white light was on. If the receiving end turned on the switch, nothing would happen while the red light was on. A few seconds before a hot switch the transmitting end would turn off the control voltage. Ideally the white light would come on at the receiving end at same instant the switching cue ended. Half of the switching time was required for the white light to come on at the receiving end. You didn't want to drop the control voltage too soon because a lightning strike or other disturbance along the line could cause a premature reversal. When the receiving end heard the cue and saw the white light, the operator would turn on the control switch and cue the announcer after waiting for the network to finish reversing. We would experience line trouble on the incoming feed from the east between once and twice a week on average. Sometimes the network would operate for a few weeks with no problems and then be followed by a dozen outages in a single week. Much of the circuit was underground cable. It was subject to backhoe fade. A backhoe has been described as the perfect tool to find a buried cable. The telephone company maintained spare circuits for use in case of trouble on the regular network circuits. These spares also were available for occasional use customers. Our friends at toll took pride in restoring service very rapidly in case of trouble. Sometimes they had to re-route circuits half way across the country to make good service. Once after a major line failure somewhere in Nebraska, our network service was routed from Chicago to Dallas to Los Angeles to San Francisco. From San Francisco it was routed east to Denver to serve the Mountain Time Zone stations. If the line failure were west of Denver, San Francisco was responsible for restoring service. If the problem were east of Denver, the problem was given to the AT&T office in Chicago. The first place San Francisco toll would call when the incoming network line failed was Denver. San Francisco was always happy to let someone else solve the problem. The ringdown telephone at the station would ring and the voice at the other end would say gleefully, "The problem's east of Denver." This led to a lot of friendly teasing between the station and toll. If we had problems with one of our local remote lines, say from Oakland across the bay to San Francisco, the problem always kept getting described as east of Denver. The telephone company employees kept a log of all telephone calls involving trouble. At the end of the call they would ask, "How do you sign?" Your signature was your initials. Everyone used phonetics for their initials. I would reply "Fox King" for my initials FK. Imagination ran rampant. One telephone company employee with initials SJ would sign Stump Jumper. Calls between telephone company employees were logged in the same way. If any question ever arose about who said what and when, the log would tell. Today we get our network programs from satellites. The sound quality is nearly identical with a local origination. Toll as we knew it is long gone. Too bad when Galaxy 4 failed and the whole NPR network went dead that we couldn't pick up the ringdown telephone and let our friends at toll take care of the problem. MORE DETAILS FOR THE TECHNICALLY INCLINED: What did Mother Bell do to make radio networks sound that way? Network sound was degraded in five major ways: Harmonic and intermodulation distortion Group delay Ringing Noise modulation. Single sideband carrier transmission problems The distortion was not surprising since the sound may have passed through hundreds of amplifiers on its way to an affiliate station. Since the frequency response was limited to 5 kHz, no second harmonics were heard from frequencies over 2500 Hz or third harmonics from any frequencies over 1667 Hz. Total harmonic distortion on a transcontinental broadcast line probably was in the 10% range. Limited frequency response kept it from sounding as bad as it was. The circuit equivalent of a twisted pair, such as used by the telephone company, is a very large number of extremely small value inductors wired in series shunted by a very large number of extremely small value capacitors. The result is a low pass filter. The Telephone company would compensate for the high frequency loss by connecting a passive equalizer consisting of series capacitance shunted by inductance. The result is relative phase shift. When a large number of these circuits are connected in series, group delay will reach a very high value. You might also recognize these equivalent circuits as similar to those used in delay lines. As a result network radio signals traveled across country well below the speed of light. Attempts to use existing radio network circuits to transmit audio for early network television programs resulted in loss of lip-synch in as short a distance as between New York and Washington, DC. All that reactance in network circuits would cause a number of resonant frequencies in the circuit. A transient near the frequency of one of these resonances could excite the circuit into producing a damped wave at the resonant frequency. This was called ringing. The effect was audible on program material. The telephone company frequently used companders. ( Compander = COMpresser-exPANDER) The signal was compressed on the sending end and expanded at the far end. This increased the signal- to- noise ratio of the overall path. It also meant that the noise level went up and down as the signal level went up and down. The noise was not completely masked if the signal were primarily high frequency. A soprano voice or solo violin usually produced audible noise modulation. Even if the noise were masked, it caused the sound to become muddy. The telephone company often used carrier circuits for long hauls. To allow the maximum number of circuits on a single pair, single sideband suppressed carrier signals were used. Carrier equipment was prone to all sorts of problems. The most common problem with network radio feeds was what we called carrier whine. A continuous tone would appear between 30 and 40 dB below program level. Sometimes several of these tones would appear at the same time. Even after the telephone company started using microwave transmission equipment, radio networks remained on the same old land lines they had been using for many years. On the evening of May 25, 1944, show business veteran Eddie Cantor was to perform on TV a song he'd introduced on Broadway, entitled "We're Having a Baby, My Baby and Me." Forty minutes before airtime, NBC officials ordered Cantor to eliminate the song because its lyrics were offensive. Cantor argued that he hadn't enough time to prepare another number. Apparently the NBC staff relented and allowed him to begin the song on the air, performed with a female partner, Nora Martin. But part way through the song, NBC's engineers shut off the audio signal during the following lyrics: Martin: Thanks to you, my life is bright. You've brought me joy beyond measure. Cantor: Don't thank me. Quite all right. Honestly, it was a pleasure. Martin: Just think, it's my first one. Cantor: The next one's on me. Then, the NBC cameras televised Cantor only from the waist up as he performed what the New York Times called "a modified hula-hula dance," an act of censorship that predated by twelve years a similar incident with Elvis Presley on the "Ed Sullivan Show." Immediately after the show, Eddie Cantor said he was "blazing mad at fellows who tell you it's all right and then sneak around and cut you off." NBC did have the right to cut lyrics, Cantor said. "But when little Hitlers tell you you can't do it just as you're going on, that's tough." Besides, "it's a straight song," Cantor said, "and I sing it straight." He further claimed, "No man can be in the business for thirty-five years and do any vulgarity and last. I've been at it longer than NBC or television." The truth was that Cantor had often performed songs in vaudeville, on Broadway, and even on the radio that were risque, if not vulgar. A trademark Cantor song, for example, suggested, "If you knew Susie like I know Susie--oh! oh! oh! what a girl!" And one of his most famous numbers, "Makin' Whoopee," the title song to a Broadway show and motion picture in which he starred, was about sex and pregnancy. It's quite possible that Cantor's song, had it gone out over the airwaves, might have offended some of the TV viewers that night. That was the reason stated by an NBC vice president in response to Cantor's complaints. It was "the obligation of NBC to the public," he said, "to keep from American homes material which the audience would find objectionable." The NBC executives may have worried even more about a special audience they'd assembled to watch the program: a dinner crowd of Philadelphia businessmen. RCA and Philco were using the telecast to publicize the opening of an improved relay link between New York and Philadelphia. In fact, the program itself hadn't been listed on WNBT's schedule that week and was seen only by viewers who happened to have turned on their sets. Those who did saw not only TV's first censored program, they also watched one of the few top show business stars to appear thus far on TV. Both were signs of things to come. Spring 1945 was a time of momentous events, including the death in office of President Franklin Roosevelt in April, just as World War II in Europe drew to a close. Within a few weeks Adolph Hitler and Benito Mussolini died, too, and the new United States president, Harry Truman, designated May 8 to celebrate the victory in Europe. But WNBT sent its mobile TV camera to Times Square a day earlier when crowds began to gather that afternoon. This emotional moment, the spontaneous celebration of the end of a war, was televised live as it happened. Like the nomination of Wendell Willkie in 1940, the V-E celebration on May 7 was an unexpected national drama caught by TV and televised to an audience of thousands. Another came the next day, during the official V-E Day celebration, when Eleanor Roosevelt (the late President's widow) was interviewed live in the WNBT studio, sitting before a backdrop of flags from countries in the new United Nations. Dressed in dark clothes of mourning, she cautioned the public not to become apathetic or too weary of war; there was still the war against Japan to win. On May 8, WNBT went on the air earlier than ever before, at 8:45 a.m., to transmit the victory speech recorded in advance by President Harry Truman. WNBT stayed on the air all day, switching between its mobile unit covering live the celebration, films of the war, and interviews, commentaries, sermons, and discussions in the RCA studio. WNBT's coverage of V-E Day continued through the evening, until the closing strains of Verdi's "Hymn to the Nations," on film with Arturo Toscanini and the NBC Symphony Orchestra, at 10:54 p.m. WRGB in Schenectady, NY, was on the air almost as long as WNBT on May 8, from 10:30 a.m. until 11:00 p.m. As with other public events since 1940, the station used WNBT's transmission, relayed from Manhattan--but with something new. WRGB had its mobile unit out in Schenectady, filming reactions in this war-industry city, and also brought local officials into the studio for interviews and comments. The films and the studio programs were then interspersed with WNBT's coverage. Together, WNBT and WRGB made V-E Day in May 1945 a milestone in American television. For the first time, TV went on the air to cover a major news event and stayed on the air, filling the hours with live coverage, background films, and studio commentary. With V-E Day, television journalism was born. V-E Day was also covered to a lesser extent by WCBW and by the Blue network, using Du Mont's studio in New York. Thus, for two hours on the evening of May 8, television viewers in the New York City area had for the first time three TV stations to choose from--all covering the same news event. THE RCA and NBC EXPERIMENTAL TELEVISION PROJECTS During the first half of 1932, an experimental television system had been used in New York using a studio scanning apparatus. This consisted of a mechanical disk, flying-spot type, for an image of 120 lines. Even for small areas of coverage and for 120 lines, the resulting signal amplitude was unsatisfactory. In the Camden system, an iconoscope was used as the pick-up device. The use of the iconoscope permitted transmission of greater detail, outdoor pick-up, and wider areas of coverage in the studio. Experience indicated that it provided a new degree of flexibility in pick-up performance, thereby removing one of the most technical obstacles to television. 1 After many years of research and development an all-electronic television system emerged from the laboratory in 1933 for actual field tests. These tests were carried out at Camden (New Jersey), using a video transmitter and connected to it by a coaxial line. Iconoscopes (television cameras) were used to pick up scenes both in the studio and out-of-doors. A scanning pattern of 240 lines made it possible to obtain a picture with good definition, but as the frame frequency was 24 cycles, without interlacing , flicker was quite noticeable. The following year (1934) the number of lines was increased to 343, and an interlaced pattern having a field frequency of 60 cycles and a repetition rate of 30 frames per second was adopted. The results of these tests were so satisfactory that it was decided to continue them in New York City, the site of earlier RCA tests using a mechanical scanner. The advantage of the new location was that transmission studies under more nearly the conditions encountered in actual broadcasts were possible, in particular, with respect to noise and reflection from buildings. This move was made in 1935, tests followed the following year. The New York studios were located in Radio City. The transmitter was installed in one of the upper floors of the Empire State Building, with the antenna on the mooring mast, 1285 feet above street level. Two links interconnect the studio and transmitter. One of these is an underground coaxial cable approximately a mile in length. An ultra-high-frequency radio relay link operating at 177 megacycles serves as (an) alternative for interconnecting the two units. In order to increase the flexibility of the system, and to permit outdoor and indoor pickup from remote points, a mobile unit consisting of a pickup truck and transmitter, which operated at 177 megacycles, was placed in service in 1938. Approximately one hundred receivers were built and located at various points within a radius of 50 miles of the transmitter. These, together with field strength measurements, gave detailed information as to the effect of the terrain on the received pictures. They also facilitated obtaining data on the reaction of a great variety of people to different types of programs.

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Chapter I The Development of Electricity The phenomenon which Thales had observed and recorded five centuries before the birth of Christ aroused the interest of many scientists through the ages. They made various practical experiments in their efforts to identify the elusive force which Thales had likened to a 'soul' and which we now know to have been static electricity. Of all forms of energy, electricity is the most baffling and difficult to describe. An electric current cannot be seen. In fact it does not exist outside the wires and other conductors which carry it. A live wire carrying a current looks exactly the same and weighs exactly the same as it does when it is not carrying a current. An electric current is simply a movement or flow of electrons. Benjamin Franklin, the American statesman and scientist born in Boston in 1706, investigated the nature of thunder and lightning by flying a child's kite during a thunderstorm. He had attached a metal spike to the kite, and at the other end of the string to which the kite was tied he secured a key. As the rain soaked into the string, electricity flowed freely down the string and Franklin was able to draw large sparks from the key. Of course this could have been very dangerous, but he had foreseen it and had supported the string through an insulator. He observed that this electricity had the same properties as the static electricity produced by friction. But long before Franklin many other scientists had carried out research into the nature of electricity. In England William Gilbert (1544-1603) had noticed that the powers of attraction and repulsion of two non-metallic rods which he had rubbed briskly were similar to those of lodestone and amber--they had acquired the curious quality we call magnetism. Remembering Thales of old he coined the word 'electricity'. Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) a Mayor of Magdeburg in Germany, was an amateur scientist who had constructed all manner of gadgets. One of them was a machine consisting of two glass discs revolving in opposite directions which produced high voltage charges through friction. Ramsden and Wimshurst built improved versions of the machine. A significant breakthrough occurred when Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) in Italy constructed a simple electric cell (in 1799) which produced a flow of electrons by chemical means. Two plates, one of copper and the other of zinc, were placed in an acid solution and a current flowed through an external wire connecting the two plates. Later he connected cells in series (voltaic pile) which consisted of alternate layers of zinc and copper discs separated by flannel discs soaked in brine or acid which produced a higher electric pressure (voltage). But Volta never found the right explanation of why his cell was working. He thought the flow of electric current was due to the contact between the two metals, whereas in fact it results from the chemical action of the electrolyte on the zinc plate. However, his discovery proved to be of incalculable value in research, as it enabled scientists to carry out experiments which led to the discoveries of the heating, lighting, chemical and magnetic effects of electricity. One of the many scientists and physicists who took advantage of the 'current electricity' made possible by Volta's cells was Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) of Denmark. Like many others he was looking for a connection between the age-old study of magnetism and electricity, but now he was able to pass electric currents through wires and place magnets in various positions near the wires. His epoch-making discovery which established for the first time the relationship between magnetism and electricity was in fact an accident. While lecturing to students he showed them that the current flowing in a wire held over a magnetic compass needle and at right angles to it (that is east-west) had no effect on the needle. Oersted suggested to his assistant that he might try holding the wire parallel to the length of the needle (north-south) and hey presto, the needle was deflected! He had stumbled upon the electromagnetic effect in the first recorded instance of a wire behaving like a magnet when a current is passed through it. A development of Oersted's demonstration with the compass needle was used to construct the world's first system of signaling by the use of electricity. In 1837 Charles Wheatstone and William Cooke took out a patent for the world's first Five-needle Telegraph, which was installed between Paddington railway station in west London and West Drayton station a few miles away. The five copper wires required for this system were embedded in blocks of wood. Electrolysis, the chemical decomposition of a substance into its constituent elements by the action of an electric current, was discovered by the English chemists Carlisle and William Nicholson (1753-1815). If an electric current is passed through water it is broken down into the two elements of which it is composed--hydrogen and oxygen. The process is used extensively in modern industry for electroplating. Michael Faraday (1791-1867) who was employed as a chemist at the Royal Institution, was responsible for introducing many of the technical terms connected with electrolysis, like electrolyte for the liquid through which the electric current is passed, and anode and cathode for the positive and negative electrodes respectively. He also established the laws of the process itself. But most people remember his name in connection with his practical demonstration of electromagnetic induction. In France Andre-Marie Ampere (1775-1836) carried out a complete mathematical study of the laws which govern the interaction between wires carrying electric currents. In Germany in 1826 a Bavarian schoolmaster Georg Ohm (1789-1854) had defined the relationship between electric pressure (voltage), current (flow rate) and resistance in a circuit (Ohm's law) but 16 years had to elapse before he received recognition for his work. Scientists were now convinced that since the flow of an electric current in a wire or a coil of wire caused it to acquire magnetic properties, the opposite might also prove to be true: a magnet could possibly be used to generate a flow of electricity. Michael Faraday had worked on this problem for ten years when finally, in 1830, he gave his famous lecture in which he demonstrated, for the first time in history, the principle of electromagnetic induction. He had constructed powerful electromagnets consisting of coils of wire. When he caused the magnetic lines of force surrounding one coil to rise and fall by interrupting or varying the flow of current, a similar current was induced in a neighbouring coil closely coupled to the first. The colossal importance of Faraday's discovery was that it paved the way for the generation of electricity by mechanical means. However, as can be seen from the drawing, the basic generator produces an alternating flow of current.(A.C.) Rotating a coil of wire steadily through a complete revolution in the steady magnetic field between the north and south poles of a magnet results in an electromotive force (E.M.F.) at its terminals which rises in value, falls back to zero, reverses in a negative direction, reaches a peak and again returns to zero. This completes one cycle or sine wave. (1Hz in S.I.units). In recent years other methods have been developed for generating electrical power in relatively small quantities for special applications. Semiconductors, which combine heat insulation with good electrical conduction, are used for thermoelectric generators to power isolated weather stations, artificial satellites, undersea cables and marker buoys. Specially developed diode valves are used as thermionic generators with an efficiency, at present, of only 20% but the heat taken away from the anode is used to raise steam for conventional power generation. Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) one of Britain's leading chemists of the 18th century, is best remembered for his safety lamp for miners which cut down the risk of methane gas explosions in mines. It was Davy who first demonstrated that electricity could be used to produce light. He connected two carbon rods to a heavy duty storage battery. When he touched the tips of the rods together a very bright white light was produced. As he drew the rods apart, the arc light persisted until the tips had burnt away to the critical gap which extinguished the light. As a researcher and lecturer at the Royal Institution Davy worked closely with Michael Faraday who first joined the institution as his manservant and later became his secretary. Davy's crowning honour in the scientific world came in 1820, when he was elected President of the Royal Society. In the U.S.A. the prolific inventor Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1831) who had invented the incandescent carbon filament bulb, built a number of electricity generators in the vicinity of the Niagara Falls. These used the power of the falling water to drive hydraulic turbines which were coupled to the dynamos. These generators were fitted with a spinning switch or commutator (one of the neatest gadgets Edison ever invented) to make the current flow in unidirectional pulses (D.C.) In 1876 all electrical equipment was powered by direct current. Today mains electricity plays a vital part in our everyday lives and its applications are widespread and staggering in their immensity. But we must not forget that popular demand for this convenient form of power arose only about 100 years ago, mainly for illumination. Recent experiments in superconductivity, using ceramic instead metal conductors have given us an exciting glimpse into what might be achieved for improving efficiency in the distribution of electric power. Historians of the future may well characterise the 20th century as 'the century of electricity & electronics'. But Edison's D.C. generators could not in themselves, have achieved the spectacular progress that has been made. All over the world we depend totally on a system of transmitting mains electricity over long distances which was originally created by an amazing inventor whose scientific discoveries changed, and are still changing, the whole world. His name was scarcely known to the general public, especially in Europe, where he was born. Who was this unknown pioneer? Some people reckon that it was this astonishing visionary who invented wireless, remote control, robotics and a form of X-ray photography using high frequency radio waves. A patent which he took out in the U.S.A. in 1890 ultimately led to the design of the humble ignition coil which energises billions and billions of spark plugs in all the motor cars of the world. His American patents fill a book two inches thick. His name was Nicola Tesla (1856-1943). Nicola Tesla was born in a small village in Croatia which at that time formed part of the great Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is a northern province of Yugoslavia, a state created after the 1914-1918 war. Tesla studied at the Graz Technical University and later in Budapest. Early in his studies he had the idea that a way had to be found to run electric motors directly from A.C. generators. His professor in Graz had assured him categorically that this was not possible. But young Tesla was not convinced. When he went to Budapest he got a job in the Central Telegraph Office, and one evening in 1882, as he was sitting on a bench in the City Park he had an inspiration which ultimately led to the solution of the problem. Tesla remembered a poem by the German poet Goethe about the sun which supports life on the earth and when the day is over moves on to give life to the other side of the globe. He picked up a twig and began to scratch a drawing on the soil in front of him. He drew four coils arranged symmetrically round the circumference of a circle. In the centre he drew a rotor or armature. As each coil in turn was energised it attracted the rotor towards it and the rotary motion was established. When he constructed the first practical models he used eight, sixteen and even more coils. The simple drawing on the ground led to the design of the first induction motor driven directly by A.C.electricity. Tesla emigrated to the U.S.A. in 1884. During the first year he filed no less than 30 patents mostly in relation to the generation and distribution of A.C. mains electricity. He designed and built his 'A.C. Polyphase System' which generated three-phase alternating current at 25 Hz. One particular unit delivered 422 amperes at 12,000 volts. The beauty of this system was that the voltage could be stepped down using transformers for local use, or stepped up to many thousands of volts for transmission over long distances through relatively thin conductors. Edison's generating stations were incapable of any such thing. Tesla signed a lucrative contract with the famous railway engineer George Westinghouse, the inventor of the Westinghouse Air Brake which is used by most railways all over the world to the present day. Their generating station was put into service in 1895 and was called the Niagara Falls Electricity Generating Company. It supplied power for the Westinghouse network of trains and also for an industrial complex in Buffalo, New York. After ten years Tesla began to experiment with high frequencies. The Tesla Coil which he had patented in 1890 was capable of raising voltages to unheard of levels such as 300,000 volts. Edison, who was still generating D.C., claimed A.C. was dangerous and to prove it contracted with the government to produce the first electric chair using A.C. for the execution of murderers condemned to death. When it was first used it was a ghastly flop. The condemned man moaned and groaned and foamed at the mouth. After four minutes of repeated application of the A.C.voltage smoke began to come out of his back. It was obvious that the victim had suffered a horribly drawn-out death. Tesla said he could prove that A.C. was not dangerous. He gave a demonstration of high voltage electricity flowing harmlessly over his body. But in reality, he cheated, because he had used a frequency of 10,000 cycles (10 kHz) at extremely low current and because of the skin effect suffered no harm. One of Tesla's patents related to a system of lighting using glass tubes filled with fluorine (not neon) excited by H.F.voltages. His workshop was lit by this method. Several years before Wilhelm Roentgen demonstrated his system of X-rays Tesla had been taking photographs of the bones in his hand and his foot from up to 40 feet away using H.F.currents. More astonishing still is the fact that in 1893, two years before Marconi demonstrated his system of wireless signaling, Tesla had built a model boat in which he combined power to drive it with radio control and robotics. He put the small boat in a lake in Madison Square Gardens in New York. Standing on the shore with a control box, he invited onlookers to suggest movements. He was able to make the boat go forwards and backwards and round in circles. We all know how model cars and aircraft are controlled by radio today, but when Tesla did it a century ago the motor car had not been invented, and the only method by which man could cover long distances was on horseback! Many people believe that a modification of Tesla's 'Magnifying Transmitter' was used by the Soviet Union when suddenly one day in October 1976 they produced an amazing noise which blotted out all radio transmissions between 6 and 20 MHz. (The Woodpecker) The B.B.C., the N.B.C. and most broadcasting and telecommunication organisations of the world complained to Moscow (the noise had persisted continuously for 10 hours on the first day), but all the Russians would say in reply was that they were carrying out an experiment. At first nobody seemed to know what they were doing because it was obviously not intended as another form of jamming of foreign broadcasts, an old Russian custom as we all know. It is believed that in the pursuit of his life's ambition to send power through the earth without the use of wires, Tesla had achieved a small measure of success at E.L.F. (extremely low frequencies) of the order of 7 to 12 Hz. These frequencies are at present used by the military for communicating with submarines submerged in the oceans of the world. Tesla's career and private life have remained something of a mystery. He lived alone and shunned public life. He never read any of his papers before academic institutions, though he was friendly with some journalists who wrote sensational stories about him. They said he was terrified of microbes and that when he ate out at a restaurant he would ask for a number of clean napkins to wipe the cutlery and the glasses he drank out of. For the last 20 years of his life until he died during World War II in 1943 he lived the life of a semi-recluse, with a pigeon as his only companion. A disastrous fire had destroyed his workshops and many of his experimental models and all his papers were lost for ever. Tesla had moved to Colorado Springs where he built his largest ever coil which was 52 feet in diameter. He studied all the different forms of lightning in his unsuccessful quest for the transmission of power without wires. In Yugoslavia, Tesla is a national hero and a well-equipped museum in Belgrade contains abundant proof of the genius of this extraordinary man By 1850 most of the basic electrical phenomena had been investigated. However, James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), Professor of Experimental Physics at Cambridge then came up with something entirely new. By some elegant mathematics he had shown the probable existence of electromagnetic waves of radiation. But it was twenty four years later (eight years after Maxwell's death) that Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) in Germany gave a practical demonstration of the accuracy of this theory. He generated and detected electromagnetic waves across the length of his laboratory on a wavelength of approximately one metre. His own photograph of the equipment he had set up can be seen in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. To detect the electromagnetic waves Hertz employed a simple form of oscillator, which he termed a resonator. But it was not sensitive enough to detect waves at any great distance. Before wireless telegraphy could become practicable, a more delicate detector was necessary. Credit is due to Edouard Branly (1844-1940) of France for producing the first practical instrument for detecting Hertzian waves, the coherer. It consisted of two metal cylinders with leads attached, fitted tightly into the interior of a glass tube containing iron or steel filings. The instant an electric discharge of any sort occurred the coherer became conductive, and if it was tapped lightly its conducting property was immediately destroyed. In practice the tapping was done automatically by a tapper which came into action the moment the coherer became conductive. In Russia the physicist Aleksandr Popov (1859-1905) had used a coherer while engaged in the investigation of the effects of lightning discharges. He suggested that such discharges could possibly be used for signaling over long distances. Old timers may remember that about 50 years ago Russian amateurs used to send out a QSL card with a drawing of Popov and a caption which claimed that he was 'the inventor of radio'. In Italy, a young 22-year-old electrician became interested in electromagnetic radiation after reading papers by Professor Augusto Righi (1850-1921). It was Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), the son of a well-to-do landowner who lived in Bologna, and who was married to Annie Jameson of the well known Irish Whiskey family. Guglielmo, their second son, had his early education at a private school in Bedford, England, and later at Livorno and Florence in Italy. When he read about the experiments of Heinrich Hertz and about Popov's suggestion, he saw the possibility of using these waves as a means of signaling. His first transmitter, shown in the accompanying photograph, did not radiate very far. When he folded the metal plate into a cylinder and placed it on a pole 30 feet above the induction coil and connected to it by a vertical wire, he was able to detect the radiation nearly two kilometres away. Marconi realised that his signaling system would be most useful to shipping, and in those days England possessed the world's greatest navy and the world's biggest merchant fleet. The Italian government was not interested in young Marconi's work, so after a family conference he was brought to London by his mother, who had influential relatives there. Not only did they finance his early experiments but they also put him in touch with the right sort of people. One of these was Alan A. Campbell Swinton who became the first President of the Radio Society of London (now the R.S.G.B.) many years later, in 1913. Campbell Swinton introduced the young Italian to William Preece, then Engineer-in-Chief of the British Post Office. Preece had already been investigating various methods of 'induction' telegraphy. In a book entitled Wireless Telegraphy published in 1908, William J.White of the Engineer-in-Chief's department at the G.P.O. wrote, "The work of Sir (then Mr) William Preece, important though it was, did not attract the attention of the public to the extent that might have been expected. This was due to the fact that no sooner had he demonstrated a method of wireless telegraphy which was a commercial possibility than his system was superseded by another, and a better one, brought to England by Mr Guglielmo Marconi in 1896. The possibilities of Mr Marconi's system were at once recognised by Mr William Preece. The experience of the elder and the genius of the younger man, who must be given the credit of having devised the first practical system for wireless telegraphy, combined to turn apparently disastrous failures into success, and now (in 1908), wireless telegraphy has become, in less than a decade, part and parcel of commercial and national life." The world's first patent for wireless telegraphy was awarded to Marconi on the 2nd June 1896. In it he stated that "electrical action can be transmitted through the earth, air or water, by means of oscillations of high frequency." In the first public demonstration of his equipment Marconi spanned the 365 metres between the G.P.O. and Victoria street. Later, on Salisbury Plain, in March 1897, his signals were detected over 7 kilometres away. On the 11th & 18th May 1897 messages were first exchanged over water. On the 27th of March 1899, during naval manoeuvres, Marconi bridged the English Channel for the first time, a distance of about 140 kilometres. His transatlantic triumph came on the 12th December 1901 when the morse letter 'S' was transmitted from Poldhu, in Cornwall and received by Marconi himself at St. John's, Newfoundland, who recorded the historic event in his pocket book simply "Sigs at 12.20, 1.10 & 2.20". The operation of Marconi's transmitter was itself quite spectacular. To produce the oscillations he employed the oscillator designed by Augusto Righi. Depressing the key closed the circuit and brought the inductor coil into action. Vivid sparks occurred between the balls of the oscillator, to the accompaniment of a succession of sharp cracks, like the reports of a pistol, and some energy was sent off the square metal plate in the form of trains of electromagnetic waves, which radiated out in all directions. But the energy occupied a very large bandwidth and the receivers of that period could not separate two transmissions. William J.White of the Post Office wrote in 1908, "The chief objection which has been raised against modern wireless telegraphy is its want of secrecy. With a transmitter sending out waves in all directions, it is possible for unscrupulous persons to receive the messages and make an improper use of them. This form of 'scientific hooliganism' has, in fact, become somewhat notorious. When two or three transmitters are each sending out their electromagnetic waves, the result, naturally, is utter confusion." White added that the British Postal Administration was refusing to grant licences for more than one system in the same area, in spite of the fact that there had been some 'alleged' solutions of the problem. The phenomenon of resonance was known and Dr (later Sir Oliver) Lodge had taken out various patents between 1889 and 1898 in connection with receivers. Marconi and his assistants ultimately solved the problem by modifying Lodge's syntonic Leyden jar tuned circuit. They added a tapped inductance in the aerial circuit of the transmitter and used variable capacitors instead of fixed ones. This was probably the most significant modification made in the development of wireless telegraphy. (In Greek the word syntonismos 'to bring to equal tone' is used for 'tuning'.) Apart from the patents taken out by Sir Oliver Lodge and Dr Alexander Muirhead, in 1897, patents were taken out in Germany by Professor Braun of Strasbourg, who was joined by Professor Slaby and Count D'Arco in 1903 to form the Telefunken company, and in the U.S.A. by Dr Lee De Forest of the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company who was the first to use a high A.C. voltage of 20,000 volts to obtain the necessary high-potential discharges, thus dispensing with the induction coil. Again in the U.S.A., Professor R.O.Fessenden was responsible for the design of new types of transmitting and receiving apparatus. During this period Marconi had resisted all offers by financiers to acquire his patents. In July 1897 he entrusted his cousin Jameson Davis to form The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company Ltd which soon became Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co., and ultimately the Marconi Company. William Preece of the Post Office detached one of his assistants, George S. Kemp, to help Marconi. Kemp was destined to become his right-hand man and served Marconi faithfully throughout his life. By today's standards, Marconi can be said to have been a highly successful entrepreneur. He had the great knack of selecting the right man for the job, and inspired deep loyalty in his staff. He regarded himself as an 'amateur' and often paid tribute to the work of radio experimenters. The exigencies and experiences of the Civil War demonstrated, among other theorems, the vast utility and indispensable importance of the electric telegraph both as an administrative agent and as a tactical factor in military operations. In addition to the utilization of existing commercial systems, there were built and operated more than fifteen thousand miles of lines for military purposes only. Serving under the anomalous status of quartermaster's employees, often under conditions of personal danger, and with no definite official standing, the operators of the military telegraph service performed work of most vital import to the army in particular and to the country in general. They fully merited the gratitude of the Nation for their efficiency, fidelity, and patriotism, yet their services have never been practically recognized by the Government or appreciated by the people. For instance, during the war there occurred in the line of duty more than three hundred casualties among the operators -from disease, death in battle, wounds, or capture. Scores of these unfortunate victims left families dependent upon charity, as the United States neither extended aid to their destitute families nor admitted needy survivors to a pensionable status. The telegraph service had neither definite personnel nor corps organization. It was simply a civilian bureau attached to the Quartermaster's Department, in which a few of its favored members received commissions. The men who performed the dangerous work in the field were mere employees-mostly underpaid, and often treated with scant consideration. The inherent defects of such a nondescript organization made it impossible for it to adjust and adapt itself to the varying demands and imperative needs of great and independent armies such as were employed in the Civil War. Moreover, the chief, Colonel Anson Stager, was stationed in Cleveland, Ohio, while an active subordinate, Major Thomas T. Eckert was associated with the great war secretary, who held the service in his iron grasp. Not only were its commissioned officers free from other authority than that of the Secretary of War, but operators, engaged in active campaigning thousands of miles from Washington, were independent of the generals under whom they were serving. As will appear later, operators suffered from the natural impatience of military commanders, who resented the abnormal relations which inevitably led to distrust and contention. While such irritations and distrusts were rarely justified, none the less they proved detrimental to the best interests of the United States. On the one hand, the operators were ordered to report to, and obey only, the corporation representatives who dominated the War Department, while on the other their lot was cast with military associates, who frequently regarded them with a certain contempt or hostility. Thus, the life of the field-operator was hard, indeed, and it is to the lasting credit of the men, as a class, that their intelligence and patriotism were equal to the situation and won final confidence. Emergent conditions in 1861 caused the seizure of the commercial systems around Washington, and Assistant Secretary of War Thomas A. Scott was made general manager of all such lines. He secured the cooperation of E. S. Sanford, of the American Telegraph Company, who imposed much needed restrictions as to cipher messages, information, and so forth on all operators. The scope of the work was much increased by an act of Congress, in 1862, authorizing the seizure of any or all lines, in connection with which Sanford was appointed censor. Through Andrew Carnegie was obtained the force which opened the War Department Telegraph Office; which speedily attained national importance by its remarkable work, and with which the memory of Abraham Lincoln must be inseparably associated. It was fortunate for the success of the telegraphic policy of the Government that it was entrusted to men of such administrative ability as Colonel Anson Stager, E. S. Sanford, and Major Thomas T. Eckert. The selection of operators for the War Office was surprisingly fortunate, including, as it did, three cipher-operators-D. H. Bates, A. B. Chandler, and C. A. Tinker-of high character, rare skill, and unusual discretion. The military exigencies brought Sanford as censor and Eckert as assistant general manager, who otherwise performed their difficult duties with great efficiency; it must be added that at times they were inclined to display a striking disregard of proprieties and most unwarrantedly to enlarge the scope of their already extended authority. An interesting instance of the conflict of telegraphic and military authority was shown when Sanford mutilated McClellan's passionate dispatch to Stanton, dated Savage's Station, June 29, 1862, in the midst of the Seven Days Battles.* Eckert also withheld from President Lincoln the dispatch announcing the Federal defeat at Ball's Bluff. The suppression by Eckert of Grant's order for the removal of Thomas *By cutting out of the message the last two sentences, reading: "If I save this army now, I tell you plainly that I owe no thanks to you or to any other person in Washington. You have done your best to sacrifice this army." finds support only in the splendid victory of that great soldier at Nashville, and that only under the maxim that the end justifies the means. Eckert's narrow escape from summary dismissal by Stanton shows that, equally with the President and the commanding general, the war secretary was sometimes treated disrespectfully by his own subordinates. One phase of life in the telegraph-room of the War Department--it is surprising that the White House bad no telegraph office during the war -- was Lincoln's daily visit thereto, and the long hours spent by him in the cipher-room, whose quiet seclusion made it a favorite retreat both for rest and also for important work requiring undisturbed thought and undivided attention. There Lincoln turned over with methodical exactness and anxious expectation the office-file of recent messages. There be awaited patiently the translation of ciphers which forecasted promising plans for coming campaigns, told tales of unexpected defeat, recited the story of victorious battles, conveyed impossible demands, or suggested inexpedient policies. Masking anxiety by quaint phrases, impassively accepting criticism, harmonizing conflicting conditions, he patiently pondered over situations-both political and military-swayed in his solutions only by considerations of public good. For in this room were held conferences of vital national interest, with cabinet officers, generals, congressmen, and others. But his greatest task done here was that which required many days, during which was written the original draft of the memorable proclamation of emancipation. Especially important was the technical work of Bates, Chandler, and Tinker enciphering and deciphering important messages to and from the great contending armies, which was done by code. Stager devised the first cipher, which was so improved by the cipher-operators that it remained untranslatable by the Confederates to the end of the war. An example of the method in general use, given by Plum in his " History of the Military Telegraph," is Lincoln's dispatch to ex-Secretary Cameron when with Meade south of Gettysburg. Brilliant and conspicuous service was rendered by the cipher-operators of the War Department in translating Confederate cipher messages which fell into Union hands. A notable incident in the field was the translation of General Joseph E. Johnston's cipher message to Pemberton, captured by Grant before Vicksburg and forwarded to Washington. More important were the two cipher dispatches from the Secretary of War at Richmond, in December, 1863, which led to a cabinet meeting and culminated in the arrest of Confederate conspirators in New York city, and to the capture of contraband shipments of arms and ammunition. Other intercepted and translated ciphers revealed plans of Confederate agents for raiding Northern towns near the border. Most important of all were the cipher messages disclosing the plot for the wholesale incendiarism of leading hotels in New York, which barely failed of success on November 25, 1864. Beneficial and desirable as were the civil cooperation and management of the telegraph service in Washington, its forced extension to armies in the field was a mistaken policy. Patterson, in the Valley of Virginia, was five days without word from the War Department, and when he sent a dispatch, July 20th, that Johnston bad started to reinforce Beauregard with 35,200 men, this vital message was not sent to McDowell with whom touch was kept by a service half-telegraphic and half-courier. The necessity of efficient field-telegraphs at once impressed military commanders. In. the West, Fremont immediately acted, and in August, 1861, ordered the formation of a telegraph battalion of three companies along lines in accord with modern military practice. Major Myer had already made similar suggestions in Washington, without success. While the commercial companies placed their personnel and material freely at the Government's disposal, they viewed with marked disfavor any military organization, and their recommendations were potent with Secretary of War Cameron. Fremont was ordered to disband his battalion, and a purely civil bureau was substituted, though legal authority and funds were equally lacking. Efforts to transfer quartermaster's funds and property to this bureau were successfully resisted, owing to the manifest illegality of such action. Indirect methods were then adopted, and Stager was commissioned as a captain in the Quartermaster's Department, and his operators given the status of employees. He was appointed general manager of United States telegraph lines, November 25, 1861, and six days later, through some unknown influence, the Secretary of War reported (incorrectly, be it known), " that under an appropriation for that purpose at the last session of Congress, a telegraph bureau was established." Stager was later made a colonel, Eckert a major, and a few others captains, and so eligible for pensions, but the men in lesser positions remained employees, non-pensionable and subject to draft. Repeated efforts by petitions and recommendations for giving a military status were made by the men in the field later in the war. The Secretary of War disapproved, saying that such a course would place them under the orders of superior officers, which he was most anxious to avoid. With corporation influence and corps rivalries so rampant in Washington, there existed a spirit of patriotic solidarity in the face of the. foe in the field that ensured hearty cooperation and efficient service. While the operators began with a sense of individual independence that caused them often to resent any control by commanding officers, from which they were free under the secretary's orders, yet their common sense speedily led them to comply with every request from commanders that was not absolutely incompatible with loyalty to their chief. Especially in the public eye was the work connected with the operations in the armies which covered Washington and attacked Richmond, where McClellan first used the telegraph for tactical purposes. Illustrative of the courage and resourcefulness of operators was the action of Jesse Bunnell, attached to General Porter's headquarters. Finding himself on the fighting line, with the Federal troops hard pressed, Bunnell, without orders, cut the wire and opened communication with McClellan's headquarters. Superior Confederate forces were then threatening defeat to the invaders, but this battle-office enabled McClellan to keep in touch with the situation and ensure Porter's position by sending the commands of French, Meagher, and Slocum to his relief. Operator Nichols opened an emergency office at Savage's Station on Stimner's request, maintaining it under fire as long as it was needed. One of the great feats of the war was the transfer,, under the supervision of Thomas A. Scott, of two Federal army corps from Virginia to Tennessee, consequent on the Chickamauga disaster to the Union arms. By this phenomenal transfer, which would have been impossible without the military telegraph, twenty-three thousand soldiers, with provisions and baggage, were transported a distance of 1,233 miles in eleven and a half days, from Bristoe Station, Virginia, to Chattanooga, Tennessee. The troops had completed half their journey before the news of the proposed movement reached Richmond. While most valuable elsewhere, the military telegraph was absolutely essential to successful operations in the valleys of the Cumberland and of the Tennessee, where very long lines of communication obtained, with consequent great distances between its separate armies. Apart from train-dispatching, which was absolutely essential to transporting army supplies for hundreds of thousands of men over a single-track railway of several hundred of miles in length, an enormous number of messages for the control and cooperation of separate armies and detached commands were sent over the wires. Skill and patience were necessary for efficient telegraph work, especially when lines were frequently destroyed by Confederate incursions or through hostile inhabitants of the country. Of great importance and of intense interest are many of the cipher dispatches sent over these lines. Few, however, exceed the ringing messages of October 19, 1863, when Grant, from Louisville, Kentucky, bid Thomas " to hold Chattanooga at all hazards," and received the laconic reply in a few hours, " I will bold the town till we starve." Here, as elsewhere, appeared the anomalous conditions of the service. While telegraph duties were performed with efficiency, troubles were often precipitated by divided authority. When Superintendent Stager ordered a civilian, who was engaged ill building lines, out of Halleck's department, the general ordered him back, saying, " There must be one good head of telegraph lines in my department, not two, and that head must be under me." Though Stager protested to Secretary of War Stanton, the latter thought it best to yield in that case. When General Grant found it expedient to appoint an aide as general manager of lines in his army, the civilian chief, J. C. Van Duzer, reported it to Stager, who had Grant called to account by the War Department. Grant promptly put Van Duzer under close confinement in the guardhouse, and later sent him out of the department, under guard. As an outcome, the operators planned a strike, which Grant quelled by telegraphic orders to confine closely every man resigning or guilty, of contumacious conduct. Stager's efforts to dominate Grant failed t rough Stanton's fear that pressure would cause Grant to ask for relief from his command. Stager's administration culminated in an order by his assistant, dated Cleveland, November 4, 1862;,strictly requiring the operators to retain " the original copy of every telegram sent by any military or other Government officer . . . and mailed to the War Department." Grant answered, " Colonel Stager has no authority to demand the original of military dispatches, and cannot have them." The order was never enforced, at least with Grant. If similar experiences did not change the policy in Washington, it produced better conditions in the field and ensured harmonious cooperation. Of Van Duzer, it is to be said that he later returned to the army and performed conspicuous service. At the battle of Chattanooga, be installed and operated lines on or near the firing-line during the two fateful days, November 24-25, 1863, often under heavy fire. Always sharing the dangers of his men, Van Duzer, through his coolness and activity under fire, has been mentioned as the only fighting of officer of the Federal telegraph service. Other than telegraphic espionage, the most dangerous service was the repair of lines, which often was done under fire and more frequently in a guerilla-infested country. Many men were captured or shot from ambush while thus engaged. Two of Clowry's men in Arkansas were not only murdered, but were frightfully mutilated. In Tennessee, conditions were sometimes so bad that no lineman would venture out save under heavy escort. Three repair men were killed on the Fort Donelson line alone. W. R. Plum, in his " Military Telegraph," says that " about one in twelve of the operators engaged in the service were killed, wounded, captured, or died in the service from exposure." Telegraphic duties at military headquarters yielded little in brilliancy and interest compared to those of desperate daring associated with tapping the opponent's wires. At times, offices were seized so quickly as to prevent telegraphic warnings. General Mitchel captured two large Confederate railway trains by sending false messages from the Huntsville, Alabama, office, and General Seymour similarly seized a train near Jacksonville, Florida. While scouting, Operator William Forster obtained valuable dispatches by tapping the line along the Charleston-Savannah railway for two days. Discovered, he was pursued by bloodhounds into a swamp, where he was captured up to his armpits in mire. Later, the telegrapher died in prison. In 1863, General Rosecrans deemed it most important to learn whether Bragg was detaching troops to reinforce the garrison at Vicksburg or for other purposes. The only certain method seemed to be by tapping the wires along the Chattanooga railroad, near Knoxville, Tennessee. For this most dangerous duty, two daring members of the telegraph service volunteered--F. S. Van Valkenbergh and Patrick Mullarkev. The latter afterward was captured by Morgan, in Ohio. With four Tennesseans, they entered the hostile country and, selecting a wooded eminence, tapped the line fifteen miles from Knoxville, and for a week listened to all passing dispatches. Twice escaping detection, they heard a message going over the wire which ordered the scouring of the district to capture Union spies. They at once decamped, barely in time to escape the patrol. Hunted by cavalry, attacked by guerillas, approached by Confederate spies, they found aid from Union mountaineers, to whom they owed their safety. Struggling on, with capture and death in daily prospect, they finally fell in with Union pickets-being then half starved, clothed in rags, and with naked, bleeding feet. They bad been thirty-three days within the Confederate lines, and their stirring adventures make a story rarely equaled in thrilling interest. Confederate wires were often tapped during Sherman's march to the sea, a warning of General Wheeler's coming raid being thus obtained. Operator Lonergan copied important dispatches from Hardee, in Savannah, giving Bragg's movements in the rear of Sherman, with reports on cavalry and rations. Wiretapping was also practiced by the Confederates, who usually worked in, a sympathetic community. Despite their daring skill the net results were often small, owing to the Union system of enciphering all important messages. Their most audacious and persistent telegraphic scout was Ellsworth, Morgan's operator, whose skill, courage, and resourcefulness contributed largely to the success of his daring commander. Ellsworth was an expert in obtaining dispatches, and especially in disseminating misleading information by bogus messages. In the East, an interloper from Lee's army tapped the wire between the War Department and Burnside's headquarters at Aquia Creek, and remained undetected for probably several days. With fraternal frankness, the Union operators advised him to leave. The most prolonged and successful wiretapping was that by C. A. Gaston, Lee's confidential operator. Gaston entered t@e Union lines near City Point, while Richmond and Petersburg were besieged, with several men to keep watch for him, and for six weeks he remained undisturbed in the woods, reading all messages which passed over Grant's wire. Though unable to read the ciphers, he gained much from the dispatches in plain text. One message reported that 2,586 beeves were to be landed at Coggins' Point on a certain day. This information enabled Wade Hampton to make a timely raid and capture the entire herd. It seems astounding that Grant, Sherman, Thomas, and Meade, commanding armies of hundreds of thousands and working out the destiny of the Republic, should have been debarred from the control of their own ciphers and the keys thereto. Yet, in 1864, the Secretary of War issued an order forbidding commanding generals to interfere with even their own cipher-operators and absolutely restricting the use of cipher-books to civilian " telegraph experts, approved and appointed by the Secretary of War." One mortifying experience with a dispatch untranslatable for lack of facilities constrained Grant to order his cipher-operator, Beckwith, to reveal the key to Colonel Comstock, his aide, which was done under protest. Stager at once dismissed Beckwith, but on Grant's request and insistence of his own responsibility, Beckwith was restored. The cipher-operators with the various armies were men of rare skill, unswerving integrity, and unfailing loyalty. Caldwell, as chief operator, accompanied the Army of the Potomac on every march and in every siege, contributing also to the efficiency of the field-telegraphs. Beckwith was Grant's cipher-operator to the end of the war, and was the man who tapped a wire and reported the hiding-place of Wilkes Booth. Another operator, Richard O'Brien, in 1863 refused a princely bribe to forge a telegraphic reprieve, and later won distinction with Butler on the James and with Schofield in North Carolina. W. R. Plum, who wrote " History of the Military Telegraph in the Civil War," also rendered efficient service as chief operator to Thomas, and at Atlanta. It is regrettable that such men were denied the glory and benefits of a military service, which they actually, though not officially, gave. The bitter contest, which lasted several years, over field-telegraphs ended in March, 1864, when the Signal Corps transferred its field-trains to the civilian bureau. In Sherman's advance on Atlanta, Van Duzer distinguished himself by bringing up the field-line from the rear nearly every night. At Big Shanty, Georgia, the whole battle-front was covered by working field-lines which enabled Sherman to communicate at all times with his fighting and reserve commands. Hamlev considers the constant use of field-telegraphs in the flanking operations by Sherman in Georgia as showing the overwhelming value of the service. This duty was often done under fire and other dangerous conditions. In Virginia, in 1864-65, Major Eckert made great and successful efforts to provide Meade's army with ample facilities. A well-equipped train of thirty or more battery-wagons, wire-reels, and construction carts were brought together under Doren, a skilled builder and energetic man. While offices were occasionally located in battery-wagons, they were usually under tent-flies next to the headquarters of Meade or Grant. Through the efforts of Doren and Caldwell, all important commands were kept within control of either Meade or Grant--even during engagements. Operators were often under fire, and at Spotsylvania Court House telegraphers, telegraph cable, and battery-wagons were temporarily within the Confederate lines. From these trains was sent the ringing dispatch from the Wilderness, by which Grant inspired the North, I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer." During siege operations at Petersburg, a system of lines connected the various headquarters, depots, entrenchments, and even some picket lines. Cannonading and sharpshooting were so insistent that operators were often driven to bombproof offices --especially during artillery duels and impending assaults. Nerve-racking were the sounds and uncomfortably dangerous the situations, yet the operators held their posts. Under the terrible conditions of a night assault, the last despairing attempt to break through the encircling Federal forces at Petersburg, hurried orders and urgent appeals were sent. At dawn of March 25, 1865, General Gordon carried Fort Stedman with desperate gallantry, and cut the wire to City Point. The Federals speedily sent the message of disaster, " The enemy has broken our right, taken Stedman, and are moving on City Point." Assuming command, General Parke ordered a counter-attack and recaptured the fort. Promptly the City Point wire was restored, and Meade, controlling the whole army by telegraph, made a combined attack by several corps, capturing the entrenched picket line of the Confederates. First of all of the great commanders, Grant used the military telegraph both for grand tactics and for strategy in its broadest sense. From his headquarters with Meade's army in Virginia, May, 1864, he daily gave orders and received reports regarding the operations of Meade in Virginia, Sherman in Georgia, Sigel in West Virginia, and Butler on the James River. Later he kept under direct control military forces exceeding half a million of soldiers, operating over a territory of eight hundred thousand square miles in area. Through concerted action and timely movements, Grant prevented the reinforcement of Lee's army and so shortened the war. Sherman said, " The value of the telegraph cannot be exaggerated, as illustrated by the perfect accord of action of the armies of Virginia and Georgia." THE BIRTH OF WIRELESS The term wireless was a natural extension of less wired or the telegraph. Not until 1906 did the term Radio begin to appear. 1850 - By 1850 most of the basic electrical phenomena had been investigated. However, James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), Professor of Experimental Physics at Cambridge then came up with something entirely new. By some elegant mathematics he had shown the probable existence of electromagnetic waves of radiation. But it was twenty four years later (eight years after Maxwell's death) that Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) in Germany gave a practical demonstration of the accuracy of this theory. He generated and detected electromagnetic waves across the length of his laboratory on a wavelength of approximately one metre.16 1864 Mahlon Loomis 1 proposes a vertical top-capacity loaded aerial with a keying device and an indicator, all in series to ground. DX Might Be! 1865 Using 2 kites, Mahlon Loomis 2 transmits wireless messages between two mountains 18 miles apart in Virginia. Son Of A Gun - DX IS. The first Dxpedition??? 1865 - On 17 May 1865 the first International Telegraph Convention was signed by the 20 participating countries and the International Telegraph Union (later ITU) was set up to enable subsequent amendments to this initial agreement to be agreed upon13 1870 Mahlon Loomis successfully transmitted wireless 1883 Edison demonstrated that an electric current could pass between a heated filament and a cold plate in a vacuum. 1886 Heinrich Hertz proved that electromagnetic waves could be sent through space. 1887 Heinrich Hertz experments with parbolic dishes - produces waves at about 30cm - 1 GHz!!! 1896 - First practical wireless by Marconi, 'Hertzian Waves' over two miles! DX Will Be! When he read about the experiments of Heinrich Hertz and about Popov's suggestion, he saw the possibility of using these waves as a means of signaling. Marconi realized that his signaling system would be most useful to shipping. 1898 -- In January, British Leslie Miller 3 publishes an article in the British hobby magazine "The Model Engineer and Amateur Electrician". Here he contributed a superbly written article titled "The New Wireless Telegraphy" encouraging experimenters in the new field of "Wireless". 1898 - US Navy establishes coastal stations and begins to outfit the fleet with wireless communications. 1898 - 1912, experimenters begin transmitting and DX is anything over 10 miles. Early Amateur Radio in the UK can be seen at Dawn Of Radio in the UK and Europe16 1899 Marconi sends a signal over the English Channel - 32 miles. QSL's are in order. 1901 Marconi bridges the Atlantic, a feat which caught the world's attention and fueled the imagination of thousands of potential amateurs, who took their first steps into wireless. His transatlantic triumph came on the 12th December 1901 when the morse letter 'S' was transmitted from Poldhu, in Cornwall and received by Marconi himself at St. John's, Newfoundland, who recorded the historic event in his pocket book simply "Sigs at 12.20, 1.10 & 2.20". Marconi's original transmitters used high voltage spark gaps to generate 'Hertzian Waves'. The first experimental sets used induction coils with vibrating contact current interrupters to generate the high voltages. In the way of development after Marconi's high voltage spark gap came the use of high voltage transformers to generate the spark gap voltage. The ultimate came in the powerful transmitters such as those at the U.S. Navy's station at Arlington, Virginia. Here a 500 Hz generator, a step up transformer, and a rotary spark gap was used used to create the high voltage. Some of these produced a deafening noise created by the spark. Spark transmitters were often placed in acoustically insulated rooms to deaden the sound. Around 1900 William Duddell discovered the principle of negative resistance in connection with a carbon arc. By adding a resonant circuit to the arc it would oscillate at a frequency determined by the LC constants. Duddell's arc would only oscillate at audio frequencies, audible to human hearing, and it was dubbed the "singing arc." In 1902 Valdemar Poulsen, succeeded in making the arc oscillate at the higher frequencies by using electrodes operating in a sealed chamber, with hydrocarbon vapor, and a strong magnetic field. The arc became the first transmitter capable of generating pure, undamped waves. Arc transmitters were widely used at both shore stations and on ships. They were complicated to operate and were infamous for exploding when an operator introduced too much alcohol into the chamber. Arc transmitters were brought to the United States in 1909. One of the more powerful arc transmitters constructed were the 1,000 watt units built for the U.S. Navy at Bordeaux, France, during World War I. In Java, a unit was rated at 3,000 W, the antenna was suspended over a mountain gorge. By gradually scaling up the equipment Federal Telegraph finally produced a 30 kW unit that outperformed a powerful rotary spark transmitter at the Navy's Arlington station. The navy wanted still more power and Elwell thought he could build a 60 kW unit by merely scaling up the parts again. But it didn't work. Arc transmitters were gradually eliminated when the new vacuum tube transmitters came into use. However, many were used up to World War II. Perhaps the last to be in operation on land were the stations operated by the Mackay Radio and Telegraph Company between cities on the Pacific coast. A synchronous rotary had the spark electrodes mounted on the shaft of the motor generator which feeds a HV step up transformer. In this way, the spark would discharge the capacitor synchronously with the peak in the AC waveform. In a non-synchronous gap, the discharge could occur anywhere within the cycle. Buzzer were sometimes used to supply the voltage to an induction coil in early spark coil sets, since they had a higher "tone" than what some other interrupters could produce. Buzzers were used early on as a way to get ICW ( interrupted CW ) signals in early vacuum tube transmitters. The buzzer would interrupt the CW at an audio rate, thus modulating the CW carrier. You could detect the signal with a non-oscillating detector.10 Also see Fessenden and the Early History of Radio Science where the concept of an HF Alternator is discussed.20 1902 - Nathan Stubblefield Kentucky farmer invents wireless telephone! But was it radio? Facts and folklore about Nathan Stubblefield by Bob Lochte24. 1902 Oliver Heaviside predicted that there was an conducting layer in the atmosphere which allowed radio waves to follow the Earth's curvature. This layer in the atmosphere, the Heaviside layer, is named after him. Its existence was proved in 1923 when radio pulses were transmitted vertically upward and the returning pulses from the reflecting layer were received. Propagation has always been the life blood of long distant radio communications and from the early days, Amateurs carefully watched propagation conditions as they do today. Early wireless codes was The American Morse code, International code and U. S. Navy code11 1904 Sir John Ambrose Fleming worked to develop the first rectifier and in 1904, while working for the Marconi Company, he was faced with the problem of detecting weak wireless signals. He was inspired by his work with Edison’s lamps back in 1889 and decided to try inserting one of the lamps in an oscillatory circuit containing a galvanometer. He had found the solution to the problem of rectifying high frequency wireless circuits. 1904 One of the first companies to sell radio equipment to experimenters and amateurs was the Electro Importing Company of New York City, set up in 1904 by Hugo Gernsback. 1905 Guglielmo Marconi patented his directive horizontal antenna.23 (A Beam Antenna!!) 1905 Horace G. Martin introduces the The Vibroplex semi-automatic telegraph key, commonly called a "bug". The Use of 500 kHz as the International Distress Frequency is common. 1906 First wireless communication of human speech (and music) on December 24, 1906. Fessenden spoke and broadcasted music by radio from Brant Rock, Massachusetts, to ships in the Atlantic Ocean using a two kilowatt (100 kHz) alternator developed by Alexanderson. Fessenden modulates continuous wave. 23 1906 November 3. The "Berlin International Wireless Telegraph Convention" 4 defined call letters, operating procedures and signals for Coastal Stations and ships at sea. The committee decided that henceforth the term "Radio" would better describe wireless. Radio is derived from the Latin radius (ray or beam of light). The term wireless lingered for many years, but by 1912 the term Radio was used in legislation. Some countries even today are fond of the word wireless. Radio Shack probably gets its name from maritime lore dating back to the invention of the radio at the turn of the century. At the time, wireless equipment aboard ships was generally housed above the bridge in a wooden structure that was called the "radio shack". 1906, Lee De Forest added a third electrode to the diode, the "triode" or "audion" tube could both rectify and amplify; and its greater control it meant that various electronic circuits would finally be commercially feasible. 1908 Hugo Gernsback published his first magazine, Modern Electrics (later to become Electrical Experimenter) which does much to foster and popularize Amateur Radio. 1909, On January 2, the first amateur radio club; The Junior Wireless Club, Limited, of New York City, was organized. Later the club name changed to Radio Club Of America, and their history is a must read, don't miss it. 1910 Oct 5. The first Cat's Whisker Detector invented by B. F. Miessner who received "The De Forest Audion Award in 1963." This patent was sold to John Firth for "a magnificent sum of $200". From the "On the Early History of Radio Guidance". Library of Congress Card # is 64-2115. 1910 Senator Depew introduces a bill virtually prohibiting amateur experimenting. The Junior Wireless Club organizes a committee to plead the cause of the amateur before Congress. The bill is squashed and again DX IS!17 1911 Young radio amateurs are building receivers with whatever parts are available. Although headphones can be purchased...many public telephone booths become inoperative.23 Pre 1912 - Before the advent of Vacuum Tubes14 - various forms of detectors were used including: The Coherer, Lodge Muirhead Coherer, Electrolytic Detector, Carborundum Detector, Fleming Valve, Thermo Electric Detector, and Magnetic Detectors. See World Of Wireless 14 Also see Crystal Sets14 1912 - Edwin H. Armstrong6 uses feedback in an Audion - amplifiers and oscillators now practical. 1912 - April 12, RMS Titanic sinks after encountering an iceberg, the tragic loss of life prompts new international radio laws which also affect Amateur Radio, including frequency restrictions and operating procedures. See the Bill Continelli's History of Amateur Radio.5 Also see excellent article on Radio Aspects of the Titanic Disaster and the Transcript Of The Actual Radio Distress Traffic of the Titanic. Before 1912, call signs were just made up by the aspiring Amateur and it wasn't until the Radio Act of 1912 that the first licenses were issued. An HTML version of Early Radio Laws 4 is on-line. Very interesting reading as it defines DE, CQ, Operating Procedures, Morse Code of the day, and many Q Signals we still use. In 1911, Hiram Percy Maxim's assumed call was SNY. In 1912, Irving Vermilya, 1ZE, 6 received Skill Certificate No. 1, thus considered as the first licensed Amateur Radio Operator. Some sources indicate the code requirement was 5 wpm (how things go around and come around - 5 wpm now in the year 2000!!!). Written exams included essay type questions -- making a diagram of transmitting and receiving apparatus and how they worked! Also of course International and US Law questions. For opinions on the origins of Q-signals, Z-codes, X-codes, R-codes, and S-codes, DE, CQ, 33, 73, ham, lid, SOS, mayday, pan-pan, RST system, S-meter, prosigns, roger, wilco, boatanchor -- See Origins. Also each human endeavor seems to develop its own jargon, ham jargon is almost incomprehensible to others and has a rich history -- see Jargon and abbreviations. 1913 Amateurs using Audions in their receivers discovered that distances of up to 350 miles were now possible on 200 meters. 1913 - Radio Call Letter Policies 4 issued by the Department Of Commerce listed the USA with call letters of KDA to KZZ - United States, N - All to the United States, W - All to the United States. This document shows other countries as well. However, for Amateurs, "The call letters for amateur stations in the United States will be awarded by radio inspectors, each for his own district, respectively according to the following system: (a) The call will consist of three items; number of radio district; followed by two letters of the alphabet. Thus, the call of all amateur stations in New England (which comprises the first district) will be the figure "one" in Continental Morse, followed by two letters; in California (in the sixth district) the figure "six" followed by two letters; in South Carolina the figure "four" followed by two letters; in Missouri the figure "nine" followed by two letters, etc. The letters X, Y, Z, must not be used as the first of the two letters". Examples, 1AW, 6OI, 2MN. Here is a possible explanation as to how the USA got W and K, no documentation on this but sounds plausible. The USA had unofficially used N for North America (e.g., NBZ, Boston), also A for America. The letter "N" in morse is dah dit, adding a dah to N gives dah dit dah which is "K'. Letter "A" in morse is dit dah, adding a dah to A gives dit dah dah which is "W". Somewhere in this era, an informal system of prefixes evolved and Amateurs used A for Australia, B for Belgium, C for Canada, etc. This single-letter system worked until Amateur Radio spread around the world and there were too many countries for the system to accommodate. Thus, in 1927, a new system took effect using two-letters with the first letter indicating the continent (E for Europe, A for Asia, N for North America, F for Africa, etc.) and the second letter indicating the country. Stations in the 48 United States used an NU call. These were called "Intermediate Prefixes". With the advent of the Radio Act of 1912, the first Amateur Radio License is issued. The call letters assigned to the United States were NAA -NZZ, WAA - WZZ, and KDA to KZZ (KAA-KCZ was assigned to Germany and was not given to the United States until 1929). The somewhat puzzling Amateur calls like 1AW, 6OI, 2MN, etc. is explained by the fact that Amateur stations did not qualify for international call signs. At that time, the USA was divided into nine Radio Districts so Amateurs were granted calls consisting of their district number followed by letters, the first letter was from A through W, for example, 1AW, 1TS. Recognition was given to certain land stations, X as the first letter for Experimental licenses (e.g. 1XE), Y for School licenses (e.g. 9YY), and Z for Special Amateur licenses (e.g. 8ZZ). 1x3 calls (like 1AAA) was issued to Amateurs beginning in 1914. For a list of early X, Y, Z callsign issues -- see U.S. Special Land Stations: 1913-1921.4 It was not until October 1, 1928, that the W and K prefixes were assigned to Amateurs. Amateurs were relegated to 200 meters and down and shocked the world with making excellent use of these higher frequencies -- see "200 Meters and Down" by Clinton B. DeSoto. 1914 - The ARRL is organized by Hiram Percy Maxim to help relay messages, typical ranges were 25 miles. QST magazine appears in 1915. Hiram Percy Maxim was the son of Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim who invented the machine gun (the Devil's Paint Brush), father and son are often confused, although Hiram Percy Maxim did invent a weapons silencer. 1914 Frederick E. Terman 6AE is operating out of Palo Alto, CA. Later he publishes "Radio Engineering" in 1932 and the Radio Engineers's Handbook in 1943, 1955, which becomes the bible for engineers and technicians alike during the vacuum tube era. . He is also famous for persuading young Bill Hewlett and David Packard to stay in California instead of going East to start their electronics business. 1915 Ray Kellog invents the The electric ( moving coil ) loudspeaker. 23 1915 John R. Carson applied for a patent on his idea to suppress the carrier and one sideband. 25 Also See Ham Speak and Origins 1916 Amateur Station 2IB works 8AEZ Lima Ohio - 750 miles across the USA 1916 Amateur station 2PM succeeded in breaking all records by sending the first transcontinental relay message from New York to California. Several weeks later the same station and the same operators succeeded in getting signals to California, a distance of some 2,500 miles over-land17 Note that the NAA -NZZ, WAA - WZZ, and KAA to KZZ allotments are used for all broadcasting stations, aircraft, marine, police, fire, MARS and just about anything else that uses a radio. Although the N numbers on aircraft are registration numbers with the FAA, private planes use them legitimately for their "Radio Call". CB at one time had calls like KEV9506 (mine) until this was done away with. Now CB, FRS, and special low power services do not require a license. GMRS does require a license -- see CB and Family Radio Service. Amateur N call usage has been very limited until the 1970's, but some notable exceptions at N - CALLS 1917 - There were about 6,000 Amateurs. By 1917, code speed requirements were increased to 10 wpm. Amateur radio was shut down during WWI and the Navy even issued orders against receiving as well. Amateurs get back on the air in October - November, 1919. 1918 - The superheterodyne-principle is discovered by Armstrong. Equipment homebrew and manufacturers switch from direct conversion to superheterodynes around 193414 1918 - The first crystal (Rochelle salt) controlled oscillator is invented by A.M. Nicolson. 1919 Marconi and Fleming both assume strong positions on fostering "Amateur Radio". Perhaps without them the Amateur Radio Service might not exist today.16 1919 E. Kaleveld PA0XE claims that the first QSL was issued 1919 by C. D. Hoffmann, 8UX, but there is no example in existence. Nor is there a record in "Wireless World" or in any other known contemporary publication supporting the claim of 2UV to have issued the first authentic QSL card in Europe or the date it was used. "Wireless World" reproduced a post card bearing the call 8ML in the issue dated May 5, 1923, and this, according to the caption, was "one of the specially printed cards circulated in America by members of the ARRL for reporting the reception of experimental mtransmissions", and advocated the adoption in the United Kingdom of a similar type of card for acknowledging reports. 1919--President Woodrow Wilson broadcasts to American Troops in Europe, the first Presidential radio broadcast. 1919 The Alexander Bill proposed to give the government - specifically the Navy Dept - control of all transmitting, and leave amateurs out in the cold. There are articles about this in about this in the Jan, Feb, and Mar, 1919, "Electrical Experimentor". Gernsback claims to have killed the Bill and so does the ARRL, per the 1936 "Radio Amateur's Handbook", claims that Hiram Percy Maxim killed it with a single handed job of personal lobbying in Washington. Perhaps both did. 1920 to 1980’s Don Wallace12 W6AM. DX Hall of Fame and early pioneer of Amateur radio. Don has probably done more to promote DX operation and encourage new operators than any other individual. Famous for his antenna farms in Rolling Hills on the Palos Verdes peninsula. 1920 The Radio Amateurs Callbook (RAC, Flying Horse) is published. International QSL bureaus are establihed. 1920 October 27th -- first licensed Broadcast Station KDKA, Pittsburg, PA. For the History of Broadcast Radio -- also has a list of the first 100 BC Stations. Another is Broadcasting History Links. 1920 The Ladies Of Early Radio6 Perhaps the first woman to be both an announcer and an engineer was Eunice Randall. At the age of 19, she was broadcasting on 1XE, a Boston-area radio station owned by AMRAD. Soon after, she was deeply involved with both professional and amateur radio, building her own ham station, and ultimately became one of the first women in New England to hold the first class license (her ham calls were 1CDP, and later W1MPP). 1921 - ARRL membership numbers 6,000 transmitting members. 1921 - Practical horn loudspeakers were developed. 1921 - The Transatlantic Tests Paul Godley 2ZE (a prominent U.S. amateur) traveled to England with US equipment and operating from Ardrossan, a coast town near Glasgow, Scotland. At 00.50 GMT on December 9th 1921, he identified signals from 1BCG located at Greenwich, Connecticut. Two days later the historic first complete message transmitted by U.S. amateurs and received in Europe on the "short waves" (actually 230 metres) heralded a new era. The message read: No.1 de 1BCG. Words 12. New York December 11 1921. To Paul Godley Ardrossan Scotland. Hearty Congratulations. Signed Burghard Inman Grinan Armstrong Amy Cronkhite. In the summer of 1922 amateurs in France began to get licences and Leon Deloy 8AB President of the Radio Club of Nice in southern France started hearing British stations. After a visit to the U.S.A. Deloy was able to improve his equipment and on November 27th 1923 he contacted Fred Schnell 1MO of West Hartford, Connecticut for the first ever 2-way QSO across the Atlantic. They used the "useless" wavelengths around 100 metres16 1922 Amateur Radio License Requirements for the two grades of licenses, Amateur first grade and Amateur second grade, were the same except the second grade license was issued only where an applicant could not be personally examined by a US Radio Inspector for the district. Applicants were required to demonstrate technical expertise in adjusting and operating equipment, and a knowledge of International Conventions and US laws . The code requirement was ability to transmit and receive in the Continental Morse at least 10 words per minute and recognize important signal usage of the day (distress and "keep out" signals). General amateur stations were restricted to 200 meters and down with input power not to exceed 1 kW. Amateurs within five nautical miles of a military station were restricted to 500 Watts.11 1922 Carson describes FM and concludes it is inferior to AM, a decade later Armstrong places a new perspective on the matter. 1923 - Patent granted for SSB. Also See Ham Speak and Origins 1923 Us Bureau Of Standards suggests the use of frequency instead of wavelength. 1923 - WWV began broadcasting time and frequency information from its radio station. 1923, November 27, the impossible happened. Leon Deloy (8AB), of Nice, France worked (on 110 m CW) USA stations: Fred H. Schnell (1MO, Connecticut) and John L. Reinartz (1QP/1XAL, after - W3RB).Four thousand miles - DX For Sure. 1923, from "200 Meters and Down," by Clinton DeSoto, page 85. "It was expected, then, that every effort would be bent toward putting over the fourth transatlantic tests, to be held from December 21st (1923) to January 10th (1924). The widest possible publicity was accorded these tests on both sides of the Atlantic. To facilitate the international identification, an initial letter was assigned to each country to be used by the amateurs of that country ahead of their calls. The United States was given "U"; an American station would sign itself u1AA, for example. For each of the countries participating in the transatlantics: Australia, Canada, France, Great Britain, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, United States and New Zealand (z). Cuba was assigned the phonetic Q, Argentina the phonetic R. South Africa was arbitrarily given O." These were not official prefixes assigned by any authority, but an informal convention adopted to avoid confusion when transoceanic communications were first becoming "routinely" possible. Later an additional prefix letter was adopted indicating the continent, "N" being North America, so "1AW" would be "Nu1AW". 1924 - Quartz Crystals. H.S. Shaw introduces the amateur radio community to quartz crystal control of radio transmitters and Hams were the first sizable commercial market for crystals. See in-depth article on The Influence of Amateur Radio on the Development of the Commercial Market for Quartz Piezoelectric Resonators. The use of crystals yielded a very clean '9x' note. Amateurs begin building Superheterodyne receivers. 1924, Oct 18 A station in England G2SZ Cecil Goyder worked a New Zealand station Z4AA Frank Bell, a distance of almost 12,000 miles. In 1924, Amateurs received new bands at 80, 40, 20, and 5 meters. Spark transmission was prohibited on the new bands. By 1926, Spark transmission was prohibited for use by Amateurs. The existence of the ionosphere (first proposed by Oliver Heaviside) is confirmed by the English physicist, Edward V.Appelton in 1924. Prior to that the term "ether" was thought to explain the magic. 1925 - Heater type vacuum tubes made possible the first all electric receivers. Dynamic loudspeakers appeared 1925 - International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) is founded. Dedicated to organizing and providing representation of the interests of Amateur Radio, nationally and internationally, for the better mutual use of the radio spectrum among radio amateurs throughout the world, to develop Amateur Radio worldwide, and to successfully interact with the agencies responsible for regulating and allocating radio frequencies. An example of the IARU work is the NCDXF/IARU International Beacon Network. In 1926, Brandon Wentworth, 6OI, achieved confirmation for working all of the continents. 1926 Hidetsugu Yagi and Shintaro Uda invent the "beam" antenna array. 1927--The Radio Act of 1927 creates the Federal Radio Commission. (The Federal Communications Commission came later in 1934). The 10 meter band is opened to Amateurs. 1927-1982 KV4AA Dick Spenceley12 in the U.S. Virgin Islands provides thousands of contacts over the years. He was inducted into the CQ DX Hall of Fame in March, 1969. 1927 - the Union (forerunner of (ITU) allocated frequency bands to the various radio services existing at the time (fixed, maritime and aeronautical mobile, broadcasting, amateur and experimental) to ensure greater efficiency of operation in view of the increase in the number of services using frequencies and the technical peculiarities of each service13 Amateur bands are established near 160, 80, 40, 20, 10, and 5 Meters, power limits to be set by each nation, and the international intermediates prefixes are abandoned. 1928 May -- ARRL sponsors what is probably the first organized contest dubbed "The 1928 International Relay party". There about 17,000 licensed Amateurs. 1928 - Paul M. Segal, W9EEA, writes a "Suggested Amateur's Code". In the USA today, the government's official position on the purpose of Amateur Radio is defined in Part 97 of the FCC Rules and Regulations -- See Basis and Purpose of The Amateur Radio Service. 1928 - The Federal Radio Commission announces that all old licenses issued by the Department Of Commerce will be terminated on August 31, 1928. Applications under the new licensing system must be submitted no later than July 31, otherwise the applicant must submit to re-examination. Beginning October 1, 1928, the new W and K prefixes were assigned to Amateurs. 1928 - As the transmitting range of amateur stations increased, Hams naturally worked DX and it became necessary to have international call signs, international prefix structure is set by the International Radiotelegraph Conference of 1927-1928. This call sign structure lasted for the rest of the 1920's and the 1930's. Stations in the 48 States had a 1x2 or 1x3 call sign beginning with W and containing a numeral from 1 to 9. Stations in Alaska, Hawaii, or other US Possessions had a K prefix. See Pre WWII K calls. The zero numeral was not available. Boundaries were considerably different than today - for example the western sections of New York and Pennsylvania were in the 8th call district. See Old District boundaries 4 Note that the suffixes beginning with X was reserved for experimental stations. Eventually, the FCC relaxed their position on the 1x2 and 1x3 X suffix calls, but the 2x3 call signs (such as KB6XYZ) are still reserved for experimental use. W#X** calls were also portable calls - a separate authorization was needed for portable operation and their suffixes began with X. Apparently there was a very limited "vanity call" program - if a ham wanted a 1X2 call and met several criteria, such a call would be issued. If a ham moved to a different call area, he/she had to get a new callsign that matched the district of the new location. Unlike today, you could always tell where a ham station was located by the callsign. At one time in the 1920's and 30's, college club stations were issued W#Yx calls. So W6YX (1922) is Stanford, W9YB (1920) is Purdue, etc. Many of these are still extant -- try QRZ.com for your college. 1929 - Screen grid introduced into the vacuum tube. Pentodes came a year later Early to mid 1930's -- From W3HF - During a short period of time in the early- to mid-30s, 1x4 callsigns were issued for "permanent" portable stations. They were of the form W#ZZxx (e.g., W2ZZAF). They were only issued for a short time, first appearing in late 1931. (They were not in the June 1931 government callbook, but are listed in the Fall 1931 Flying Horse.) It looks to me like the government was issuing W#ZZx calls (1x3s) to portable stations, and went to 1x4s after they used up the 26 available 1x3s. The last ones seem to have expired by 1936-7. (There are only a few in my Spring 36 callbook.) From W3HF January 1930, QST magazine announces Twenty-Meter Phone Authorization. 1932 - At the 1932 Madrid Conference, the Union decided to combine the International Telegraph Convention of 1865 and the lnternational Radiotelegraph Convention of 1906 to form the International Telecommunication convention. It also decided to change its name and was known as from 1 January 1934 as the International Telecommunication Union in order to reaffirm the full scope of its responsibilities, i.e. all forms of communication, by wire, radio, optical systems or other electromagnetic systems.11 1933 First Field Day Contest. 1933 Astatic Crystal Microphones introduced. 1933 and before. Up to 1933, there were at least 1,200 companies producing radios of some kind. 1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt starts presidential radio broadcasts. The Communications Act of 1934 created the Federal Communications Commission. Amateur Licenses are reorganized into Class A, Class B, and Class C. In 1936 there about 46,000 licensed Amateurs. Class A- 13 wpm code test, sending and receiving. Basic and advanced written tests on theory and regulations. At least one year of experience as a Class B or C licensee. Exam given at FCC examination points only. All amateur privileges.8 Class B- 13 wpm code test, sending and receiving. Basic written test on theory and regulations. Exam given at FCC examination points only. All amateur privileges except 75 and 20 meter phone were granted with a Class B license.8 Class C - Same as Class B, except tests given by mail.8 Licenses terms were 5 years, and renewable. Renewal required that the operator certify that he/she could meet all of the current requirements for licensing. Also, renewal required that the license holder make least three contacts on the amateur bands in the six months prior to the renewal application - and the contacts had to be on CW, not voice. All licensees had to be US citizens. If you lived within 125 miles of a quarterly examining point, you had to appear in person for the exam. If you lived more than 125 miles from an examining point, or had a permanent physical disability that prevented you from going to an exam session, or were on active military duty, the Class C exam could be taken by mail. This was monitored by a volunteer examiner (another ham or a commercial licensee).8 An accurate log of all transmissions had to be kept. Mobile and portable operation were allowed, but if a ham wanted to operate away from his fixed station, and would be gone for a period of more than 48 hours, written notice of the mobile/portable operation had to be sent to the FCC. Before 1949, mobile operation was limited to the ham bands above 25 MHz. Mobile and portable stations had to identify themselves on the air as "mobile" or "portable".8 An accurate log of all transmissions had to be kept. Mobile and portable operation were allowed, but if a ham wanted to operate away from his fixed station, and would be gone for a period of more than 48 hours, written notice of the mobile/portable operation had to be sent to the FCC. Before 1949, mobile operation was limited to the ham bands above 25 MHz. Mobile and portable stations had to identify themselves on the air as "mobile" or "portable".8 In this era, crystal controlled operation was used (mandatory ??) and a station calling CQ would say calling CQ and tuning -- indicating he/she would tune up and down the band for a response and it was common if not usual to work another station on a different frequency. Crystals were expensive, so long CQs and replies to CQs were common, because most hams tuned the entire band looking for replies. Today you can still hear the OT's --- CQ CQ CQ from WZ9OOO calling CQ for any station , bye for a call and tuning. (and the new guys wonder why they would be tuning - VFO's and transceivers being the norm). 1935 Russ Hall describes tropospheric refraction for the 5M band explaining why signals might exceed line-of-sight range. 1936 Edwin H. Armstrong creates a classic paper on Frequency Modulation. His analysis of a noise free high fidelity system is the basis of our FM broadcast today. 1936 - 56 Mcs - G5BY was the first European to span the Atlantic on 56MHz when his signals were heard by W2HXD17 1937 The ARRL introduces the DXCC Program. Discontinued during WWII and started all over again after the war. In 1938, Amateurs lose the exclusive use of 40 meters, to be shared with SWL Broadcasters. The FCC grants two new bands, 2 1/2 meters (112 Mc) and 1 1/4 meters (224 Mc). 1938 - The distance record for 56MHz (the old 5 Metre band) was held by W1EYM and W6DNS for a 2500 mile contact on July 22,1938. For receiving he used a rhombic. 240 feet on a leg 17 1939 The Cubical Quad. Clarence C. Moore, W9LZX, tackles the problem of Ecuador S.A.station HCJB. The missionary staion had used a gigantic four element parasitic beam at their 10KW, 25 meter station. Totally unexpected, was the effect of operating the high-Q beam antenna in the thin evening air of Quito. The 10,000 foot thin altitude caused gigantic corona discharges from the tips of the driven element and directors. The ends of the antenna dripped molten metal. Moore designs an antenna with no ends that could discharge. This concept evolved into designing a folded dipole with the loop pulled open. This loop later became the basis of the Quad design. THE WAR YEARS From Jeffrey Herman, KH6O This will give you some background on amateur radio's CD communication effort during WWII:

What follows is a summary of the War Emergency Radio Service (WERS). Information was gathered primarily from "Fifty Years of ARRL," an historical record of the League and amateur radio.

First a bit of background: In 1939 there were 51,000 US hams. In September of that year war came to Europe. Of the 250 DXCC countries, 121 of them immediately went off the air (including Canada and the UK). The US maintained the strictest sense of neutrality. This was re-enforced by the ARRL, which came up with a neutrality code for amateurs. Hams were asked by the ARRL to voluntarily abide by the code, which they did en masse; this earned additional support for the amateur radio service in governmental circles.

In an effort to streamline its operation in preparation for possible US involvement in the war, the FCC at this time introduced multiple-choice tests.

By June 1940, the US invoked the Telecommunications Convention prohibiting US amateurs from contacting hams elsewhere; at the same time all portable and mobile operation below 56 MHz was banned (except the ARRL Field Day). At the request of the ARRL, the ban was modified to allow the League's Emergency Corps to continue work on the lower frequencies for training and drills. All licensees were required to send a set of fingerprints, a photo, and proof of citizenship to the FCC.

The FCC needed 500 radio operators to man listening and direction-finding stations -- they asked the League's assistance -- the League put out the word in QST and within days of that issue, the FCC had the 500 operators it needed. (It's important to note for the duration of the war, the military and government always turned to the ARRL when radio operators and equipment were needed; the League would put out the call in QST and over W1AW, and the quotas were always filled in short order. Of the 51,000 hams mentioned above, 25,000 enlisted, and 25,000 remained at home to teach radio and electronics, serve in the communications industry, and serve in WERS.)

By June of 1941, tubes and other components were in short supply; each time the military asked hams to donate parts, they were flooded with whatever was needed. Many US hams were recruited for a Civilian Technical Corps to operate and repair British radar equipment. Also at this time, the Office of Civil Defense, at the offering of the ARRL, created a CD communication system with ham radio as its backbone (this relationship between between CD and ARS exists even today). Because the Army needed the 80 meter amateur band, the FCC gave hams 40 meter phone privileges for the first time, to make up for the loss of 80 (prior to that, 40m was a CW- only band.)

December 7, 1941, the US entered the war; hams were immediately ordered to go QRT. By special FCC order, the ARRL's W1AW was to continue its transmissions.

At the request of the ARRL, the War Emergency Radio Service (WERS) was created in June 1942. The Government Printing Office was inundated so the rules for WERS appeared only in QST. At the League's insistence, the FCC continued to offer amateur licensing throughout the war; this to provide standards for WERS applicants, and more importantly, to enable amateurs to prove their ability before enlisting in the armed services.

The purpose of WERS was to provide communications in connection with air raid protection, and to allow operators to continue their role in providing communications during times of natural disaster as they'd been doing as hams (WERS was not part of the amateur service, but was manned by hams; non-amateurs were permitted to serve in WERS in low level positions). WERS was administered by local CD offices; WERS licenses were issued to communities, not individuals.

WERS operated on the former amateur 2 1/2 meter band (112-116 MHz) and on higher frequencies. Again, WERS was not part of the amateur service but hams were asked by OCD to join -- and they flocked to it. Until the end of the war, if a ham wanted to operate he could only do so as a WERS operator. QST fully supported WERS by publishing technical articles on building WERS gear and modifying existing 2 1/2 meter ham equipment so as to meet the rigid WERS standards. Nearly every issues of QST contained WERS articles - two examples:

Oct. 1942: WERS operating procedures; how to train auxiliary (non-amateur) operators; and Feb. 1943: OCD's plan for selecting frequencies.

A sample of WERS operations: May and July 1942 -- communications support for flooding of the Mississippi and Lake Erie; 1944 communications support after an Atlantic Coast hurricane; 1945 -- Western NY snowstorm early in the year, spring flooding, and a September Florida hurricane.

After VJ Day in 1945, hams were given authorization to begin operating again on the 2 1/2 meter band, on a shared basis with WERS. WERS was terminated in mid-November. By the 15th of that month, the FCC released bands at 10, 5, and 2 meters for amateur use. The post-war era of amateur radio had commenced. Thanks Jeffrey Herman, KH6O ----------------------------- 1940 - With the advent of the War in Europe, by June 1940, the US invoked the Telecommunications Convention prohibiting US amateurs from contacting hams outside the USA. Also all portable and mobile operation below 56 MHz was banned. All licensees were required to send a set of fingerprints, a photo, and proof of citizenship to the FCC. As the USA enters WWII in 1941, Amateur Radio Operation is suspended. Amateurs form a valuable pool of trained technicians and operators and are in high demand by the Military. By 1942, there was about 15,000 Amateurs in the US Military. But there is a WERS10 (War Emergency Radio Service) on 2 1/2 meters (around 2,000 Amateur Stations participated). 1941 - 1945. Skilled code operators on either side could distinguish the enemy operators by the CW swing or style of 'fist", thus in many cases identifying the ship or station location. Post war records indicate the Japanese were monitoring US Navy VHF from long distances -- VHF was thought to be limited to line of sight. Code breakers in England in a massive project "Ultra" could recognize German operators from their CW swing, cliques and habits. Indeed it is reported that the British developed the first programmable computer, containing 1500 vacuum tubes, to break the German codes. This preceded the American EINIAC Electronic Computer of 1945. 1939 - 1945 World War II movies are full of radio equipment of the time, look for the National, Hallicrafters, RME's etc. 1942 Navajo Code Talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945. Their unique code language totally confounded the Japanese Radio Operators. 1942 British mathematician and science fiction writer Arthur C. Clark suggests using satellites to relay radio signals about 20 years before the first satellite, Sputnik I was placed in orbit! On November 15, 1945, amateurs are allowed back on the air -- but only on 10 and 2 meters. By 1946, Amateurs get most of the bands back except for 160 Meters, this was used by LORAN and other services and was not available to Amateurs. Over the next several decades 160M would be reopened, a little at a time. 1945 - onwards - Favorite Radio Catalogs of the day -- every Ham had the latest copy: Allied Radio, Lafayette, Burnstein- Applebee, Concord, Newark, World Radio Labs, Gotham Antennas, Fort Orange Radio, Radio Shack, Olson, Amateur Electronic Supply, Associated Radio, Digi-Key, Jameco, Poly-Paks, Fair Radio Sales, Dick Smith Electronics (Australian company), Heathkit, as well as Eitel-McCollough, Sylvania and RCA tube and design manuals. And the very first piece of amateur radio related mail that every new ham received...... a packet of QSL card samples and a catalog from "The Little Print Shop!" 1945 - onwards - The Candy Stores. In San Francisco - San Jose, one made pilgrimage to Quements, Sunnyvale Electronics, Red Johnson's and HRO. In New York there was Cortland street and Canal Street, where New York's famous Radio Row was located -- now beneath the World Trade Center. Also nearby Chambers St and Warren St, Harrison Radio used to be in that area also. In New Jersey, Vetsalco. In Chicago -- R&W and BC (Ben Cohen) Electronics as well as Newark Electronics and Allied Radio. For Los Angeles there was Figart's, Midway, on Venice Boulevard, and there was a row of surplus stores topped by THE electronics war surplus store of all time "Sam's Surplus, and of course Henry Radio See RadioDan. In the greater Boston area, John Meshna, Jr.'s surplus emporium and Eli Heffron & Sons. In Albany N.Y., Fort Orange Radio owned by Uncle Dave Marks, World Radio Labs in Council Bluffs Iowa, Fair Radio Sales in Lima Ohio, Lafayette and Radio Shack in Wilmington, Delaware. In Tokyo Akihabara, In San Diego, Coast Electric, Ashe & India, Shanks & Wright. In Detroit, M.N. Duffy, Reno Radio, RSE Ham Shack, Lafayette Radio, also surplus heavens, Silverstine's, and Lambrecht's. In the Washington, DC area the "Electronic Equipment Bank", better known as EEB, was the local Candy Store. In Waterbury, Ct, Bond Radio, later Hatry Electronics. Burnstein- Applebee in several locals .Also see Catalogs and Boatanchors. 1945 Parts manufacturers were Tubes: RCA, Amperex, Continental, Chatham, Eitel-McCullough, Electrons, GE, Heintz & Kaufman, Hytron, National, Raytheon, Sylvania, Taylor, Tungsol, United, Victoreen, Westinghouse, Western Electric. Rectifiers: Federal, Mallory, Sarkes Tarzian, Clarostst, Amperite. Meters: Triplett, Pyramid, Emico, Simpson. Controls and Resistors: Mallory, IRC, Clarostat, Centralab, Ohmite, Chicago Telephone, Sprague, Continental. Capacitors (condensers): Mallory, Cornell-Dubilier, Aerovox, Sprague, Erie, Centralab, Sangamo, Bud, E.F. Johnson, JFD, Hammarlund, Cardwell, Barker-Williamson, Transformers: Stancor, Thordarson, Merit, Altec-Lansing, Peerless, Chicago, UTC, Superior, Raytheon, Sola, Regency. 1945 Just plain Radios included: Admiral, Airline, American Bosch, Andrea, Arvin, Atwater Kent, Audiola, Belmont, Capehart, Case, Colonial, Columbia, Crosley, Delco, Detrola, Dewald, Echophone, Edison, Emerson, Fada, Fairbanks-Morse, Farnsworth, Firestone, Freed-Eisemann, Garod, GE, General, Gilfillen, Goldentone, Grebe, Grunow, Gulbransen, Howard, Imperial, Jesse French, Kadette, Kennedy, Lyric (Wurlitzer), Majestic, McMurdo Silver, Midwest, Motorola, Northern Electric, Oriole, Oxford, Pacific, Packard Bell, Paramount, Philco, Pilot, Radiobar, RCA, RCA/Canada, Scott, Sentinel, Silver-Marshall, Silvertone, Simplex, Sonora, Sparton, Stewart-Warner, Stromberg-Carlson, Tiffany Tone, Travler, Troy, Truetone, US Radio, Wells Gardner, Westinghouse, Wilcox-Gay, Zenith. Lots of "All-American Fives" where the heater voltages added up to 117 Volts. Car radios had vibrators to develop plate voltages -- coupla hundred volts running around in your dash board! As for TV's too many to mention but Mad Man Muntz stripped out the fat in current TV designs and were noted for being built with few parts and cheap cabinets, unlike the big RCAs or Zeniths which had 30 or more tubes and elaborate designs. Crazy but the Muntz sets worked pretty well - as long as you could see the TV Tower!! 1945 Coaxial cable in wide use. Although coaxial cable had been around since the 30's, surplus cable was ready available and WWII did much to make coax practical. Prior to coax, ladder line was common. BNC connectors are used -- "bayonet Niell-Concelman" named for the inventors. 1945 - Amateurs are allotted the 6 meter band 50-54 Mc. The 2 1/2 meter band is moved to 144-148 Mc. With the exception of some FM, all phone operation is with AM. 1945 6 Meters. Pioneers utilized CW, AM, and experimented with NBFM. Antennas included rhombics, corner reflectors, folded dipoles, and of course Yagi's. The first 2-way QSO involving "skip" was reported to have taken place on April 23, 1946 when W1LSN of Exeter, NH worked W9DWU of Minneapolis, MN. This and many other contacts were made on that night via a combination of aurora and sporadic-E. The distance of this contact was 1100 miles. 1945 CQ Magazine is published. 1945 Rhombic Antennas, although rhombics had been in use for years by broadcasters, Don Wallace, W6AM, did much of the pioneer work for Amateur radio rhombics.. 1946 The Northern California DX Club (NCDXC), one of the oldest DX Clubs, is founded. In San Diego, California, the SDDXC is also established. Many other DX and Contest clubs. 1946 - Yasme Dxpeditions By Lloyd Colvin (W6KG - King George) and Iris Colvin W6QL (Queen Lady) - many Dxpeditions over the years into the 1990’s. 1946 - Amateurs make the first Meteor Scatter contacts. On the night of October 9, 1946, the night of the Giacobind-Zinner Comet, and its associated meteors, Amateurs made their first two-way contacts via meteor scatter on the 6M band, the propagation lasted 3 hours with reports from the east and midwest part of the USA. However it was not until Oct 22, 1953 that a 2M two way contact was made between W4HHK and W2UK. Transoceanic 6M contacts are made in late 1946. After World War II, about 1946, the tenth call district was added. For the current USA Ham Districts - see USA Ham Map. Except for the redrawing of the boundaries, things remained the same until 1951. There were about 60,000 U.S. amateurs in 1946. Date not certain but after WWII, the FCC issues "military base calls" such as K9NBH and K9NCG (Treasure Island Naval Training Center, CA); KH6MC for the Marine Corps station on Oahu; K9NBH, Great Lakes Naval Training Center in Illinois. K calls are issued throughout the pacific see OLD PREFIXES 1947 - Amateurs lose the top 300 kc of he 10M band (29.7--30), and relinquish the 14.35--14.4 Mc on 20 meters. However the 15 meters (21.0-- 21.45 Mc) is planned. Also the FCC allows Amateurs to use the 11 meter band (26.96--27.23 Mc) on a shared basis with other services. 1947 W1AW AND W2GDG conduct narrow band FM tests and the FCC authorizes a one year trial on some bands. 1947 - W1FH is awarded the first "modern" DXCC membership for mixed and phone. 1947 VK5KL makes a two way contact with W7ACS/KH6 in Hawaii - 9000 km, See 50 years on 50 Megs. 22 1947 - The DXCC country count for this year was 257. Gatti-Hallicrafters Africa Dxpedition - Nine Month Tour. QCWA is founded. The Quarter Century Wireless Association was organized to promote friendship and cooperation among Amateur Radio operators who were licensed at least a quarter century ago. The Old Old Timers Club was founded in 1947 by a group of amateurs who had played a part in laying the foundations of electronic communications. 1948 William Shockley invents the transistor. Within 10 to 20 years, the transition from tubes to solid state occurs. No longer will your cat want to sleep on the TV set! 1948 The. Military Amateur Radio System established, later renamed the Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS). Forerunners of this system existed such as the Army Amateur Radio System (AARS) organized in November, 1925. MARS is a Department of Defense sponsored program, established as a separately managed and operated program by the Army , Navy, and Air Force. The program consists of licensed amateur radio operators who are interested in military communications on a local, national, and international basis as an adjunct to normal communications. For MARS callsigns see MARS CALLS. For the History of MARS 1948 - VP7NG Bahamas - One of the first DX Expeditions. By W4NNN & Others in the 14th ARRL DX Competition. CQ sponsors its first contest -- The CQ WW Contest. June 1949, Citizens Radio Service was established with frequencies in the 460-470 Mc band.

1949, the US amateur allocations in Mc8 3.5-4 CW 3.85-4 Phone, Class A only 220-225 CW/Phone 7-7.3 CW 420-450 CW/Phone (50 watt power limit) 14-14.35 CW 14.2-14.35 Phone, Class A only 1215-1295 CW/Phone 26.96-27.23 CW/Phone (shared service) 2300-2450 CW/Phone 28-29.7 CW 28.5-29.7 Phone 5250-5650 CW/Phone 50-54 CW/Phone 10000-10500 CW/Phone 144-148 CW/Phone 21000-22200 CW/Phone 1950 -- US Amateur population is near 90,000 1950's -1960's Amateurs are active with Radio Teletype (RTTY) and take advantage of the surplus market for equipment. Also see RTTY is not dead but I still remember. 1951 CONELRAD10[CONtrol of ELectronic RADiation] system established by President Truman. See Amateur Requirement Also See Conelrad.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In 1951, the FCC eliminated the old Class A, Class B, and Class C licenses, and added three new classes of licenses Novice, Technician, and Amateur Extra. Now the license classes were Novice, Technician, Conditional, General, and Amateur Extra Class licenses. Advanced licenses apparently came later. Novices could get a one year, non-renewable license, which had a special 2x3 call sign with the letter N following the W, e.g., WN2ODC, WN6ISB. With an upgrade, the N was dropped. The Technician Class is created for experimentation, not communication, and has privileges only above 220 Mc. Conditional licenses were the same as general but given by mail, provided the applicant lived far enough away from the nearest FCC office. Novice - 5 wpm code test, sending and receiving. Simplified written test on theory and regulations. No experience required or allowed - anyone who had previously held any class of amateur license was ineligible for a Novice. Extremely limited CW privileges in parts of the 80 and 11 meter bands, plus CW and phone privileges on part of 2 meters. 75 (or was it 50) watts maximum power input, crystal control only. One year license term, nonrenewable. Exams given at FCC examination points or by mail if conditions for mail exams were met. The Novice was intended to be a sort of "learner's permit" to help new hams get started.8 Technician - 5 wpm code test, sending and receiving. Basic written test on theory and regulations - same written test as General class. All amateur privileges above 220 MHz. Exams given at FCC examination points or by mail if conditions for mail exams were met. The Technician was meant for those who were more interested in VHF/UHF experimentation than HF operating. The proposed Class D license was implemented as the Technician.8 General (old Class B) - 13 wpm code test, sending and receiving. Basic written test on theory and regulations. Exam given at FCC examination points only. All amateur privileges EXCEPT 75 and 20 meter phone.8 Conditional (old Class C) - Same as General, except tests given by mail.8 Advanced (old Class A) - 13 wpm code test, sending and receiving. Basic and advanced written tests on theory and regulations. At least one year of experience as a General or Conditional licensee. Exam given at FCC examination points only. All amateur privileges. The Advanced was to be phased out and replaced by the Extra, and no new Advanced class tests were given after 1952. Holders of Advanced class licenses could renew and modify them indefinitely.8 Extra - 20 wpm code test, sending and receiving. Basic and higher level written tests on theory and regulations. At least two years of experience as a General, Conditional or Advanced licensee. Exam given at FCC examination points only. All amateur privileges.8 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1951 W6SAI, W8AH and others are among the first of the post war major DXpeditions, Andorra and Monaco. W6SAI, Bill Orr inspired new and veteran hams alike with his consistent encouragement and technical expertise. Amateur radio has benefited from numerous Bill Orr publications, many on Antennas - written in a very practical style. For many years W6SAI wrote the monthly "Radio Fundamentals" column in CQ magazine. 1952--The FCC permits phone operation on 40 meters, previously CW only. The 15 meter band is opened. The Advanced Class is withdrawn, although present holders can continue to renew. The retest requirement for Conditionals was dropped in 1952. 1952 RACES founded, the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) is a public service provided by a reserve (volunteer) communications group within government agencies in times of extraordinary need. 1952 - 1956 SSB was making inroads on the ham bands.8 Central Electronics offered SSB gear in 1952. The Hallicrafters HT-30 was produced in 1954, The Collins KWS-1 transmitter was offered in 1955. So although perhaps not popular in the early 50's, the gear was available. Also See Ham Speak and Origins Early 1953 -- the FCC made a surprise about-face and announced that all amateur privileges would be granted to all holders of General, Conditional, Advanced and Extra class licenses. Novices got a place on 40 M. Around 1953, the FCC was running out of W 1x3 call signs. So1x3 K calls began to be issued in the 48 states, with US possessions receiving 2x2 and 2x3 K calls. Novice calls in the 48 states continued to have the N (such as KN4LOD) which was dropped after upgrading. Had some reports of reissued calls about this time. 1953 Japanese VHF History A must read for VHFers.21 March 25, 1954 -- the first USA color TV sets made for consumers started rolling off the assembly line. Because they were initially too expensive and there was little color programming available, it took more than a decade for color television to become a household fixture. The RCA CT-100, introduced in March 1954, was the first mass-produced all-electronic color TV receiver. It's $1,000 price tag would be equivalent to about $6,000 in today's dollars. 1954 - VQ4ERR receives the first phone WAZ award. 1954 The Novice and Technician licenses became so popular that the FCC made them available by mail only. 50 kHz of 20 meters was lost to other services. and the distance requirement for a Conditional license was reduced to 75 miles. In 1955, Technicians are given 6 meter privileges. By 1956 there were over 140,000 US hams, and growth was exceeding 10,000 per year 160 meters was returned to hams in a very limited fashion. There was a complex chart describing amateur privileges, depending on geographic location. There were power limits based on location and time of day, ranging from 1000 watts to 25 watts. It was confusing, but better than losing the band altogether. 1955 - 1963 Danny Weil Dxpeditions - Starts from England and in 8 years gives contacts from 30 different countries including -- Canal Zone, Tahiti, Canton Island, Nauru, Solomon Is./Guadalcanal, Buck Isl/Tortola, Br.Virg.Is., Madeira, Aves, Buck Island, St. Kitts, Antigua, Montserrat, Anguilla, Dominica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Kingstown, Grenada, Trinidad, Jamaica, Baja Nuevo, Galapagos, Marquesa, Nukuhiva, Tahiti, S. Cook, Raratonga The US amateur allocations in 19568 1.8-1.825 1.875-1.925 1.975-2 CW/Phone (Subject to geographic and power limitations) (Technicians had all privileges above 30 MHz except 144-148) 3300-3500 CW/Phone 3.5-4 CW 3.8-4 Phone Novices 3.7-3.75 CW 50-54 CW/Phone 5650-5925 CW/Phone 7-7.3 CW 7.2-7.3 Phone Novices 7.15-7.2 CW 144-148 CW/Phone Novices 145-147 CW/Phone 10000-10500 CW/Phone 14-14.35 CW 14.2-14.3 Phone 220-225 CW/Phone 21000-22000 CW/Phone 21-21.45 CW 21.25-21.45 Phone Novices 21.1-21.25 CW 420-450 CW/Phone (50 watt power limit) All above 30000 CW/Phone 26.96-27.23 CW/Phone 1215-1300 CW/Phone 28-29.7 CW 28.5-29.7 Phone 2300-2450 CW/Phone About 1956-1958, the FCC started to run out of 1x3 K and W calls in some districts and began re-issuing expired W and K calls before going to the WA's. For example, when K2ZZZ was issued, they went back and re-issued some expired W2 and K2 calls. Up until this point, a normal sequential call sign was always a 'first issue'. At some point, 1958 or so, perhaps when all available expired calls had been re-issued, the FCC began issuing 2x3 WA calls, then WB as necessary. Novices were given WV instead of WN. The V would change to an A or B upon upgrading. A few years later, the FCC reverted back to the Novice N scheme. With the uneven amateur population in the ten call districts, it took time for the K calls to run out in the some areas. In some districts, K calls were issued as late as 1964. 1957 W6NLZ contacts KH6UK via tropospheric ducting. Two years later, they achieve contact on 220Mhz. From 1957 to 1962 there existed a set of regulations commonly referred to by hams as Conelrad10 Hams were required to monitor a local broadcast station at intervals of 10 minutes or less whenever they were operating, and if the broadcast station went off the air due to an emergency, hams had to leave the air as well. In September, 1958, the Class D Citizens Band is opened and Amateurs lost the shared use of 11 meters. USA Amateur population is about 160,000. Late 1950'S -- Log Periodic Antennas -- the ARRL Antenna Book Chapter 10, written by L.B. Cebik, W4RNL, attributes the LPDA to D.E. Isbell at the University of Illinois in the late 1950s. In 1959, Technicians get the middle part of 2 meters (145-147 Mc). 1960 - first two-way EME contact on 1296 MHz is achieved. See Earth-Moon-Earth Communications. 1960 - 1970 Gus Browning12 (W4BPD) The first DXer elected to the Dx Hall of Fame. Operated from over 100 countries. Dxpeditions included --- Seychelles, Somalia, Monaco, Aldabra, Cosmolédo, Assumption, Chagos, Burundi, Ruanda, Gough, Tristan da Cunha, Bouvet, Basutoland, Swaziland, Mauritius, Reunion, Juan de Nova, Comores, Madagascar, Tromelin, Glorieuses, Europa, Somaliland, Kamaran, Yemen, Aden, Bhutan, Tibet, Sikkim, Nepal, Afghanistan, Kuria-Muria, Pakistan, Laos, Thailand, China, Lebanon, Jordan, Faroer, Luxembourg, Togo, Dahomey/Benin, Mauretania, Volta, Mali, Venezuela, Senegal, Gambia, Rodriquez, Bertaut Reef, Etoile Cay, Boudeuse Cay, Kenia, Comores, Geyser Reef, Farquhar, Agalega, Blenheim Reef, Chagos, Aldabra, Geyser Reef. Gus learned to write left handed so he could send CW with the right. 1961 - December 12. First amateur satellite, Oscar1, is shot into orbit. 1961 - Present OH2BH Martti Laine one of the most accomplished DXers of our time. Only person to be elected to both the DX Hall of Fame and Contest Hall of Fame. Among his many DX operations were: 3CØAN, OJØMR, SØRASD, 4J1FS, BV9P, BS7H, P5/OH2AM, 6T1YP, ST2FF/STØ, JY8BH, ZA1A, XZ1A, 3D2AM, ZS9Z/ZS1, and XF4L. He has visited more than 115 countries. 1962 June 2, OSCAR II was launched. For a complete history of Amateur Radio Satellites and details of operation, see the AMSAT pages. 1962 - 1982 Geoff Watts12 only non-ham elected to the to the CQ DX Hall of Fame. Eminent British short-wave listener Geoff Watts was the founder and long-term editor (1962-1982) of The DX News Sheet, and in 1964 Geoff Watts created the IOTA (Islands-On-The-Air) Award. 1962 - 1967 Don Miller W9WNV12 Dxpeditions, So. Korea, Rota, Douglas Reef, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Western Samoa, New Hebrides, China, Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, Spratly Island, Ebon Atoll, Tokelaus, Cormoran Reef, Fiji Islands, Niue, Wallis Island, Minerva Reef, MariaTheresa, North Cook, Suvarrow Atoll, Heard, Australia, Laos, St.Peter & St.Paul Rocks, Navassa , Serrana Bank, Bajo Nuevo, Desroches Island, Farquhar, Comoro Island, Aldabra, Glorioso, Geyser Reef, Chagos Island, Blenheim Reef, Laccadives, India, Norfolk Island, Mauritius, Quatre Bornes, St.Brandon (Cargados Carajos Shoals), Raphael Isl., Rodriguez, Cocos-Keeling, Malagasy Republic, Nelsons Island. Over the years, many of the well known DXers include: K2GL, KH6IJ, G3FXB, OH2BH, W8IMZ, W3GRF, W3GM, W4BPD, W1WY, W2PV, W3AU, K3ZO, W9WNV, W4KFC, W7RM, W1BIH, PY5EG, W6QD, N6TJ, S50A, N6AA, K1EA, OH2MM, K4VX, K3EST, W6RR, ON4UN, LU8DQ, K1AR, N4MM, VP2ML, W6AM, KV4AA, W1FH, W6RGG, W6RJ, W1CW, W6ISQ, W6OAT, W6KG, W6QL. Many of these were inducted into the CQ DX Hall Of Fame. Editor Note , Use search engine http://www.google.com/ to find more information on these famous DXers. Other notables in the field of Amateur Radio besides those mentioned throughout are: K7UGA, US Senator Barry Goldwater, staunch Amateur radio advocate;W1ICP, Lew McCoy, writer, antenna expert; W1FB, Doug Demaw, writer; W2NSD, Wayne Greene, editor; W4RNL, L B Cebik, program developer; K6STI, Brian Beezly, program developer; W7EL, Roy Lewallen, program developer; KH7M, Jim Reid, propagation expert; W3WRE, Louise Moureau , historian; W1BB, Stu Perry, low band pioneer; W3HNK, Joe Arcure, preeminent QSL manager and many Celebrity Hams. 1963 The E.B.S. - Emergency Broadcasting System is established .23

In 1963, the CBers outnumber the Ham Population. The number of US hams exceeded 250,000.

From the 1963 Novice Study Guide: "Requirements for the Novice license are the passing of a code test in sending and receiving at the rate of 5 words per minute, and a written examination in the most elementary aspects of amateur regulations and theory. The privileges which are currently available to the Novice licensee are: 3700 3750 kc. - telegraphy, 7150-7200 kc. - telegraphy, 21,100-21,250 kc. - telegraphy 145-147 MC. --telegraphy or voice. In addition, the transmitter used by a Novice licensee must be crystal-controlled, and may not have an input exceeding 75 watts. Of course, the Novice may operate portable or mobile on any of these frequencies. Thus a Novice not only is unable to renew his license at the end of his term, but he may not again apply for Novice privileges." 1964 Alaskan Earthquake Magnitude 9.2., one of the worst in US History, Hams are key elements in communications as they have always been. 1964 - Geoff Watts12 created the IOTA (Islands-On-The-Air) Award. 1960's - 1970's Equipment design is changing rapidly, solid state equipment is offered and many transceivers are SSB. For an excellent paper on equipment evolution as well as Ham Radio History -- see 50 Years of US Amateur Radio Licensing by James P. Miccolis, N2EY. Items with the superscript 8 are from N2EY and have been incorporated into this history with permission. Examples of Radio Equipment of the past can be seen in the Antique Radio Section. Also see 1945. In 1967, the FCC announced Incentive Licensing and over the next 2 years, General and Conditional operators lost portions of the 75-15 meter phone bands, the Advanced Class is reopened to new applicants, Extra and Advanced Class operators get subbands on 80-15 and 6 meters, the Novice license term is extended to two years, however Novices lose their 2 meter phone privileges. By 1968, amateur access to 160 meters was increased significantly. US hams got access to 1800 to 2000 kHz - but still subject to complex geographical and power limitations. 1968, May -- Hugh Cassidy WA6AUD publishes the West Coast DX Bulletin. His stories and use of "DX IS!" becomes legend. Stories of "The QRPer, Palos Verdes Sun Dancers, and Red Eyed Louie" can be found at K2CD's fine pages. 18-Jul-79 is Cass's last issue, however VE1DX continues the WA6AUD style -- at the K2CD site. Late 1960's Amateurs start to build 6M FM repeaters and by the mid 1970's, many repeaters are in operation. Effective Nov. 22, 1968 Incentive Licensing plan8 Phase 1 Nov 22, 1968 Phase II, Nov 22, 1969 Extra Class Only: (MHz): 3.5 - 3.525 CW 3.8-3.825 Phone 7 - 7.025 CW 14 - 14.025 CW 21 - 21.025 CW 21.250 - 21.275 Phone Extra Class Only: (MHz): 3.5 - 3.525 CW 3.8 - 3.825 Phone 7 - 7.025 CW 14 - 14.025 CW 21 - 21.025 CW 21.25 - 21.275 Phone Extra and Advanced Classes Only: 3.825 - 3.85 Phone 7.2 - 7.225 Phone 14.2 - 14.235 Phone 21.275 - 21.3 Phone 50 - 50.1 CW Extra and Advanced Classes Only: 3.825 - 3.9 Phone 7.2 - 7.25 Phone 14.2 - 14.275 Phone 21.275 - 21.35 Phone 50 - 50.1 CW As older hams became Silent Keys and the number of available 1x2 calls increased, the FCC instituted a program effective in 1968 whereby those licensed for 25 years and currently holding an Extra license would be eligible for a non-specific (sequential) 1x2 callsign. The length of time one needed to be an Extra was gradually reduced, until July 1977, when any Extra Class could apply for a 1x2. 1968 - The FCC authorizes SSTV in the Advanced/Extra Class subbands. Generals and Conditionals are authorized later. 1969 First two-way amateur television contact between the U.S. and Europe is achieved. AMSAT (The Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation) is founded. AMSAT is a worldwide group of Amateur Radio Operators who share an active interest in building, launching and then communicating with each other through non-commercial Amateur Radio satellites. By 1970 there were about 270,000 US hams. Japanese Transceivers begin to make inroads in the Amateur Radio market 1970, November -- JA1MRS contacted W6ABN and WB6UYG on 6 Meters from History of VHF in Japan By 1970 - The USA is starting to use the metric system more and more and Mc and kc is gradually replaced with Hertz -- MHz and kHz. Often asked is why kilo is not capitalized -- and its because K is for degrees in Kelvin. 1970 While many vie for DX the furthest with the mostest, QRP (low power enthusiasts) are challenged by the furthest with the leastest. The long-distance low power record is held by KL7YU and W7BVV using one MicroWatt over a 1,650 mile Ten Meter path between Alaska and Oregon in 1970. This is the equivalent of 1.6 BILLION Miles per Watt!! More QRP pages. 1972 The Northern California DX Foundation is established to assist in worthwhile amateur radio, DX and scientific projects with funding and equipment. Although the words "Northern California" still appear in its title, the activities of the Foundation are international in scope rather than regional. Also see NCDXF/IARU International Beacon Network. AND Early History Of The NCDXF Beacon Network.

Other DX Foundations and sponsors includes Chiltern DX-Club, Clipperton DX-Club, Danish DX-Group, DX Family Foundation, DX-Lovers Foundation, EUDXF, French DX-Foundation, INDEXA, LADX-Group, LYNX DX-Group, Lake Wettern DX-Group, NCDXF, RSGB DX-Fund, and the Satellite DX Foundation. In addition, many DX Clubs sponsor member IOTA and DXpeditions. Radio manufacturers over the years have also generously donated equipment and support of DX operations. 1972 -- FCC expands the Technician 2 meter allocation to 145-148 MHz. Novices operators are authorized to use a transmitter with a VFO, Date was around Nov 22, 1972. A national bandplan is announced for 2 meter FM , the national simplex frequency is established at 146.520 and the FCC released the first repeater rules. Logging requirements are relaxed. In 1972, the FCC widened the HF phone bands which reduced much of the impact of incentive licensing. 1972 US ham bands8 1.8-2 CW/Phone (Subject to geographic and power limitations) 21-21.45 CW 21.25-21.45 Phone Novices 21.1-21.25 CW Extra only: 21-21.025 21.25-21.27 Extra & Advanced only: 21.27-21.35 2300-2450 CW/Phone 3300-3500 CW/Phone 3.5-4 CW 3.775-4 Phone Novices 3.7-3.75 CW Extra only: 3.5-3.525 3.775-3.8 Extra and Advanced only: 3.8-3.9 28-29.7 CW 28.5-29.7 Phone Novices 28.1-28.2 CW 5650-5925 CW/Phone 7-7.3 CW 7.15-7.3 Phone Novices 7.1-7.15 CW Extra only: 7-7.025 Extra and Advanced only: 7.15-7.225 50-54 CW 50.1-54 CW/Phone (Technicians had all privileges above 30 MHz except 144-145) 10000-10500 CW/Phone 14-14350 CW 14.2-14.35 Phone Extra only: 14-14.025 Extra and Advanced only: 14.2-14.275 144-148 CW 144.1-148 Phone 220-225 CW/Phone 420-450 CW/Phone 1215-1300 CW/Phone 21000-22000 CW/Phone All above 40000 CW/Phone

1972 Sept 9th, - The Palomar Amateur Radio Club in San Diego, CA received the coordination for their 146.730 all vacuum tube repeater on Palomar Mountain from the newly established Southern California repeater coordination body in Los Angeles at their first conference although the club had been successfully operating a test repeater in a garage in Vista during 1971. The duplexer was made from discarded shell casings obtained from a Navy Battleship. 1973 - The waiting period for an Extra class license was reduced to a year. 1974 - WR prefixes began to appear on repeater callsigns. In 1976 for the USA Bicentennial year there was a special callsign system that all hams could use as a option. W's became AC's, WA's became AA's, etc. Some of the Pacific islands and territories had some pretty weird calls (weird for that time, anyway.) In 1976, the WN calls were eliminated. Around this time the FCC was issuing N 1x2 calls to extras

Effective July 1, 1976, any Extra class licensee who had been a licensed Amateur for 25 years or more could select one specific 1x2 call sign. This added the ability to pick a specific call, but did not change eligibility.

Effective October 1, 1976, anyone who had held an Amateur Extra class license prior to November 22, 1967, could select one specific 1x2 call sign.

Effective January 1, 1977, anyone who had held an Amateur Extra class license prior to July 2, 1974, could select one specific 1x2 call sign.

Effective April 1, 1977, anyone who held an Amateur Extra class license prior to July 1, 1976, could select one specific 1x2 call sign.

Effective July 1, 1977, any Amateur Extra class licensee could select one specific 1x2 call sign. Effective March 30, 1978 this was all replaced by the strict "sequential" system until the advent of "vanity" call sign selection in March 24, 1995. However Lee - K0WA reports that the vanity call signs were cut off on December 31, 1977 (if I remember correctly). I earned my Extra that summer and debated on whether or not to change the call. I decided to do so on December 24, 1977. I had called up the Midwest Director, who at the time, kept a list of calls that were open. He had a friend at the FCC who faxed him a list each week of what calls were still open. At the time, you could ask for a call on a first come first serve basis. I sent in the application with 12 calls typed on a plain piece of paper attached to the application. I sent it air-mail! I called in the middle of the week to the FCC if my application had gotten there and they told me it had, but would not tell me anything else. Just under the wire. I got my present call which I was surprise to see that it was open. Great CW call. 73 Lee K0WA. Extras continued to be permitted to select a call, in sequence, from any call sign group. That ability was not extended to other licensees until later. N9AKE reports -- when the FCC announced that Extras could ask for a new call in any group (around August, I think), I asked for a Group C call and received N9AKE, which I held until 1996, now K4QG. By 1977 there were 327,000 US hams. Portable and mobile identification requirements were eliminated, "instant upgrades" became available, and license fees were abolished. The code sending test was waived and repeater rules were simplified further. 1977-- A new repeater subband is established at 144.5-145.5 MHz. Technicians are given privileges on144.5-148 MHz, and have Novice privileges. All hams were limited to 250 watts in the Novice subbands. Novices can operate with power up to 250 watts. The mail order Technician license is eliminated and new applicants must appear before the FCC. The Conditional class is abolished. The waiting period for an Extra class license was eliminated. 1978 saw the Novice license term extended to 5 years and made renewable, the Conditional class license abolished (existing Conditionals became Generals), and secondary station licenses were abolished. ASCII and other standard data codes were authorized for amateur use. See history of ASCII. Technicians got all privileges above 50 MHz. WR repeater callsigns are phased out. Prior to this time, when a ham upgraded, the privileges of the new license class could not be used until the actual license arrived in the mail - usually six to eight weeks after the test was passed. "Instant upgrading" ended the wait by allowing hams to immediately use their new privileges by adding a "temporary identifier" at the end of their call, which would signify that they had recently upgraded. No more waiting weeks for the actual license to arrive in the mail. By the mid 70's some call areas ran out of WB callsigns. The FCC recycled older WA and WB calls (but not consistently). Then at the FCC's whim or maybe when the recyclables ran out, they issued WD#xxx calls. WC was reserved for RACES/ Civil Defense stations. In 1978-1979, Technicians receive all privileges above 50 MHz. Novice licenses are renewable. The World Administrative Radio Conference, (WARC-79) grants Amateurs three new bands at 10, 18, and 24 MHz, to be phased in over the next 10 years. 30 meter power to be limited to 200 Watts. In 1978 the FCC banned the manufacture and sale of amplifiers that could be used in the 24-35 MHz region, but a licensed amateur could still homebrew an amplifier, or modify a manufactured one to cover 10 meters. Hams were limited to one amplifier per year, however. Somewhere in this period (late 1970s), the requirement to change callsigns when moving to a different district was removed. No longer could a US ham's location be determined solely by the callsign. W3HF Note This actually happened in the late 70s, coincident with the new callsign system you discuss under 1978-9. (This was significant to me at the time. I had received WA2FKS while in college in 1976. When I got my license, the old rules were still in effect. But by the time I graduated in 1979, they had changed, and I could take WA2FKS with me to California.) My 1976 License Manual, for example, states that when moving from one district to another, you would get a new calls

Somewhere in the late 70's, (1977) 2x2 A calls were issued to extras, e.g., (The method of issuance is uncertain -- some requested specific callsigns were issued -- others sequential). They were added as an option to 1x2's for any Extra class licensee when the 2nd, 4th and 6th call area ran out of 1x2's. When the "any call you want" rule went away, so did 2x2's beginning with "A". This didn't last long see 2x1's below. (Note from W3HF -- 2x2s actually first showed up in 1977. I have AA4AA and AA4US in the Winter 77-8 book, under "Stop Press." I think these were some of the last callsigns issued under the old pseudo-vanity program for Extras, before that was terminated in 1978, as they came out before the 2x1s.

----------------------------------------- Before March 28, 1978, extra applicants received the 1x2 calls still available. After March 28, 1978, Section 97.51 required amateur station call signs to be issued systematically. Extra applicants received an A prefixed 2x1 callsign e.g., AA6E which was issued 5-26-1978, AA6H about June 7, 1978, AA6G in May 1978, AA6I on June 13, 1978. Depending where in California the test was taken. AA2E issued 5/26/78. AC6V was licensed 7-20-1978 at 2:30 in the afternoon!

Later this is extended to 2x1 K, N, W calls, (In that Order) e.g., KA6A issued 11/24/78, NU8I, August 1986, NX7U early 87, WA6H issued 4-9-79. Here you can see variations in dates due to some districts running out of a block well before others. 2x2 K calls were given to Advanced class and 1x3 N calls were allotted to Generals and Techs. When the 2x1 extra calls ran out, (in 6 land around 1994), the FCC started the 2x2 A calls e.g., AC6HZ. When the N#xxx calls ran out, they started the KA#xxx series. The structure was: ------------------------ From an 1978 FCC News Release: (Thanks To Jim N4AL) Group A contained all 1x2, most 2x1, and most "A" prefixed 2x2 callsigns Group B contained most K, N, and W prefixed 2x2 callsigns Group C contained all 1x3 callsigns Group D contained most K and W prefixed 2x2 callsigns Group E contained WC, WK, WM, and WT prefixed 2x3 callsigns. This applied to the contiguous US. Territories had different rules. Hams could request an upgrade from a lower group to a higher one. Generally, Extras were entitled to Group A, Advanced to Group B, and Generals and Technicians to Group C. Calls were assigned within groups in sequence of blocks. Block 1 was K#xx, block 2 was N#xx, block 3 was W#xx, block 4 was AA#x, block 5 was AB#x ... These were followed by 2x1's beginning with K, 2x1's beginning with N, 2x1's beginning with W, 2x2's beginning with AA through 2x2's beginning with AK. Then came with Group B. -----------------------------------------

In Group A (Extras), the sub groups were 1x2 (not issued systematically subsequent to 1978), 2x1, 2x2 (beginning with AA#xx through AL#xx, the limit of the U.S.'s "A" allocation, [AM belongs to Spain] -- See Prefixes). AL reserved for Alaska and AH for the US Islands.

In Group B (Advanced's), the subgroups were all 2x2 beginning with Kx#xx, Wx#xx, Nx#xx. (the Kx series may never have been completed in any area). It was the slowest moving of the groups.

In Group C (Generals and Techs), the subgroups were all 1x3 with W#xxx (not issued systematically subsequent to 1978), K#xxx (not issued systematically subsequent to 1978), and N#xxx.

In Group D (Novices), all 2x3, starting out with KA#xxx, sequencing through KB#xxx, KC#xxx, etc. ---------------------------------------- For Amateur Radio, the NAA-NZZ block was used for various reasons before they were issued sequentially. In the 1930s, N-prefix calls were issued to amateur stations supporting Naval Reserve activities. NY4 appears in the 1947 DXCC Country list as Guantanamo Bay, The Smithsonian Institute had NN3SI around 1976. The Jet Propulsion Labs had a lot of special calls in the 70's (N6V was a special event station operated by the W6VIO crew at JPL). N calls and A calls were used by MARS since ______, (MARS was formed in 1948) currently in the form of AFA#xxx for the US Airforce, NNN#xxx for the US Navy, and AAA#xxx for the US Army. There have been posts about early N0xxx MARS calls. N1 thru N9 reserved for Aircraft. 1970's - 1980's Amateurs begin too use computers like the Amiga, Commodore, Apple, and TRS-80 to calculate various formulas. Software is written for Ham use. Later when the transceiver manufacturers incorporate microprocessors, computers are used to control the transceiver and beam rotors. Programs for Satellite Tracking are invaluable for operation. Today, programs for tutoring morse code, gray line, logging, digital modes with the sound card, and contesting are widely used. 1978 - Amateur packet radio began in Montreal, Canada in 1978, the current TNC standard grew from discussions in October of 1981. As packet becomes popular with amateurs, digipeater nodes are built and the DX Packet Cluster is born. Previously DX announcements were made by voice on 2M repeaters. 1980's After nearly 80 years of antennas on roof tops and with the advent of cable TV, city, county, HOA's, CC&R's and other restrictive ordnances begin to limit or prohibit Amateur antenna installations. In 1985, PRB-1 is issued that establishes the FCC's position of "reasonable accomodation." 1980's King Hussein, JY1, who was a life member of the ARRL, avidly promoted Amateur Radio in Jordan and was an enthusiastic radio amateur whose support was invaluable in obtaining new amateurs bands at the1979 World Administrative Radinference. Also for some surprises -- Famous Hams 1980 ASCII computer code is authorized for amateur transmissions. Two new digital data modes, AMTOR and packet. Both became popular - AMTOR on HF and packet on VHF. AMTOR eventually gave way to PACTOR and other digital modes. See Digital Modes. The current popular mode is PSK31. 1981 FCC authorizes spread spectrum (SS) on amateur frequencies. Limited to 100 Watts. Actress Hedy Lamar (Hedwig Kiesler) co-patented a frequency hopping "Secret Communication System" Aug. 11, 1942 as a way to keep the Germans from jamming radio controlled torpedos during World War II. See Spread Spectrum. 1981 CQ Magazine starts the CQ DX Hall Of Fame. 1982, Oct 28, 2200 UTC - The USA gained access to 10.100-10.109 and 10.115-10.150 MHz, the original 30 meter WARC band. Some countries already had privileges on the band before the USA. 1983 Cellular phone network starts in U.S. Hams wonder what took them so long! 1983 The 1000 watts input rule was replaced by a new "1500 watt peak output" rule. This meant that hams could run more power in most modes, but a few modes, like AM, actually lost power. In 1984, the 10 year license replaces the 5 year term. The FCC begins to phase out of giving Amateur exams. A Volunteer Examiner Program is started , but there was an overlap period where the FCC gradually eliminated their involvement. 1985 - the 24 MHz and 902 MHz bands are opened for Amateur use. The 10 MHz band was allotted permanently, previously open with restrictions. In 1987, Novices and Technicians receive 10 meter SSB privileges from 28.3-28.5 MHz. The FCC mandates the 1500 Watt PEP limit for amateur radio station power output. The amateur allocations in 19878 . 1.8-2 CW/Phone (Subject to geographic and power limitations) 144-148 CW 144.1-148 Phone 3.5-4 CW 3.775-4 Phone Novice/Techs 3.7-3.75 CW Extra only: 3.5-3.525 3.75-3.775 Extra & Advanced only: 3.75-3.85 220-225 CW/Phone Novices 222.1-223.91 CW/Phone 7-7.3 CW 7.15-7.3 Phone Novice/Techs 7.1-7.15 CW Extra only: 7-7.025 Extra & Advanced only: 7.15-7.225 420-450 CW/Phone 10.1-10.15 CW 902-928 CW/Phone 14-14.35 CW 14.15-14.35 Phone Extra only: 14-14.025 14.15-14.175 Extra & Advanced only: 14.175-14.225 1240-1300 CW/Phone Novices 1270-1295 CW/Phone 21-21.45 CW 21.2-21.45 Phone Novice/Techs 21.1-21.2 CW Extra only: 21-21.025 21.2-21.225 Extra & Adv. only: 21.225-21.3 2300-2310 CW/Phone 2390-2450 CW/Phone 24.890-24.990 CW 24.93-24.99 Phone 3300-3500 CW/Phone 5650-5925 CW/Phone 10000-10500 CW/Phone 24000-24250 CW/Phone 28-29.7 CW 28.3-29.7 Phone Novice/Techs 28.1-28.5 CW 28.3-28.5 Phone 47000-47200 CW/Phone 75500-81000 CW/Phone 119980-120020 CW/Phone 50-54 CW 50.1-54 CW/Phone (Technicians had all privileges above 30 MHz) 142000-149000 CW/Phone 241000-250000 CW/Phone All above 300000 CW/Phone 1988 - The GMDSS system was established in 1988 by the International Marine Organization, a United Nations agency that oversees international shipping safety, and it was required to be on all passenger ships and cargo ships over 300 tons and all commercial ships that travel in international waters by today. This signals the end of morse code by both commercial and the military. 1989 -- The last of the WARC bands 17M becomes available in January 31. There were over 500,000 US Amateurs. In 1991, no-code licenses -- and the No-Code Technician is born. Technicians with code requirements are now Technician Plus. Since existing Techs had Novice HF privileges and new Techs would have only VHF/UHF, another semi license class, the Technician Plus, was created. Existing Technicians, and those who passed the 5 wpm code test, became Technician Plus class. 1993 The US Coast Guard discontinues monitoring 500kHz as the International Distress Frequency, largely replaced by GMDSS. Use of 500 kHz dates back to 1905. About March 24, 1995, Vanity calls for a price was opened up. See URL: FCC Ruling. Several "gates were set up for eligibility over the ensuing 18 months. The ARRL's suggested method is to open the system gradually through four "starting gates." Gate One would allow a previous holder to apply for that call sign or, where the holder is deceased, a close relative could apply. Gate Two would allow the 66,000 Amateur Extra Class operators, who have passed the most difficult license examinations, to apply. [Extras could apply for a vanity call in September 1996]. Gate Three would allow the 112,000 Advanced Class operators, who have passed the second most difficult license examinations, to apply. Gate Four would open the system to any licensee. A club station license trustee could also apply for the call sign of a deceased former holder. 1997 January 1st the E.A.S., Emergency Alert System goes 'on-line' in broadcast stations - replacing the aging technology of the E.B.S. - the Emergency Broadcasting System.23 1998 1999 -- USA Amateur population exceeds 740,000, Japan has almost twice as many. 1999 -- Many CW stations are closed after decades of service. The Globe Wireless stations, the last coast stations in North America to use Morse, closed down their Morse operations on Monday, 12 July, 1999. April 15, 2000 -- Latest Amateur Radio License Scheme Reduction of the number of license classes from six to three and eliminating the 20 and 13 WPM code tests, only three license classes are now issued --Technician, General, and Amateur Extra--and a single Morse code requirement--5 WPM. No new Novice and Advanced licenses to be issued. Licenses prior to the effective retain their current operating privileges, including access to various modes and subbands, and will be able to renew their licenses indefinitely. Starting April 15, 2000, individuals who qualified for the Technician class license prior to March 21, 1987, will be able to upgrade to General class by providing documentary proof to a Volunteer Examiner Coordinator, paying an application fee, and completing FCC Form 605. Under the new licensing scheme, there is four examination elements. Element 1 will be the 5 WPM Morse code exam. Element 2 will be a 35-question written test to obtain a Technician license; Element 3 will be a 35-question written test to obtain a General license, and Element 4 will be a 50-question written test for the Amateur Extra license. Technician Class with no Morse code are authorized to use all amateur VHF and UHF frequencies (all frequencies above 50 MHz). See Bandplans Technicians with 5 WPM Morse code are authorized to use all amateur VHF and UHF frequencies (all frequencies above 50 MHz) and HF frequencies with limited power outputs on the 80, 40, and 15 meter bands using CW, and on the 10 meter band using CW, voice, and digital modes. See Band plans

General Class. In addition to the Technician privileges, General Class operators are authorized to operate on any frequency in the 160, 30, 17, 12, and 10 meter bands. They may also use significant segments of the 80, 40, 20, and 15 meter bands. See Bandplans

Extra Class. Extra Class licensees are authorized to operate on all frequencies allocated to the Amateur Service. See Bandplans 2001 Many Old Timers still active on OT Nets and QCWA nets. For information, contact Jim Palmer W6FOB, president of section 75, QCWA. E-Mail: jkpalmer@charter.net Feb 2001. Amateur Radio history was made this month when amateurs in Canada and the UK completed what appears to be the first two-way transatlantic Amateur Radio exchange on 136 kHz. Larry Kayser, VA3LK, and Lawrence ''Laurie'' Mayhead, G3AQC, managed the LF feat using extremely slow CW that featured 90-second-long dits and 180-second-long dahs. The two-way contact took two weeks to complete! USA AMATEUR RADIO POPULATION8,15 1917 - about 6,000 1963 - over 250,000 1928 - about 17,000 1977 - 327,000 1936 - about 46,000 1989 - over 500,000 1950 - near 90,000 1997 June - 678,473 1956 - over 140,000 2001 Jan 1 - 682,240 1958 - about 160,000 2002 Oct 31 -- 684,355 William Gilbert 1544-1603 Born in England, he served Queen Elizabeth I as a physician. During his lifetime he performed many experiments on the nature of magnetism, and eventually offered the first comprehensive theories of magnetism, based on his assumption that the Earth itself was a large magnet. Modern aircraft pilots are well aquatinted with at least two of his findings, Magnetic Dip, and Magnetic Variation of a compass.

James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 Maxwell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland and was the founder of electromagnetic theory. He built upon the works of Faraday, Thomson, Coulombe and Ampere - and eventually developed a field theory of electromagnetic phenomena. Maxwell suggested that when a current began to flow, it caused a series of vortices in the surrounding Aether. The crux of his work stated that only in a steady state can a magnetic field exist without causing an electric field - and vice-versa.

Guglielmo Marconi 1874-1937 Probably the name associated most with the invention of radio, Marconi was certainly a visionary of what it could become. Born into a very well-to-do family in Bologna, Italy, Marconi first read of the pioneering work in radio in 1894, in an obituary of Heinrich Hertz. He was the first to realized the possibility of using this new technology as a form of communication, and he began his life work. Within the year he was ringing a bell by wireless control a few yards away, and by 1897 the distance spanned by his wireless was nearly 10 miles. Among his innovations were a greatly improved 'coherer' or detector, antenna work - including an earth ground which greatly increased his range, and the use of a high antenna. A vertical antenna with an earth ground is still referred to as a 'Marconi'. He also worked with directional antenna's. At the age of 22 he filed for his first patent (#7777) for a system of radio communication. Five years later he succeeded in signaling across the Atlantic Ocean. Mahlon Loomis 1826-1886 Born in New York, and a dentist by profession Mahlon Loomis became interested in electricity and conducted several experiments on the effects of electricity on plant growth. His work on wireless communication - although not actually radio communication - could well have been more important had it not been for the economy of the day. He never had the financial backing to continue his work. Among his other experiments were attempts to replace batteries with electricity taken from the atmosphere - he planned to fly kites attached to long wires to gather this electricity.

Thomas Alva Edison 1847-1931 Edison was born in Milan, Ohio in 1847. A prolific inventor - in 1879 he developed the first commercially practical incandescent lamp. By 1882 he had developed a central power station for his lamps - necessary before they would become widely used. He invented the Stock Ticker, alkaline storage batteries, the carbon microphone and of course, the phonograph. In all, over 1000 of his inventions held patents - including a method of wireless telegraphy based on magnetic induction.

Edwin Armstrong 1890-1954 Born in New York City, Armstrong graduated from Columbia University in 1913, and received his first patent for his regenerative receiver in 1914. Without a doubt, Edwin Armstrong did more to advance the art of radio than any other inventor. Every radio and television receiver uses Armstrong's inventions. His list of patents and inventions includes regeneration, the superheterodyne receiver, and wide-band FM. During war time, Armstrong freely gave use of his patents to the military. From 1931 his efforts went into developing and promoting FM, and defending his inventions against suits by DeForest. Many years later almost every suit was decided in favor of Armstrong. Armstrong committed suicide in 1954.

Lee DeForest 1873-1961 Born in Council Bluffs, Iowa to a Congregational minister, Lee Deforest made his greatest contribution to radio and electronics with his invention of the Triode. Although he flooded the patent office with ideas, only a relative few of his over 300 patents proved important. In the early years of radio he installed many wireless transmitting stations, and his became one of the most famous of the early companies. His business sense however, was lacking, and he was taken advantage of by several associates. He concentrated his efforts on moving pictures in the 1920's - claiming the field of radio was getting too crowded. Later years found him suing other inventors - notably Howard Armstrong - for patent infringement.

Heinrich Hertz 1857-1894 Hertz was born in Hamburg, Germany and attended the University of Berlin. In 1883 he became an instructor at Kiel University - where he first studied the work of Maxwell. Maxwell had theorized that electric fields in the form of waves propagated at the speed of light rather than instantaneously. To prove this, Hertz conducted a series of experiments between 1886 and 1889 involving measuring the strength of oscillations at differing points along a sheet of zinc. These experiments confirmed the existence of waves, and that these waves acted identical to light in regards to refraction and polarization. In short, Hertz had proven the theory of Maxwell that light itself was a form of electromagnetic radiation.

John Ambrose Fleming 1849-1945 Fleming was born in Lancaster, England and studied electricity and mathematics under James Clerk Maxwell. He served a number of electric lighting companies as advisor and engineer, and was a scientific consultant for the Marconi Company from 1899-1905. Besides his work in theory, he was also active in the practical application of his work. He made improvements in electric lamps, generators, and many pieces of radio-telegraph apparatus. In 1904, while searching for a better detector for wireless signals he recalled his work for Edison in the early 1880's - and the phenomenon known as the Edison Effect. He fashioned a lamp with a metal cylinder surrounding the filament, ran wires to the outside of the envelope - and started the industry of electronics with his electrical 'valve'

Nikola Tesla 1856-1943 Tesla was born in Croatia, but moved to the United States in 1884. Following his move he worked for Thomas Edison designing dynamos, and then established his own laboratory in 1887. Tesla's work laid the foundations for large scale electric power generation and transmission. Tesla experimented with high frequency alternators and invented the 'Tesla Coil' as a means for even higher voltages. His work included the forunner of the neon and fluorescent lights, he predicted radio as a means of communication in 1893, and spent a large amount of time in an effort to transmit electric power without wires. He built the largest Tesla coil ever made at Colorado Springs - a twelve million volt device which drew an arc up to 135 feet in length. Other predictions by Tesla included radar in 1917, and radio services of pictures, time, and weather information in 1900.

Karl Ferdinand Braun 1850-1918 Born in Germany, Braun shared the Nobel Prize in physics with Marconi in 1909 for their service in developing wireless telegraphy. His wireless equipment utilized resonant circuits in both the transmitter and receiver circuits, greatly improving upon Marconi's original system. Braun later introduced the use of the crystal detector in receivers. His work on observing waveforms using a phosphor-coated screen paved the way for cathode ray tubes, and eventually the television picture tube.

Edouard Branly 1844-1940 A French physicist and physician who's studies of nerve impulses led him to develop the 'coherer' as a device for detecting radio signals. His device was a glass tube filled with metal filings and two electrodes. The device decreased in resistance in the presence of electrical energy, as the filings stuck together - or 'cohered'. Many coherers utilized a small hammer-like device to tap the tube after each signal, breaking up the filings and increasing the resistance in preparation for the next signal. Marconi utilized the coherer in most of his wireless station in the early 1900's, and openly credited Branly for his invention

Reginald Aubrey Fessenden 1866-1932 Fessenden, a Canadian born in East Bolton, Quebec worked as a tester and Chemist in the Edison Machine works of New York, and later at Edison's laboratory in New Jersey. Among his patents were the electrolytic detector - far more sensitive than other early methods of detection, and the process of 'heterodyning' a signal - mixing it with another frequency to create a 'sum' and 'difference' of the original frequency. Personally, he is said to have been a bit arrogant - using phrases such as 'Don't try to think - you haven't the brain for it'. He obtained over 500 patents in his lifetime, many for advances in the art of radio.

Joseph Henry 1797-1878 Joseph Henry served as the first director of the Smithsonian Institution from 1846-1878. He was born in Albany, New York, and attended Albany Academy - even though his primary and secondary education were sub-standard. Upon reading a popular book on science he determined to make that his work, and began to study to gain entrance to the Academy. Henry's experiments with electromagnets allowed Faraday and other to have improved tools for their research. He greatly improved upon the electromagnet with the use of insulated wires, and is credited with having discovered inductive resistance. In fact, the unit used to measure inductive resistance is the 'henry', in his honor. Henry also invented an electric motor in 1829, a telegraph in 1831, and the relay in 1835. He went on to work with transformers and non-inductive windings.

Werner Siemens 1816-1892 Born into a family of engineers and inventors, Werner and his younger brother William developed the Dynamo - a device which converted mechanical energy into electrical energy by using 'self excitation', eliminating the use of permanent magnets. This led to the birth of the commercial power industry. Werner also invented an electroplating process, and a method of insulating electrical cable suitable for underwater telegraph cables.

Michael Faraday 1791-1867 Michael Faraday was an English physicist and chemist born in London. Faraday is thought by some to have been one of the greatest experimental scientists of all time, and was also a brilliant theorist. His theories on the nature of magnetism were later adopted by Maxwell, and played a part in Einstein's theory of relativity. With only a basic education of reading and writing - and some very basic math skills he began his working life as an apprentice bookseller and binder. He took every opportunity to read, and came across an article on electricity in an encyclopedia. This stirred his interest in the subject, and he went on to create the science of electrochemistry. A deeply religious man, much of his work seems to have been influenced by his belief in the divine harmony of the universe. Faraday's Laws include the Law of Induction, Law of Electrolysis, and the Second Law of Electrolysis. The Farad - a unit of capacitance, is named after Faraday.

David Sarnoff 1891-1971 Sarnoff was born in Russia, and moved to New York City as a boy. He worked as a telegraph operator in the Marconi company, and some accounts have him working at the key for three days straight during the Titanic disaster - although there is discussion of this being an exaggeration. There is no doubt that Sarnoff was a driven man, and he was a great figure in the growth of broadcasting. Sarnoff became the general manager of RCA in 1921, and quickly became its vice-president. He saw the company through the rise of radio broadcasting, supervised the creation of the first network (NBC) and the move into television. During World War II he was a communications consultant, and for his service was named as a Brigadier General.

Michael Idvorski Pupin 1858-1935 Michael Pupin was born in Hungary and came to the United States in 1874. He attended Columbia University and the University of Berlin. He was a professor of electromechanics at Columbia for 30 years, from 1901 to 1931. Pupin invented and improved upon many devices for telegraphy and telephony, including the use of inductors in telephone lines to improve the audio quality. His work with X-rays identified 'secondary radiation' - matter struck by X rays was stimulated to emit more X rays. He studied the behavior of vacuum tubes at low pressure, and invented an electrical resonator. A total of 34 patents were awarded for his inventions

Charles D. Herrold 1875-1948 Charles David Herrold was born in Illinois, and began his wireless work in San Jose, California. He was an inventor, teacher, and is thought by many to be the "Father of Broadcasting". 'Doc' Herrold was transmitting voice messages very early in the history of radio - as early as 1909 from the 'Herrold College of Wireless and Engineering' in San Jose. He had a regular schedule of transmitting between 1909 and 1917, and claimed to have coined the term 'Broadcasting'. In 1915, he broadcast to the Worlds Fair from 50 miles away, providing news and music. He patented the "Arc Fone" in 1915.

Frank Conrad 1874-1941 Frank Conrad's amateur radio station 8XK, located in his garage in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania was one of the seeds from which broadcasting grew. 8XK was later licensed as KDKA. His early experience with radio included building sensitive receivers to hear the Naval Observatory time signals from Arlington, VA. Conrad left school in the 7th grade to work. He was transferred to the testing department at Westinghouse shortly after his employment in 1890. He became general engineer in 1904 and assistant chief engineer in 1921. He supervised the development of transmitting equipment, among other duties. He received an honorary degree of Doctor of Science from the University of Pittsburgh in 1928.

Sir Joseph John Thomson 1856-1940 Born in Cheetham Hill, England, Joseph Thomson attended Cambridge University and maintained an association with Cambridge for most of his life. In 1906 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the conduction of electricity by gasses. His work with X-rays and cathode ray tubes convinced him that cathode rays were actually charged particles -electrons- and that their mass was roughly 1,000 times smaller than hydrogen ions

Alexander Graham Bell 1847-1922 Bell was born in Scottland, and was home schooled until the age of ten. As a boy, his experiments with speech and sound reproduction led to a lifelong interest in the field. He was granted a patent in 1874 on a method of sending two or more telegraphic messages on the same wire, at the same time. The next year, as a result of an accident, words to the effect of "Watson - come here, I want you" were reproduced electronically by his 'telephone'. In August of 1876 the distance spanned by telephone was 8 miles, and 'long distance' became a reality by the end of that year, as he communicated over 143 miles. In 1880 Bell achieved the first wireless transmission of speech - using his invention -- the 'photophone' -- to transmit words on a beam of light.

Samuel Finley Breese Morse 1791-1872 By the age of 21, Samuel Morse showed an interest in electrical experimentation. A shipboard conversation in 1832 planted the seed for a method of telegraphy, and by 1835 the basic physical elements of a relay system were in place. A patent was issued in 1840, and the U.S. Congress gave him a grant for $30,000 to construct a line between Washington and Baltimore. The first message on this line was sent on May 24th, 1844. The "Morse Code" was invented by Morse, and his assistant Alfred Vail about 1840. The original code was simplified in 1851, and is called the 'Continental', or 'International' Morse code. An electric machine consists of the combination of two materials, which when rubbed together produce static electricity, and of a third material or object which acts as a collector for the charges. The first devices for producing electricity were very simple. The ancient Greeks discovered the strange effects of amber rubbed with fur and other material. In the 17th century, scientists used sticks of resin or sealing wax, glass tubes and other objects. By the time of Benjamin Franklin (Franklin became interested in electricity about 1745) large glass tubes about three feet long and from an inch to an inch and a half in diameter were popular; these were rubbed either with a dry hand or with brown paper dried at the fire. There are two major categories of electrical machines: Friction and Influence. A friction machine generates static electricity by direct physical contact; the glass sphere, cylinder or plate is rubbed by a pad as it passes by. Influence machines, on the other hand, have no physical contact. The charge is produced by inductance, usually between two or more glass plates. All through the 18th and 19th centuries there was tremendous interest in electricity. Scientists such as Franklin, Nollet, Coulomb, Volta, Oersted, Ampère, Ohm, Faraday, Joule and others made major advances. Prior to Faraday's invention of the induction coil in 1831 however, the only way